Neo-Quenya Semantic Categories



1. Physical World

1.11 World

Q., ᴹQ. Ambar n. “The World, Earth, (lit.) Habitation, Settlement”
ᴺQ. !ambarya adj. “worldwide, world-wide, international, global”
⚠️ᴱQ. irmin n. “the inhabited world”; see instead:
Q. Ambar “The World, Earth, (lit.) Habitation, Settlement”

1.12 Universe

Q., ᴹQ. n. “Creation, the (Material) Universe, Cosmos, †World; it is, let it be, [ᴹQ.] all that is”
⚠️ᴺQ. !ëavëa adj. “universal, natural”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !ilúvëa “universal”
ᴺQ. !nassëa² “natural”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. ilu n. “everything, all, the whole; [ᴹQ.] universe, ⚠️world; [ᴱQ.] ether”
Q., ᴹQ. ilúvë n. “the whole, the all, allness; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] universe, world; Heaven”
ᴺQ. !ilúvëa adj. “universal”

1.21 Earth, Land

ᴺQ. !ardahyalma n. “[planetary] crust”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. cemen n. “the earth; earth, [ᴹQ.] soil”
ᴺQ. !cemenquasië n. “earthquake”
⚠️ᴱQ. cemi n. “earth, soil, land”; see instead:
Q. cemen “the earth; earth, [ᴹQ.] soil”
ᴹQ. cemna adj. “of earth, earthen”
⚠️ᴺQ. !cempalië n. “earthquake”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cemenquasië “earthquake”
Q. nór (nor-) n. “land”
⚠️ᴱQ. talat n. “dry land”; see instead:
Q. nór “land”
ᴹQ. talat “sheet”

1.212 Ground, Soil

⚠️ᴱQ. hamba adj. “on the ground”
⚠️ᴱQ. hambanoitë adj. “on the ground”
⚠️ᴱQ. han (hamb-) n. “ground, earth”; see instead:
ᴹQ. hún “earth, *ground”
ᴹQ. hún (hun-) n. “earth, *ground”
ᴹQ. palúrë n. “surface, bosom, bosom of Earth, (Old English) folde”
⚠️ᴱQ. sar n. “earth, soil”; see instead:
Q. cemen “the earth; earth, [ᴹQ.] soil”
Q. #sar “stone (small)”

1.213 Dust, Powder

ᴹQ. asto¹ n. “dust”
⚠️ᴱQ. mul (muld-) n. “fine powder”; see instead:
ᴹQ. mulo “dust, [ᴱQ.] fine powder”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] mulda adj. “powdery”
ᴹQ. mulo (mulu-) n. “dust, [ᴱQ.] fine powder”

1.214 Mud, Mire

ᴺQ. [Q.] hlöa n. “flood, fenland”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^loxo n. “mud”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^loxor n. “swamp, bog”
⚠️ᴱQ. lúcë n. “slime”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^sucul “sticky matter, slime, ⚠️gum”
ᴹQ. lúcë “enchantment”
⚠️ᴱQ. lúcima adj. “slimy”
⚠️ᴱQ. luxo (luxu-) n. “mud”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^loxo “mud”
⚠️ᴱQ. luxor n. “swamp, bog”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^loxor “swamp, bog”
Q., ᴹQ. maxo n. “mire, [ᴹQ.] sticky substance”
Q., ᴹQ. motto n. “fen, marsh; [ᴹQ.] blot”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^sucul [þ] n. “sticky matter, slime, ⚠️gum”

1.215 Sand, Grit

⚠️ᴱQ. ára n. “dry sand, grit”; see instead:
ᴹQ. litsë “sand”
⚠️ᴱQ. arquilis n. “desert”; see instead:
ᴹQ. erumë “desert”
ᴹQ. erumë n. “desert”
ᴹQ. litsë n. “sand”
ᴹQ. mál n. “grit”
⚠️ᴱQ. mar⁴ (mard-) n. “grit, course grain or powder”; see instead:
ᴹQ. mál “grit”
⚠️ᴱQ. marma n. “sand”; see instead:
ᴹQ. litsë “sand”
⚠️ᴱQ. tyussë n. “sand”; see instead:
ᴹQ. litsë “sand”

1.22 Hill, Mountain

Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. ambo n. “hill, rising ground, ⚠️mount”
Q. ambuna adj. “hilly”
⚠️ᴱQ. †amun (amund-) n. “hill”; see instead:
Q. ambo “hill, rising ground, ⚠️mount”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. nóla¹ n. “round head, knoll, round hilltop; ⚠️summit, [ᴱQ.] top (only used of mountains etc.); crown of head”
Q., ᴱQ. oro n. “mount, mountain, ⚠️hill”
ᴺQ. !orolanda n. “upland, plateau”
Q. #oroman (oromand-) n. “mountain dweller”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. oron (oront-) n. “mountain”
Q., ᴹQ. orto n. “[ᴹQ.] mountain-top; ⚠️[Q.] mount, mountain”
ᴺQ. !ortosta n. “mountain range”
Q. quín(ë) n. “crest, ridge”
Q. quinna adj. “crested”
⚠️ᴹQ. taras (tarass-) n. “mount, hill”; see instead:
Q. taras “great towering building (fort/city/castle), tower; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] mount, hill”
⚠️ᴱQ. tolda n. “hill (with a flat top), hill top; town on a hill”; see instead:
Q. ambo “hill, rising ground, ⚠️mount”
ᴹQ. tundo¹ (tundu-) n. “hill, mound [isolated]”

1.221 Peak, Summit

ᴹQ. aicalë n. “peak”
ᴹQ. aicassë n. “mountain peak”
ᴹQ. antaro n. “high mountain, peak, *(lit.) great height”
⚠️ᴱQ. colman n. “peak, summit”; see instead:
ᴹQ. aicassë “mountain peak”
Q. ingor n. “summit of a mountain”
ᴹQ. mintyë n. “peak”
⚠️ᴱQ. ormë¹ n. “summit, crest, hilltop”; see instead:
Q. ingor “summit of a mountain”
ᴹQ. ormë “haste, violence, wrath, rushing”
Q. orotinga n. “mountain-top”
⚠️ᴱQ. soron² n. “pinnacle, high peak, crag”; see instead:
Q. soron “eagle”
⚠️ᴱQ. tormë n. “mountain (peak)”; see instead:
ᴹQ. aicassë “mountain peak”
ᴹQ. antaro “high mountain, peak, *(lit.) great height”

1.222 Slope, Cliff

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] aico (aicu-) n. “cliff”
⚠️ᴱQ. aicuvoitë adj. “cliffy, rocky”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] aiquassë n. “precipice”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. am(ba)penda adj. “uphill, *sloping up; [ᴱQ.] arduous, difficult, tiresome”
ᴹQ. ambon n. “upward slope, hill-side”
ᴹQ. ampendë n. “upward slope”
⚠️ᴱQ. ollo n. “cliff, seaward precipice”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. penda adj. “sloping down, (steeply) inclined”
Q. penda- v. “to slope, incline”
Q., ᴹQ. pendë n. “steep incline, hillside, [ᴹQ.] (down) slope, declivity”
⚠️ᴱQ. róma n. “upward path, mountain side, (mountain) slope, alp”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ampendë “upward slope”
Q. róma “horn; [ᴹQ.] loud sound, trumpet-sound, *blare”
ᴹQ. talta² n. “incline”
⚠️ᴱQ. tilt- v. “to make slope, incline (tr.), decline, shake at foundations, make totter”; see instead:
Q. talta- “to slip, slide down, collapse, fall, [ᴹQ.] slip down, slope”
⚠️ᴱQ. tilta adj. “slanting”; see instead:
Q. talta “tottering, unsteady, [ᴱQ.] shaky, wobbling; [ᴹQ.] sloping, tilted, leaning, inclined, [ᴱQ.] slanting”
⚠️ᴱQ. tiltin adj. “slanting”; see instead:
Q. talta “tottering, unsteady, [ᴱQ.] shaky, wobbling; [ᴹQ.] sloping, tilted, leaning, inclined, [ᴱQ.] slanting”
ᴺQ. !varassë n. “cliff”

1.223 Mound, Pile

Q. coron (corn-) n. “mound; [ᴹQ] globe, ball”
⚠️ᴹQ., ᴱQ. cumbë n. “mound, heap, [ᴱQ.] pile; load, burden”; see instead:
Q. hamna “pile, (artificial) mound, [ᴹQ.] heap”
⚠️ᴱQ. cumpo n. “pile”; see instead:
Q. hamna “pile, (artificial) mound, [ᴹQ.] heap”
ᴹQ. tumpo “hump, lump”
⚠️ᴹQ. hahta n. “heap, pile, (piled) mound”; see instead:
Q. hamna “pile, (artificial) mound, [ᴹQ.] heap”
Q. hahta “fence, hedge”
Q. hamna n. “pile, (artificial) mound, [ᴹQ.] heap”
Q., ᴹQ. luppo (luppu-) n. “clumsy piece or lump”
⚠️ᴱQ. pulmë n. “lump, knob”; see instead:
Q. tolma “protuberance contrived to serve a purpose, knob, short rounded handle”
ᴹQ. tumpo “hump, lump”
⚠️ᴱQ. ractë n. “pile, heap”; see instead:
Q. hamna “pile, (artificial) mound, [ᴹQ.] heap”
ᴹQ. tumpo n. “hump, lump”
⚠️ᴱQ. tupsë n. “lump, knob”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tumpo “hump, lump”
⚠️ᴱQ. tyúma n. “lump, mass”; see instead:
Q. umbo(n) “lump, clump, mass, ⚠️hill”
Q. umbo(n) n. “lump, clump, mass, ⚠️hill”

1.23 Plain, Field

⚠️ᴱQ. endl n. “plain, vale”; see instead:
Q. nan(do) “(wide) valley, vale; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] water-mead, watered plain; [ᴱQ.] woodland”
⚠️ᴱQ. enga n. “mead”; see instead:
ᴺQ. nesselë “pasture, mead[ow]; pasturage”
⚠️ᴱQ. fal(a)toisi n. “meadow, grassland”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !salquenor “grassland, meadow”
⚠️ᴱQ. lá¹ n. “moor, heath, open space”
⚠️ᴱQ. lairë n. “meadow”; see instead:
Q. lairë “summer”
ᴹQ. landa² n. “plain”
⚠️ᴱQ. n. “a sward, glade”; see instead:
ᴺQ. palis “sward, green, lawn”
Q. lé¹ “way, method, manner”
⚠️ᴹQ. nanda n. “water-mead, watered plain”; see instead:
ᴺQ. nendo “water mead, *watered plain”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] nendo n. “water mead, *watered plain”
⚠️ᴱQ. nes¹ n. “mead, valley, land”; see instead:
ᴺQ. nesselë “pasture, mead[ow]; pasturage”
ᴹQ. palar n. “plain, flat field, ‘wang’”
⚠️ᴱQ. palumë n. “plain”; see instead:
ᴹQ. palar “plain, flat field, ‘wang’”
ᴺQ. !salquenor n. “grassland, meadow”

1.24 Dale, Valley

Q., ᴹQ. imbë² n. “deep valley, (wide) ravine, [ᴹQ.] glen, dell, (lit.) tween-land”
⚠️Q. imbilat n. “*deep valley”; see instead:
Q. imbë² “deep valley, (wide) ravine, [ᴹQ.] glen, dell, (lit.) tween-land”
⚠️ᴹQ. latimbë n. “glen”; see instead:
Q. imbë² “deep valley, (wide) ravine, [ᴹQ.] glen, dell, (lit.) tween-land”
⚠️ᴱQ. nal (nald-) n. “dale, dell”; see instead:
Q. imbë² “deep valley, (wide) ravine, [ᴹQ.] glen, dell, (lit.) tween-land”
⚠️ᴱQ. nalda adj. “lowly, valley (aj.), dale (aj.)”; see instead:
Q. tumba “[ᴹQ.] deep, lowlying; ⚠️[Q.] deep valley”
Q., ᴱQ. nan(do) n. “(wide) valley, vale; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] water-mead, watered plain; [ᴱQ.] woodland”
Q., ᴹQ. tumba adj. “[ᴹQ.] deep, lowlying; ⚠️[Q.] deep valley”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. tumbo (tumbu-) n. “deep vale, valley, [ᴱQ.] dale”
⚠️ᴱQ. umbë n. “dale, dell”; see instead:
Q. imbë² “deep valley, (wide) ravine, [ᴹQ.] glen, dell, (lit.) tween-land”
Q. umbë “imminence, threat; premonition, fear, unwelcome expectation”

1.241 Ravine, Pass

Q. (a)nacca n. “narrows, defile, pass, cut”
⚠️ᴹQ. axa n. “ravine, narrow path; edge”; see instead:
Q. (a)nacca “narrows, defile, pass, cut”
Q. címa “edge of a cutting weapon/tool”
⚠️ᴹQ. cilya n. “cleft, pass between hills, gorge; chasm”; see instead:
Q. cirya² “cleft, pass”
⚠️ᴱQ. cirmë n. “cleft, gully”; see instead:
ᴹQ. yáwë “ravine, cleft, gully”
Q. cirya² n. “cleft, pass”
⚠️ᴱQ. falqua n. “(mountain) pass, ravine, cliff, cleft”; see instead:
Q. cirya² “cleft, pass”
ᴹQ. yáwë “ravine, cleft, gully”
ᴺQ. aico “cliff”
⚠️ᴱQ. fásë n. “gulf, gap”; see instead:
ᴹQ. yáwë “ravine, cleft, gully”
⚠️Q. rissë n. “?cleft, ravine”; see instead:
Q. (a)nacca “narrows, defile, pass, cut”
ᴹQ. yáwë “ravine, cleft, gully”
ᴹQ. yáwë n. “ravine, cleft, gully”

1.25 Isle, Island

⚠️ᴹQ. lóna¹ n. “island, remote land difficult to reach”; see instead:
Q. #lónë “isle, [ᴹQ.] island, remote land difficult to reach”
Q. #lónë n. “isle, [ᴹQ.] island, remote land difficult to reach”
Q. nortil n. “cape (of land)”
ᴺQ. !pertol (pertoll-) n. “peninsula”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. tollë¹ n. “island, (steep) isle”
ᴺQ. !tollesta n. “archipelago”
ᴺQ. !tolloquen n. “islander”
⚠️ᴱQ. tolomë n. “island”

1.27 Shore, Beach

⚠️ᴱQ. ailin² n. “shore”; see instead:
Q. hresta “beach, shore”
⚠️ᴱQ. aractë n. “(stony) beach”; see instead:
Q. sarnië “shingle, pebble bank”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. falassë n. “(wave-beaten) shore, seashore, line of surf; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] beach”
ᴺQ. !falassëa adj. “coastal”
⚠️ᴹQ. fára n. “beach, shore”; see instead:
Q. hresta “beach, shore”
Q. falassë “(wave-beaten) shore, seashore, line of surf; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] beach”
Q. hresta n. “beach, shore”
⚠️ᴱQ. marmalë n. “beach”; see instead:
Q. hresta “beach, shore”
⚠️ᴱQ. rímen n. “border, shore”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ríma “edge, hem, border”
Q. hresta “beach, shore”
⚠️ᴱQ. soractë n. “beach”; see instead:
Q. hresta “beach, shore”

1.31 Water

ᴹQ. limba n. “drop”
⚠️ᴱQ. linquëa adj. “watery”
⚠️ᴱQ. mirmila adj. “rippling”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. nén (nen-) n. “water, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] river”
⚠️ᴱQ. ninda¹ n. “water, river”; see instead:
Q. nén “water, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] river”
Q. yulunefítë adj. “amphibious, *(lit.) drinking-breathing”

1.32 Sea

Q., ᴹQ. †airë² n. “sea”
⚠️ᴹQ. airen n. “sea”; see instead:
Q. †airon “ocean”
Q. †airon n. “ocean”
Q., ᴹQ. ëar n. “sea, great sea, [ᴹQ.] open sea; ⚠️water”
ᴺQ. !ëarina adj. “of the sea”
Q. eäron n. “ocean, great sea”
⚠️ᴱQ. haloisi n. “the sea (in storm)”; see instead:
Q. raumo “(noise of a) storm”
Q. váya “ocean, [stormy] sea”
⚠️ᴱQ. laivar n. “ocean”
⚠️ᴱQ. ua n. “the sea”; see instead:
Q. ëar “sea, great sea, [ᴹQ.] open sea; ⚠️water”
Q. váya n. “ocean, [stormy] sea”
⚠️ᴹQ., ᴱQ. vëa² n. “sea”; see instead:
Q. váya “ocean, [stormy] sea”

1.33 Lake, Pond

Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. ailin n. “(large) lake, [ᴹQ.] pool”
⚠️ᴱQ. ailo (ailu-) n. “lake, pool”; see instead:
Q. ailin “(large) lake, [ᴹQ.] pool”
⚠️ᴹQ. lindë² n. “pool”; see instead:
ᴹQ. linya “pool”
ᴹQ. linya n. “pool”
⚠️ᴱQ. liquilla n. “(clear) pool”; see instead:
ᴹQ. linya “pool”
Q. lóna n. “(deep) pool, mere, river-feeding well”
⚠️ᴱQ. moilë n. “tarn”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ringwë “cold pool or lake (in mountains)”
Q., ᴹQ. nendë n. “lake, [ᴹQ.] pool”
ᴹQ. ringwë n. “cold pool or lake (in mountains)”

1.34 Gulf, Bay

⚠️ᴱQ. cópa n. “harbour, haven, bay”; see instead:
ᴹQ. hópa “haven, harbour, small landlocked bay”
ᴹQ. hópa n. “haven, harbour, small landlocked bay”

1.35 Wave, Surge

Q., ᴱQ. falasta- v. “to foam, surge, [ᴱQ.] make a sound like surf”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. falma n. “(crested or foaming) wave, breaker; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] foam”
⚠️ᴱQ. falmar n. “wave (as it breaks), foamcrest”; see instead:
Q. falma “(crested or foaming) wave, breaker; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] foam”
⚠️ᴱQ. palastor n. “surf”; see instead:
Q. falassë “(wave-beaten) shore, seashore, line of surf; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] beach”
ᴹQ. solor “surf, [ᴱQ.] surge; ⚠️wavebreak, coast”
⚠️ᴱQ. palaswin (palaswing-) n. “wave-crest”; see instead:
Q. falma “(crested or foaming) wave, breaker; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] foam”
⚠️ᴱQ. solmë n. “wave”; see instead:
Q. falma “(crested or foaming) wave, breaker; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] foam”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. solor n. “surf, [ᴱQ.] surge; ⚠️wavebreak, coast”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^solta- v. “to wave, heave, surge (up and down)”
⚠️ᴱQ. solto- v. “to wave, heave, surge (up and down)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^solta- “to wave, heave, surge (up and down)”
⚠️Q. vairë adj. “?wavy”; see instead:
Q. falma “(crested or foaming) wave, breaker; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] foam”

1.351 Foam, Froth

ᴹQ. fallë n. “foam”
⚠️ᴱQ. falmo n. “foam”; see instead:
Q. falma “(crested or foaming) wave, breaker; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] foam”
ᴹQ. fallë “foam”
⚠️ᴱQ. hoiyë n. “foam”
⚠️ᴱQ. palassë n. “foam, splashing”; see instead:
ᴹQ. fallë “foam”
Q. wingë “foam, spindrift, spray, [ᴹQ.] wave crest, [ᴱQ.] froth, scud; ⚠️wave”
⚠️ᴱQ. palassëa adj. “foaming (of the sea)”
⚠️ᴱQ. uilossë n. “foam”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. wingë n. “foam, spindrift, spray, [ᴹQ.] wave crest, [ᴱQ.] froth, scud; ⚠️wave”

1.352 Splash, Spray

ᴺQ. !falarië n. “splashing, splash”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^falarya- v. “to splash, ⚠️foam”
⚠️ᴺQ. !palasta- v. “to splash, sprinkle”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^falarya- “to splash, ⚠️foam”
⚠️ᴺQ. !palastië n. “splashing”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !falarië “splashing, splash”
⚠️ᴱQ. palasya- v. “to splash, foam”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^falarya- “to splash, ⚠️foam”
⚠️ᴱQ. timpa n. “spray, nozzle of hose”; see instead:
Q. wingë “foam, spindrift, spray, [ᴹQ.] wave crest, [ᴱQ.] froth, scud; ⚠️wave”
⚠️ᴱQ. timpina adj. “fine, powdered, sprayed”; see instead:
Q. wingë “foam, spindrift, spray, [ᴹQ.] wave crest, [ᴱQ.] froth, scud; ⚠️wave”
⚠️ᴱQ. timpinë n. “spray”; see instead:
Q. wingë “foam, spindrift, spray, [ᴹQ.] wave crest, [ᴱQ.] froth, scud; ⚠️wave”
⚠️ᴱQ. vasca adj. “making a plash or rush”

1.36 Brook, Stream, River

ᴺQ. !anasirë n. “tributary”
⚠️ᴱQ. axa¹ n. “waterfall”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !lantasírë “waterfall, (lit.) falling river”
ᴹQ. celma n. “channel”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. celumë n. “flow(ing), stream, flood (tide); ⚠️[ᴱQ.] fountain, spring”
⚠️ᴱQ. celusindi n. “river (near its source)”
ᴹQ. celut n. “rivulet”
ᴹQ. etsir n. “mouth of a river, *(lit.) outflow”
ᴺQ. !lantasírë n. “waterfall, (lit.) falling river”
Q. -(n)duinë suf. “(large) river”
ᴹQ. nellë n. “brook, *stream”
ᴹQ. ráva² n. “bank (especially of a river)”
⚠️ᴱQ. sindi n. “river”; see instead:
Q. sír(ë) “river, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] stream”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. sír(ë) (siri-) n. “river, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] stream”
ᴹQ. siril n. “rivulet”
⚠️ᴱQ. wenda n. “brook”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nellë “brook, *stream”
⚠️ᴱQ. wentë n. “brook, small river”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nellë “brook, *stream”
⚠️ᴱQ. wereven(da) (werevend-) n. “winding rill”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nellë “brook, *stream”

1.37 Spring, Well

⚠️ᴱQ. capalinda n. “spring of water”; see instead:
Q. ehtelë “spring, issue of water”
⚠️ᴱQ. cecta n. “jet, spring”; see instead:
Q. ehtelë “spring, issue of water”
Q. celussë “freshnet, water falling out swiftly from a rocky spring”
⚠️ᴱQ. cectelë n. “fountain”; see instead:
ᴹQ. celurë “fountain”
⚠️ᴱQ. †cectelu- v. “to bubble up”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ehtelu- “to well, bubble up”
⚠️ᴹQ. celulindë (celulindi-) n. “spring”; see instead:
Q. celussë “freshnet, water falling out swiftly from a rocky spring”
ᴹQ. celurë n. “fountain”
Q. celussë n. “freshnet, water falling out swiftly from a rocky spring”
⚠️ᴺQ. !celwë n. “spring, source”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^celu “source, origin”
⚠️ᴱQ. ectelë n. “fountain”; see instead:
Q. ehtelë “spring, issue of water”
ᴹQ. celurë “fountain”
Q., ᴹQ. ehtelë n. “spring, issue of water”
ᴹQ. ehtelu- v. “to well, bubble up”
⚠️ᴱQ. ehtil n. “spring, fount, source”; see instead:
Q. ehtelë “spring, issue of water”
ᴺQ. !laucehtelë n. “hot spring”
⚠️ᴱQ. quelu n. “well, spring, source”; see instead:
Q. ehtelë “spring, issue of water”
ᴺQ. ^celu “source, origin”
⚠️ᴱQ. quelu- v. “to well up”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ehtelu- “to well, bubble up”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] tampo n. “well”
⚠️ᴱQ. vascelu n. “fountain”; see instead:
ᴹQ. celurë “fountain”

1.38 Whirlpool

ᴹQ. hwindë n. “eddy, whirlpool”
ᴺQ. !hwinwaiwa n. “whirlwind”

1.41 Woods, Forest

⚠️ᴱQ. málos n. “forest”; see instead:
Q. taurë “forest, (great) wood”
Q. ornendur n. “tree-keep, forester, woodsman”
ᴺQ. !rostaurë n. “rainforest”
⚠️ᴱQ. tauno n. “(great) forest”; see instead:
Q. taurë “forest, (great) wood”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. taurë n. “forest, (great) wood”
Q. #taurëa adj. “forested”
⚠️ᴺQ. !tauron (taurond-) n. “forester”; see instead:
Q. ornendur “tree-keep, forester, woodsman”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] tavas (tavast-) n. “woodland”
ᴺQ. !töasta n. “grove”

1.43 Wood, Timber

⚠️ᴱQ. aldarë n. “wood”; see instead:
Q. töa “wood (as material)”
⚠️ᴱQ. cinda n. “splinter”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^cirda “splinter, wood shaving”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^cirda n. “splinter, wood shaving”
ᴺQ. !moritöa n. “ebony wood”
ᴺQ. !mortavar n. “ebony, ⚠️ivory”
ᴹQ. runda n. “rough piece of wood”
⚠️ᴺQ. !sacillë [þ] n. “splinter”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^cirda “splinter, wood shaving”
Q. tauca adj. “stiff, wooden”
⚠️ᴹQ. taurina adj. “of wood”; see instead:
Q. toina “wood, *wooden, made of wood”
⚠️ᴹQ. tavar n. “wood (material)”; see instead:
Q. töa “wood (as material)”
Q. töa n. “wood (as material)”
Q., ᴹQ. toina adj. “wood, *wooden, made of wood”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] tundo n. “firewood, fuel”
⚠️ᴱQ. turu n. “wood (as material), (orig.) firewood”; see instead:
Q. töa “wood (as material)”
⚠️ᴱQ. turúva adj. “wooden”; see instead:
Q. toina “wood, *wooden, made of wood”
⚠️ᴱQ. turuvoitë adj. “rich in timber”

1.44 Rock, Stone

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] alas (alast-) n. “marble”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] alasta adj. “of marble, marble”
⚠️ᴱQ. alaswa adj. “like marble”; see instead:
ᴺQ. alasta “of marble, marble”
ᴺQ. !alon (alond-) n. “limestone, (lit.) grow-stone”
ᴺQ. !ambalasar (ambalasarn-) n. “stalagmite, (lit.) up-growing stone”
⚠️ᴱQ. arac n. “shingle, piles of stones”; see instead:
Q. sarnië “shingle, pebble bank”
ᴺQ. !canton (cantond-) n. “soapstone, (lit.) sculpted rock”
⚠️ᴱQ. #hon¹ (hond-) n. “stone, rock”; see instead:
Q. ondo “stone (as a material), (large mass of) rock”
ᴺQ. !hwandasar (hwandasarn-) n. “pumice, (lit.) sponge-stone”
⚠️ᴱQ. hyellë n. “pebble”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !sarnincë “pebble”
⚠️ᴱQ. ‽lallë (lalli-) n. “pebble”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !sarnincë “pebble”
ᴺQ. !liptasar (liptasarn-) n. “dripstone”
ᴺQ. !litsëon (litsëond-) n. “sandstone”
ᴺQ. !maxon (maxond-) n. “mudstone”
ᴺQ. !moricalca n. “obsidian, (lit.) black glass”
ᴺQ. !morteccon (morteccond-) n. “graphite, (lit.) black writing rock”
ᴺQ. !nellon (nellond-) n. “granite, (lit.) tri-rock”
ᴺQ. !ninteccon (ninteccond-) n. “chalk, (lit.) white writing rock”
⚠️ᴱQ. on(d) n. “(a) stone”; see instead:
Q. ondo “stone (as a material), (large mass of) rock”
Q. #sar “stone (small)”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. ondo n. “stone (as a material), (large mass of) rock”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^ondova adj. “stony”
⚠️ᴱQ. onwa adj. “stony”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^ondova “stony”
ᴺQ. !racon (racond-) n. “cobblestone, (lit.) broken stone”
ᴺQ. !rimpion (rimpiond-) n. “gneiss, (lit.) stripe-rock”
ᴺQ. !rúcinon (rúcinond-) n. “breccia, (lit.) ruined stone”
ᴺQ. !sancon (sancond-) [þ] n. “schist, (lit.) split-rock”
Q., ᴹQ. #sar (sarn-) n. “stone (small)”
ᴹQ. sarna adj. “of stone”
ᴹQ. sarnë n. “stony place”
Q. sarnië n. “shingle, pebble bank”
ᴺQ. !sarnincë n. “pebble”
ᴺQ. !sarya- v. “to stone”
⚠️ᴱQ. silic (siliqu-) n. “flint”; see instead:
Q. #sinca “flint; *flinty”
⚠️ᴱQ. siliqu(in)a adj. “flinty”; see instead:
Q. #sinca “flint; *flinty”
Q. #sinca n. and adj. “flint; *flinty”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^sincë (sinci-) n. “mineral [as in any solid inorganic substance], ⚠️gem, metal”
ᴺQ. !sundon (sundond-) n. “bedrock, (lit.) base-rock”
ᴺQ. !talmondo n. “foundation stone”
ᴺQ. !tarmon (tarmond-) n. “basalt, (lit.) pillar-rock”
⚠️ᴹQ. #tinga n. “*flint”; see instead:
Q. #sinca “flint; *flinty”
⚠️ᴱQ. tolot (toloct-) n. “pebble, cobble-stone”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !sarnincë “pebble”
ᴹQ. ambal “shaped stone, flag”
ᴺQ. !undalasar (undalasarn-) n. “stalactite, (lit.) down-growing stone”
ᴺQ. !virittë n. “gravel”

1.46 Cave

⚠️ᴱQ. asampe(a) adj. “cavernous”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !rondova “cavernous”
⚠️ᴱQ. cambo n. “cellar, cave, vault”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^sampo “*cellar, vault; ⚠️cave, hollow”
⚠️Q. felco n. “cave, mine, underground dwelling”; see instead:
Q. felya “mine, boring, tunnel, ⚠️underground dwelling; [ᴹQ.] cave”
Q., ᴹQ. felya n. “mine, boring, tunnel, ⚠️underground dwelling; [ᴹQ.] cave”
Q. hróta n. “dwelling underground, artificial cave or rockhewn hall”
⚠️ᴱQ. orot n. “cave”; see instead:
Q. rotto “tunnel, small grot, [ᴹQ.] cave”
⚠️ᴱQ. ronda n. “cavern”; see instead:
Q. rondo¹ “vaulted or arched roof, vaulted hall; [ᴹQ.] cavern, ⚠️cave”
Q., ᴹQ. rondo¹ n. “vaulted or arched roof, vaulted hall; [ᴹQ.] cavern, ⚠️cave”
ᴺQ. !rondova adj. “cavernous”
⚠️ᴱQ. rótelë n. “cave”; see instead:
Q. rotto “tunnel, small grot, [ᴹQ.] cave”
⚠️ᴱQ. rotl n. “cave, hollow, grot”; see instead:
Q. rotto “tunnel, small grot, [ᴹQ.] cave”
Q., ᴹQ. rotto n. “tunnel, small grot, [ᴹQ.] cave”
⚠️ᴱQ. sampë n. “cave, hollow”; see instead:
Q. rotto “tunnel, small grot, [ᴹQ.] cave”
Q. unquë “hollow, [ᴹQ.] cavity, hole”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^sampo n. “*cellar, vault; ⚠️cave, hollow”
⚠️ᴱQ. sinquelë n. “mine”; see instead:
Q. felya “mine, boring, tunnel, ⚠️underground dwelling; [ᴹQ.] cave”

1.51 Sky, Heavens

Q. fanyarë n. “the skies (not heaven or firmament), the upper airs and clouds”
ᴹQ. hellë¹ n. “sky”
⚠️ᴱQ. ilwë n. “sky, heavens”; see instead:
Q. menel “the heavens, firmament, sky”
Q., ᴹQ. menel n. “the heavens, firmament, sky”
ᴺQ. !menelwa adj. “heavenly”
⚠️ᴱQ. taimë n. “sky”; see instead:
Q. vilya “air, sky”
ᴹQ. hellë¹ “sky”
⚠️ᴱQ. taitelúmë n. “firmament”; see instead:
Q. menel “the heavens, firmament, sky”
⚠️ᴱQ. vaitë adj. “skied”; see instead:
Q. vilya “air, sky”
⚠️ᴱQ. vaiya¹ n. “sky, skies”; see instead:
Q. vilya “air, sky”

1.52 Sun

⚠️ᴱQ. Ahúra n. “Sun”; see instead:
Q. Anar “Sun”
⚠️ᴱQ. †ahúrasilqui n. “sun and moon”
Q., ᴹQ. Anar n. “Sun”
Q., ᴹQ. árë (ári-) n. “sunlight, warmth (especially of the sun); ⚠️day”
⚠️ᴺQ. !árinqua adj. “sunny, (lit.) sunlight-full”; see instead:
Q. calina “light, bright, sunny, (lit.) illumined”
Q. arma n. “ray of sunlight”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] aurëa adj. “sunny, sunlit; *daytime”
⚠️ᴱQ. aurinca adj. “sunny”; see instead:
ᴺQ. aurëa “sunny, sunlit; *daytime”
Q. calina “light, bright, sunny, (lit.) illumined”
⚠️ᴱQ. auro n. “sun”; see instead:
Q. Anar “Sun”
⚠️ᴱQ. aurquila adj. “golden, sunlit”; see instead:
Q. laurëa “golden (of hue)”
ᴺQ. aurëa “sunny, sunlit; *daytime”
Q. ceuranar n. “new sun after solstice”
⚠️ᴱQ. firin¹ n. “ray of sun”; see instead:
Q. arma “ray of sunlight”
ᴹQ. firin “dead (by natural cause)”
⚠️ᴱQ. osto n. “gates of the Sun”; see instead:
Q. osto “fortress, stronghold, strong place; [ᴹQ.] city, town with wall round”

1.53 Moon

Q. ceuran n. “new-moon”
Q., ᴹQ. Isil [þ] n. “Moon, (lit.) Sheen”
Q. isilmë [þ] n. “moonlight”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. Rána n. “Moon, (lit.) Wayward”
⚠️ᴱQ. ránuringwi n. “sun and moon”
⚠️ᴱQ. rincu n. “orb of Moon”
⚠️ᴱQ. Sil (Sill-) n. “Moon; Rose”; see instead:
Q. Isil “Moon, (lit.) Sheen”
⚠️ᴱQ. silma n. “ray of moonlight”; see instead:
Q. isilmë “moonlight”
Q. silma “crystal (white); [ᴹQ.] silver, shining white”
⚠️ᴱQ. silmëa adj. “*of the moon”
⚠️ᴱQ. silmerána n. “gleaming moon, silver moon”

1.54 Star

Q., ᴹQ. †él n. “star”
Q., ᴹQ. elen n. “star”
ᴺQ. !elengolmë n. “astronomy”
Q. elenya adj. “adjective referring to the stars, *of the stars, stellar”
ᴺQ. !élicombë n. “galaxy, collection of stars”
Q. elvëa adj. “starlike”
⚠️ᴱQ. ílë n. “star”; see instead:
Q. nillë¹ “silver glint; Valinorian imagines [images of real stars]”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] letinwessë n. “constellation”
⚠️ᴱQ. lintitinwë adj. “having many stars, many-starred”
Q. meneldil n. “astronomer, *(lit.) lover of the heavens”
Q. nillë¹ [ñ-] n. “silver glint; Valinorian imagines [images of real stars]”
ᴹQ. tingilya n. “twinkling star”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. tinwë n. “spark, [apparent] star”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] titinwë n. “small star, sparkle of dew, *small sparkling thing”

1.542 Starlight

ᴹQ. élë n. “star-ray, beam, flashing of [?starry] light”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. silmë n. “starlight; [ᴹQ.] silver [light], ⚠️moonlight, light of Silpion”

1.55 Flash, Lightning

Q. alca- v. “to glitter, *shine out, flash”
Q. íta¹ n. “flash”
⚠️ᴱQ. silë n. “glint (of white)”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tindë “glint”
ᴹQ. tinda adj. “glinting (silver)”
ᴹQ. tindë n. “glint”
ᴺQ. !volta n. “volt”
ᴺQ. !voltië n. “voltage”
⚠️ᴱQ. wintil n. “a glint”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tindë “glint”
⚠️ᴱQ. winwë (winwi-) n. “a sparkling, flash”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^tintilië “sparkling, twinkling”
⚠️ᴱQ. winya- v. “to flash, glint”; see instead:
Q. tin- “to spark, glitter, [ᴹQ.] glint, [ᴱQ.] gleam, shine as a star”
Q. alca- “to glitter, *shine out, flash”

1.56 Noise, Thunder

⚠️ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] fundu- v. “to thunder”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hundu- “to thunder”
Q. hlón(a) (hlon-) n. “noise, sound”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^hlonta- v. “to boom, bang, make (loud) noise”
ᴺQ. !hundo n. “thunder”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^hundu- v. “to thunder”
ᴹQ. indyalmë n. “clamour”
⚠️ᴱQ. lausta-² v. “to roar, rush [making a rushing sound]”
⚠️ᴱQ. lausto adv. “*noisily”
⚠️ᴱQ. limpalassë n. “much roaring”
⚠️ᴱQ. limpalassëa adj. “much roaring”
⚠️ᴱQ. londa- v. “to boom, bang”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hlonta- “to boom, bang, make (loud) noise”
⚠️ᴱQ. lon(dë) (lond-) n. “loud noise”; see instead:
Q. hlón(a) “noise, sound”
⚠️ᴱQ. patacan n. “rattling, clatter”
⚠️ᴱQ. patacanda adj. “rattling, clattering”
⚠️ᴱQ. patacatapaca n. “rat-a-tat”
⚠️ᴱQ. patacë n. “clatter”
⚠️ᴱQ. patacta- v. “to clatter”
⚠️ᴱQ. ran (ram-) n. “noise”; see instead:
Q. hlón(a) “noise, sound”
ᴺQ. !rav- v. “to roar”
Q. rávë n. “roaring noise”
Q. rávëa adj. “roaring”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] tompo-tompo n. “noise of drums (or guns)”

1.61 Light

ᴹQ., ᴱQ. alca n. “ray of light, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] light of day; shining”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. cala n. “light; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] daytime (sunlight), 12 hours”
⚠️Q. cálë n. “light”; see instead:
Q. cala “light; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] daytime (sunlight), 12 hours”
⚠️ᴱQ. cal(l)u- v. “to illuminate, to light up”; see instead:
ᴹQ. calya- “to illuminate”
ᴹQ. calya- v. “to illuminate”
⚠️ᴱQ. catë (cati-) n. “gleam, ray”; see instead:
ᴹQ. alca “ray of light, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] light of day; shining”
⚠️Q. †fá¹ n. “*ray of light, flame”; see instead:
ᴹQ. alca “ray of light, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] light of day; shining”
ᴺQ. !Foralcar n. “aurora, (lit.) northern radiance”
ᴺQ. !Hyaralcar n. “aurora, (lit.) southern radiance”
Q. linquë² n. and adj. “light-substance; liquid light, *photons”

1.62 Darkness

⚠️ᴱQ. hui n. “dark, murk, fog; night, evening”; see instead:
Q. huinë “gloom, (unrelieved) darkness, deep shadow, ⚠️night shade; dark (as a substance)”
Q., ᴹQ. huinë n. “gloom, (unrelieved) darkness, deep shadow, ⚠️night shade; dark (as a substance)”
⚠️ᴱQ. ilcala n. “*nighttime, darkness”
Q. lúmë² n. “darkness”
⚠️ᴱQ. lur- v. “?to be dark”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nur- “to grow/be dark”
ᴹQ. nur- v. “to grow/be dark”
⚠️ᴹQ. ungwë n. “gloom”; see instead:
Q. huinë “gloom, (unrelieved) darkness, deep shadow, ⚠️night shade; dark (as a substance)”
Q. ungwë “spider’s web; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] spider; [ᴹQ.] gloom”
⚠️ᴱQ. yara n. “a gloom, blight, lowering darkness”; see instead:
Q. lumbo “cloud, [ᴱQ.] dark lowering cloud; [Q.] gloom, dark, shade”
Q. yára “old, ancient, [ᴹQ.] belonging to or descending from former times”

1.622 Dark, Murky

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] huiva adj. “murky, *(nearly) lightless”
Q. lilómëa adj. “very dark, full of darkness”
⚠️ᴹQ. lóna² adj. “dark”; see instead:
Q. lúna “*dark”
Q. lumba adj. “gloomy”
Q. lúna adj. “*dark”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. morë (mori-) adj. and n. “dark, black; darkness, [ᴹQ.] blackness, [Q.] night”
Q. mornië n. “darkness, blackness”
Q. úcalima adj. “dim, murky, *not bright”
⚠️ᴱQ. yanda adj. “dark, gloomy”; see instead:
Q. lumba “gloomy”
Q. yanda “wide”

1.63 Shade, Shadow

Q. hala n. “cast shadow, *shade”
ᴹQ. halda¹ adj. “veiled, hidden, shadowed, shady”
⚠️ᴹQ. laimë n. “shadow (cast by an object or form), shade”; see instead:
Q. hala “cast shadow, *shade”
⚠️ᴹQ. laira adj. “shady”; see instead:
ᴹQ. halda¹ “veiled, hidden, shadowed, shady”
⚠️ᴹQ. leo n. “shade, shadow cast by any object”; see instead:
Q. hala “cast shadow, *shade”
Q., ᴱQ. #lómëa adj. “shadowed, gloomy, *dusk-like”
⚠️ᴱQ. lómin n. “shade, shadow”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lumbë “gloom, shadow”
⚠️ᴱQ. lómina adj. “shadowy”; see instead:
Q. #lómëa “shadowed, gloomy, *dusk-like”
ᴹQ. lumbë n. “gloom, shadow”
Q. lumbulë n. “dark shadow, heavy shadow; deep in shadow”

1.71 Air, Ether

⚠️ᴱQ. ilma n. “air”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] vilina adj. “airy, breezy; light [weight?]”
Q. vilya [w-] n. “air, sky”
⚠️ᴱQ. vílyava adj. “airy”; see instead:
ᴺQ. vilina “airy, breezy; light [weight?]”
ᴹQ. vista n. “air as substance”
⚠️ᴹQ. wilma n. “inner or lower air”; see instead:
Q. vilya “air, sky”

1.72 Wind

Q. hwarwa n. “violent wind”
⚠️ᴱQ. noswë n. “a wet wind (SW)”
Q., ᴱQ. n. “sound of wind, [ᴱQ.] noise of wind”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] suiva adj. “soughing, moaning [of wind]”
⚠️ᴱQ. súlimë n. “wind”; see instead:
Q. Súlimë “March, *Windy-one”
Q. súrë “wind, breeze”
Q. súrë (súri-) n. “wind, breeze”
⚠️ᴱQ. súru n. “air-spirit; wind, gale”; see instead:
Q. súrë “wind, breeze”
Q. vailë “[strong] wind, *gale”
⚠️ᴱQ. susúlima adj. “full of wind, windy, airy”
⚠️ᴱQ. †súyë n. “air, breezes, winds”; see instead:
Q. súrë “wind, breeze”
Q. vailë n. “[strong] wind, *gale”
Q. vailima adj. “windy”
⚠️ᴹQ. vaiwa n. “wind”; see instead:
Q. vailë “[strong] wind, *gale”
⚠️Q. váva n. “*wind”; see instead:
Q. vailë “[strong] wind, *gale”
⚠️ᴱQ. n. “wind”; see instead:
Q. vailë “[strong] wind, *gale”
⚠️ᴱQ. wanwavoitë adj. “windy”; see instead:
Q. vailima “windy”

1.722 Storm

⚠️ᴱQ. húro n. “storm”; see instead:
Q. raumo “(noise of a) storm”
⚠️ᴱQ. laumë¹ n. “storm, overcast sky”; see instead:
Q. raumo “(noise of a) storm”
⚠️ᴱQ. laumëa adj. “dark, stormy”
Q. raumo n. “(noise of a) storm”
Q. vangwë n. “storm, *gale; ⚠️blow”
⚠️ᴱQ. wanwa n. “great gale”; see instead:
Q. vangwë “storm, *gale; ⚠️blow”

1.723 Breeze

Q., ᴹQ. hwesta n. “breeze; [ᴹQ.] breath, puff of air”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] vílë n. “gentle breeze”

1.73 Cloud, Mirk

⚠️ᴱQ. aulo n. “cloud”; see instead:
Q. fanya “(white) cloud, white and shining [thing]; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] sky; white”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. fanya n. “(white) cloud, white and shining [thing]; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] sky; white”
Q., ᴱQ. lumbo n. “cloud, [ᴱQ.] dark lowering cloud; [Q.] gloom, dark, shade”
⚠️ᴹQ. ungo n. “cloud, dark shadow”; see instead:
Q. lumbo “cloud, [ᴱQ.] dark lowering cloud; [Q.] gloom, dark, shade”

1.74 Mist, Fog, Haze

Q. fanwë n. “vapour, steam”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. #hísë (hísi-) [þ] n. “mist, [ᴹQ.] fog, [ᴱQ.] haze; ⚠️dusk; bleared”
ᴺQ. !hísëa adj. “misty”
Q. hísië [þ] n. “mist, mistiness”
ᴹQ. hiswë [þ] n. “fog”
⚠️ᴺQ. !hwestalauca n. “vapour”; see instead:
Q. fanwë “vapour, steam”
⚠️ᴺQ. !hwestalaucata- v. “to vapourize”; see instead:
Q. fanwë “vapour, steam”
⚠️ᴱQ. mirdë n. “mist”; see instead:
Q. mistë “drizzle, [ᴹQ.] fine rain”
⚠️ᴱQ. nótë n. “dew”; see instead:
Q. #rossë “(fine) rain; [ᴹQ.] dew; *spray, ⚠️[Q.] foam”
ᴹQ. nótë “number”
⚠️ᴱQ. quossë n. “mist”; see instead:
Q. #hísë “mist, [ᴹQ.] fog, [ᴱQ.] haze; ⚠️dusk; bleared”
⚠️ᴱQ. rin² (ring-) n. “dew”; see instead:
Q. #rossë “(fine) rain; [ᴹQ.] dew; *spray, ⚠️[Q.] foam”

1.75 Rain

⚠️ᴹQ. celya- v. “to rain; (lit.) to send running down”; see instead:
Q. #ul- “to rain”
⚠️ᴱQ. mië¹ n. “mist, drizzle”; see instead:
Q. mistë “drizzle, [ᴹQ.] fine rain”
Q., ᴹQ. mistë n. “drizzle, [ᴹQ.] fine rain”
⚠️ᴱQ. notë (notsi-) n. “drizzle”; see instead:
Q. mistë “drizzle, [ᴹQ.] fine rain”
⚠️ᴱQ. notsiva adj. “drizzling”
Q., ᴹQ. #rossë n. “(fine) rain; [ᴹQ.] dew; *spray, ⚠️[Q.] foam”
⚠️ᴱQ. timpë n. “fine rain”; see instead:
Q. mistë “drizzle, [ᴹQ.] fine rain”
Q. #rossë “(fine) rain; [ᴹQ.] dew; *spray, ⚠️[Q.] foam”
⚠️ᴱQ. timpínëa adj. “made of spray, full of fine showers, showery (of weather)”; see instead:
Q. wingë “foam, spindrift, spray, [ᴹQ.] wave crest, [ᴱQ.] froth, scud; ⚠️wave”
Q. #ul- v. “to rain”
Q. ulo (*ulu-) n. “rain”
⚠️ᴱQ. #uqu- v. “to rain”; see instead:
Q. #ul- “to rain”
⚠️ᴱQ. úquil n. “rain”; see instead:
Q. ulo “rain”

1.752 Rainbow

ᴹQ. helyanwë n. “rainbow, (lit.) sky-bridge, *sky-joining”
⚠️ᴱQ. iluquinga n. “rainbow”; see instead:
ᴹQ. helyanwë “rainbow, (lit.) sky-bridge, *sky-joining”
⚠️ᴱQ. ilweran(ta) n. “bridge of heaven, rainbow”; see instead:
ᴹQ. helyanwë “rainbow, (lit.) sky-bridge, *sky-joining”
⚠️ᴱQ. uccu n. “rainbow”; see instead:
ᴹQ. helyanwë “rainbow, (lit.) sky-bridge, *sky-joining”

1.76 Snow

⚠️ᴱQ. fauta- v. “to snow”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hris- “to snow”
⚠️ᴱQ. fáwë n. “snow”; see instead:
Q. lossë¹ “snow, fallen snow; snow-white, snowy”
ᴺQ. !helexë n. “hail”
ᴺQ. [Q.] ^hris- v. “to snow”
Q. hrissë n. “fall of snow”
Q. hristil n. “snow (?peak)”
⚠️Q. hrisya- [þ] v. “to snow (impersonal)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hris- “to snow”
⚠️Q. †#hriz- v. “to snow”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hris- “to snow”
⚠️ᴱQ. is (iss-) n. “light snow”; see instead:
Q. lossë¹ “snow, fallen snow; snow-white, snowy”
Q. lossë¹ n. and adj. “snow, fallen snow; snow-white, snowy”
Q. lossëa adj. “snowy, (snow) white”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. nieninquë n. “snowdrop, [ᴹQ.] (lit.) white tear”
Q., ᴱQ. nieninquëa adj. “like a snowdrop”
⚠️ᴱQ. niquetil (niquetild-) n. “snow cap”
⚠️ᴱQ. niquileninquë adj. “snow-white”
⚠️ᴱQ. niquilis n. “fine snow”; see instead:
Q. lossë¹ “snow, fallen snow; snow-white, snowy”
⚠️ᴱQ. niquissëa adj. “snowy”; see instead:
Q. lossëa “snowy, (snow) white”
⚠️ᴱQ. niquista- v. “to snow”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hris- “to snow”
⚠️ᴹQ. †olos(së) n. “snow, fallen snow”; see instead:
Q. lossë¹ “snow, fallen snow; snow-white, snowy”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] tiquilin n. “thaw, melting snow, slush”

1.77 Ice, Frost

ᴹQ., ᴱQ. helcë n. “ice”
ᴹQ. helcelimbë n. “*icicle, (lit.) ice-drop”
ᴺQ. !helcelmë n. “glacier; (lit.) frozen flow”
⚠️ᴹQ. helen (helem-) n. “icicle”; see instead:
ᴹQ. helcelimbë “*icicle, (lit.) ice-drop”
⚠️ᴹQ. hellë² n. “frost”; see instead:
Q. nixë “frost; ⚠️ice-flake or snow-flake”
ᴹQ. hellë¹ “sky”
⚠️ᴹQ. helor n. “frost”; see instead:
Q. nixë “frost; ⚠️ice-flake or snow-flake”
⚠️ᴱQ. liquilitl n. “icicle, *(lit.) clear drop”; see instead:
ᴹQ. helcelimbë “*icicle, (lit.) ice-drop”
Q. niquessë n. “frost-patterns; snowflake, ice-flake; (lit.) chill feather”
Q., ᴱQ. niquis (niquiss-) n. “snowflake, ice-flake; petal (loose) of a white flower; ⚠️frost-patterns, [ᴱQ.] snow”
Q. nixë n. “frost; ⚠️ice-flake or snow-flake”
⚠️ᴱQ. ringwë n. “rime, frost; cold”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ringë “cold, *chill”
Q. nixë “frost; ⚠️ice-flake or snow-flake”
ᴹQ. ringwë “cold pool or lake (in mountains)”
⚠️ᴱQ. yalca n. “ice”; see instead:
ᴹQ. helcë “ice”
⚠️ᴱQ. yelma n. “(a bout of) frost; a cold; chill”; see instead:
Q. nixë “frost; ⚠️ice-flake or snow-flake”

1.772 to Freeze

⚠️ᴱQ. halcin adj. “frozen”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !helina “frozen”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^hel- v. “to freeze (of water)”
ᴺQ. !helina adj. “frozen”
⚠️ᴱQ. hilc- v. “to freeze”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hel- “to freeze (of water)”
Q. nicu- v. “to be chill, cold, freeze (of weather), ⚠️snow”

1.78 Weather

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] callë n. “fair weather, clear sky, blue sky”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] calleva adj. “fair (weather or complexion)”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] lúrë n. “dark weather, bad weather”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] lúrëa adj. “overcast, dark [of weather]”
⚠️ᴱQ. lúvin(a) adj. “dark, overcast”; see instead:
ᴺQ. lúrëa “overcast, dark [of weather]”
⚠️ᴱQ. luvu- v. “to lower, hang, brood”
ᴺQ. !vilwis(të) n. “weather, (lit.) turn of air”

1.81 Fire

Q. (apa)ruivë n. “wild fire, fire as conflagration”
Q., ᴹQ. nár n. “fire (as an element); ⚠️[ᴹQ.] flame”
⚠️ᴱQ. pur (purn-) n. “a fire, an artificial fire”; see instead:
Q. ruinë “blaze, fire”
ᴺQ. !ruical(a) n. “firelight”
Q. ruina adj. “blazing, fiery”
Q. ruinë n. “blaze, fire”
⚠️ᴱQ. n. “fire”; see instead:
Q. nár “fire (as an element); ⚠️[ᴹQ.] flame”
⚠️ᴱQ. sár(e)a adj. “fiery”; see instead:
ᴺQ. úruva “fiery, [ᴱQ.] like fire”
Q. sára “[ᴹQ.] bitter”
⚠️ᴱQ. tan(y)a n. “fire”; see instead:
Q. ruinë “blaze, fire”
ᴹQ. úr n. “fire, ⚠️heat”
⚠️ᴱQ. uru n. “fire”; see instead:
ᴹQ. úr “fire, ⚠️heat”
⚠️ᴹQ. uruitë adj. “fiery”; see instead:
ᴺQ. úruva “fiery, [ᴱQ.] like fire”
⚠️ᴱQ. (uru)purnië n. “conflagration”; see instead:
Q. (apa)ruivë “wild fire, fire as conflagration”
ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.], ᴱQ. úruva adj. “fiery, [ᴱQ.] like fire”
⚠️ᴱQ. uruvoitë adj. “fiery, having fire”; see instead:
ᴺQ. úruva “fiery, [ᴱQ.] like fire”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] urwa adj. “on fire, afire”

1.82 Flame

⚠️ᴹQ. culo n. “flame”; see instead:
Q. runya “fiery red”
⚠️ᴱQ. purma n. “blaze, flame”; see instead:
Q. ruinë “blaze, fire”
Q. rúnya n. “red flame”
⚠️ᴱQ. velca n. “flame”; see instead:
Q. nár “fire (as an element); ⚠️[ᴹQ.] flame”

1.83 Smoke

ᴺQ. !aranisquë n. “frankincense”
⚠️ᴺQ. !hisquë n. “smog”; see instead:
ᴺQ. quonda “choking smog, smoke”
⚠️ᴺQ. !ninquima n. “frankincense”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !aranisquë “frankincense”
ᴺQ. !nisquë n. “incense, *(lit.) sweet smoke”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quonda n. “choking smog, smoke”
⚠️ᴱQ. ructa- v. “to belch smoke, spout smoke; to cause to smoke; to smoke at a pipe”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !uruhta- “to (cause to) smoke; to belch smoke”
⚠️ᴱQ. rucu n. “smoke, reek”; see instead:
Q. usquë “[ᴹQ.] reek, *smoke; ⚠️[Q.] dusk, dim light, [ᴹQ.] twilight; [ᴱQ.] fog”
⚠️ᴱQ. rucu- v. “to steam, smoke, reek”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !ustya- “to smoke (intr.)”
ᴺQ. !uruhta- v. “to (cause to) smoke; to belch smoke”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. usquë n. “[ᴹQ.] reek, *smoke; ⚠️[Q.] dusk, dim light, [ᴹQ.] twilight; [ᴱQ.] fog”
⚠️ᴺQ. !ussa n. “incense”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !nisquë “incense, *(lit.) sweet smoke”
ᴺQ. !ustya- v. “to smoke (intr.)”

1.84 Ashes

ᴺQ. !littë n. “ash”

1.85 to Burn, Scorch

⚠️ᴱQ. canda- v. “to blaze”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^urta- “to burn”
ᴺQ. !accal- “to blaze, shine (suddenly and) brilliantly”
⚠️ᴱQ. hus- v. “to burn (tr.)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^urta- “to burn”
⚠️ᴱQ. puru- v. “to burn”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^urta- “to burn”
⚠️ᴱQ. sanga-² v. “to scorch”; see instead:
ᴺQ. sis- “to scorch, singe, fry”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] sis- [þiþ-] v. “to scorch, singe, fry”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^urta- v. “to burn”
⚠️ᴱQ. usta- v. “to burn (tr.)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^urta- “to burn”
ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.] ^yol- v. “to smoulder”
⚠️ᴹQ. yul- v. “to smoulder”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^yol- “to smoulder”

1.86 to Light, Kindle

Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. #calta- v. “to kindle, [ᴹQ.] (cause to) shine, light up, [ᴱQ.] set light to”
Q. lacalima adj. “not possible to be kindled (made to shine)”
⚠️Q. **lacaltaima adj. “not possible to be kindled”; see instead:
Q. lacalima “not possible to be kindled (made to shine)”
ᴺQ. !luhtya- v. “extinguish, *quench”
ᴹQ. narta- v. “to kindle, *ignite, inflame, set fire to”
ᴺQ. !nartaima adj. “inflammable”
⚠️ᴱQ. purya- v. “to set fire to”; see instead:
ᴹQ. narta- “to kindle, *ignite, inflame, set fire to”
Q., ᴹQ. tinta- v. “to kindle, cause to spark, [ᴹQ.] make to spark”
⚠️ᴱQ. tunda- v. “to kindle”; see instead:
ᴹQ. narta- “to kindle, *ignite, inflame, set fire to”
Q. tinta- “to kindle, cause to spark, [ᴹQ.] make to spark”
⚠️ᴱQ. turya- v. “to catch fire”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^urta- “to burn”
ᴹQ. turya- “to strengthen”
⚠️ᴱQ. tustima adj. “inflammable”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !nartaima “inflammable”

1.87 Match, Fire Stick

⚠️ᴺQ. !hyulma n. “coal”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !ur(u)ma “coal, charcoal”
ᴺQ. !narrundo n. “torch”
ᴺQ. !nartanwë n. “firework”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] tusturë n. “tinder, chips, ⚠️firewood”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] tusturin (tusturind-) n. “match”
ᴺQ. !ur(u)ma n. “coal, charcoal”
ᴺQ. !ussar (ussard-) n. “sulphur, (lit.) fire-stone”
ᴹQ. yúla n. “ember, smouldering wood”
⚠️ᴹQ. yulma n. “brand”; see instead:
Q. yulma “cup, drinking vessel, drinking implement, goblet”

1.99 Physical World (other)

Q., ᴹQ. #caraxë n. “[ᴹQ.] jagged hedge of spikes, [ᴱQ.] row of spikes or teeth”
⚠️ᴱQ. carcassë n. “row of spikes or teeth”; see instead:
Q. #caraxë “[ᴹQ.] jagged hedge of spikes, [ᴱQ.] row of spikes or teeth”

2. Mankind

2.1 Human Being

Q., ᴹQ. Atan n. “Man, (lit.) the Second (People)”
⚠️ᴹQ. enno n. “person, *being”; see instead:
Q. námo¹ “person, somebody (unnamed)”
ᴹQ. firë n. “mortal man”
Q., ᴹQ. firya adj. “[ᴹQ.] human; [Q.] mortal”
Q. quén (quen-) n. and pron. “person, individual, man or woman; one, somebody”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. -wë suf. “ancient name suffix (usually but not always masculine)”

2.21 Man

Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. nér (ner-) n. “man, male person; [ᴹQ.] adult male; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] husband; warrior”
Q. nercë n. “little man”
Q. nerdo n. “large, strong man”
ᴹQ. vëaner¹ n. “(adult) man”
⚠️ᴹQ. † n. “man, warrior”; see instead:
Q. vëo “living creature, *living being, ⚠️[ᴹQ.] man”
⚠️ᴱQ. wië n. “*man, male of the Elda”; see instead:
Q. vëo “living creature, *living being, ⚠️[ᴹQ.] man”

2.22 Woman

⚠️ᴱQ. anai n. “woman”; see instead:
Q. nís “woman”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. † n. “woman, female”
Q. #nillë² (nill-) n. “small [woman]”
Q., ᴹQ. nís (niss-) n. “woman”
Q. nisto n. “large woman”
⚠️ᴱQ. nyél n. “woman”; see instead:
Q. nís “woman”
⚠️ᴱQ. quimellë n. “little woman”; see instead:
Q. #nillë² “small [woman]”
⚠️ᴱQ. quin¹ (quim-) n. “woman, female”; see instead:
Q. nís “woman”

2.23 Male

⚠️ᴱQ. anu n. “a male, man”; see instead:
ᴹQ. hanu “male, man (of Men or Elves), male animal”
⚠️ᴱQ. anúrë n. “manliness, masculinity”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hanúrë “manliness, masculinity”
⚠️ᴱQ. anúvië n. “manhood, doughtyness”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hanúvië “manhood, doughtyness”
⚠️ᴱQ. anuvoitë adj. “male, masculine”; see instead:
ᴹQ. hanuvoitë “*masculine”
ᴹQ. hanu n. “male, man (of Men or Elves), male animal”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^hanúrë n. “manliness, masculinity”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^hanúva adj. “doughty, *manly”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^hanúvië n. “manhood, doughtyness”
ᴹQ. hanuvoitë adj. “*masculine”
ᴹQ. hanwa adj. “male”
⚠️ᴱQ. nerëa adj. “manly, stout, brave”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hanúva “doughty, *manly”
⚠️ᴱQ. nerevoitë adj. “manly, male”; see instead:
ᴹQ. hanuvoitë “*masculine”
⚠️ᴱQ. #nérinwa adj. “*mannish”; see instead:
ᴹQ. hanwa “male”
⚠️ᴱQ. #-nu suf. “masculine suffix”
⚠️ᴱQ. via adj. “male”; see instead:
ᴹQ. hanwa “male”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. vië n. “manhood, vigour; [ᴱQ.] teors, *penis”
⚠️ᴱQ. wenga adj. “*male”; see instead:
ᴹQ. hanwa “male”

2.24 Female

⚠️ᴱQ. anaina adj. “womanly”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !iniva “womanly”
⚠️ᴹQ. ennië n. “person (female), *being (female)”; see instead:
Q. námo¹ “person, somebody (unnamed)”
Q., ᴹQ. -ien¹ suf. “feminine ending; ⚠️feminine patronymic, -daughter”
ᴺQ. !inimë n. “femininity, womanliness”
ᴹQ. inimeitë adj. “*feminine”
ᴺQ. !iniva adj. “womanly”
ᴹQ. inya¹ adj. “female”
Q., ᴱQ. -issë suf. “ending in feminine names”
⚠️ᴱQ. #-ni suf. “feminine suffix”
⚠️ᴱQ. quim(en)ëa adj. “womanly, feminine”; see instead:
ᴹQ. inimeitë “*feminine”
⚠️ᴱQ. quimenoitë (quimenoitsi-) adj. “feminine, female”; see instead:
ᴹQ. inimeitë “*feminine”
⚠️ᴱQ. quindë n. “womanliness, femininity; (concr.) women as a whole”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !inimë “femininity, womanliness”
⚠️ᴱQ. quinya adj. “female”; see instead:
ᴹQ. inya¹ “female”
⚠️ᴱQ. #-si suf. “feminine suffix”
⚠️ᴱQ. venya adj. “womanl[y]”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !iniva “womanly”

2.25 Boy

ᴹQ. seldo n. “child [m.], *boy”
Q. yonyo n. “(big) boy, son”

2.26 Girl

⚠️ᴱQ. mella n. “girl”; see instead:
Q. nettë “(little) girl, ⚠️sister (diminutive), ️daughter, pretty little thing”
Q. nettë n. “(little) girl, ⚠️sister (diminutive), ️daughter, pretty little thing”
Q. riel(lë) n. “garlanded maiden, maiden crowned with a festive garland”
⚠️ᴱQ. tessa n. “maid, maiden”
⚠️ᴱQ. tessara adj. “maiden, maidenly”
⚠️ᴱQ. tessarë (tessari-) n. “little maid”
Q., ᴹQ. vénë n. “*virgin; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] girl”
Q. #vénëa n. “*virginal”
ᴹQ. venessë n. “virginity”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. wendë n. “maiden, ⚠️*virgin”
Q., ᴱQ. wendelë n. “maidenhood”
⚠️ᴱQ. wen(di) n. “maid, girl, maiden”; see instead:
Q. wendë “maiden, ⚠️*virgin”

2.27 Child

⚠️ᴱQ. ar¹ (arn-) n. “child”
⚠️ᴹQ. aran² (arn-) n. “child”; see instead:
Q. hína “child”
Q. hína n. “child”
⚠️Q. hindë n. “[unglossed]”; see instead:
Q. hína “child”
⚠️Q. hindo n. “[unglossed]”; see instead:
Q. hína “child”
Q., ᴹQ. onna n. “child, *offspring; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] creature”
Q. onya n. “my child”
⚠️ᴹQ. selda n. and adj. “child [n.]”; see instead:
Q. hína “child”
⚠️Q. #sén n. “child”; see instead:
Q. hína “child”
Q. senya² n. “*my child”
ᴺQ. [Q.] ^vinima adj. “childish”
⚠️Q. winima adj. “childish”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^vinima “childish”

2.28 Infant

⚠️Q. hinyë n. “baby”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^vinimo “baby, little-one”
ᴹQ. lapsë n. “babe”
⚠️ᴱQ. putsë (putsi-) n. “baby, child”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^vinimo “baby, little-one”
⚠️ᴹQ., ᴱQ. tet(ta) n. “baby”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^vinimo “baby, little-one”
⚠️ᴱQ. tyetl n. “babe, a tiny baby”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^vinimo “baby, little-one”
ᴺQ. [Q.] ^vinimo n. “baby, little-one”
ᴺQ. !vinyanóna adj. “new-born”
Q. †winë (wini-) n. “baby, little-one, ⚠️child not yet full grown”
⚠️Q. †winimo n. “baby, little-one”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^vinimo “baby, little-one”

2.31 Husband

ᴹQ. ender n. “bridegroom, *groom”
⚠️ᴱQ. heruvesto n. “husband, (lit.) lord husband”; see instead:
Q. veru “husband”
⚠️ᴹQ. venno n. “husband”; see instead:
Q. veru “husband”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. veru n. “husband”
⚠️ᴱQ. veruner n. “husband”; see instead:
Q. veru “husband”
⚠️ᴱQ. vestaner n. “?(bride)groom”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ender “bridegroom, *groom”

2.32 Wife

⚠️ᴱQ. herivesti n. “wife”; see instead:
Q. veri “wife”
Q., ᴱQ. veri n. “wife”
⚠️ᴱQ. †veruni n. “wife”; see instead:
Q. veri “wife”
⚠️ᴹQ., ᴱQ. vessë n. “wife”; see instead:
Q. veri “wife”
⚠️ᴱQ. vestin n. “wife”; see instead:
Q. veri “wife”

2.321 Bride

⚠️ᴱQ. acairis (acairist-) n. “bride, wife”; see instead:
Q. indis “[ᴹQ.] bride; ⚠️[Q.] wife”
Q. veri “wife”
⚠️ᴱQ. acairisan (acairisamb-) n. “bride chamber, thalamus”
Q., ᴹQ. indis (indiss-) n. “[ᴹQ.] bride; ⚠️[Q.] wife”
⚠️ᴱQ. vestani n. “*bride”; see instead:
Q. indis “[ᴹQ.] bride; ⚠️[Q.] wife”

2.33 to Wed, Marry

⚠️ᴱQ. ‽(a)cainu- v. “to wed”; see instead:
ᴹQ. vesta-¹ “to wed, *marry”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] verin adj. “married”
⚠️Q. verta- v. “to give in marriage (a) to (b), take as husband or wife (to oneself)”; see instead:
ᴹQ. vesta-¹ “to wed, *marry”
⚠️Q. verya- v. “to marry (of husband and wife), be joined to”; see instead:
ᴹQ. vesta-¹ “to wed, *marry”
ᴹQ. verya- “to dare”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. vesta-¹ v. “to wed, *marry”

2.34 Wedding, Marriage

⚠️ᴱQ. (a)cainusta n. “wedding, marriage”; see instead:
ᴹQ. vestalë “wedding”
ᴹQ. vesta¹ “matrimony, [ᴱQ.] state of marriage”
⚠️ᴱQ. acairë (acairi-) n. “‘living beside’, wedded life”; see instead:
ᴹQ. vesta¹ “matrimony, [ᴱQ.] state of marriage”
ᴺQ. !aumenta- v. “to dismiss, divorce, (lit.) away-send”
ᴺQ. !aumentalë n. “dismissal, divorce”
ᴺQ. !heconna n. “child born out of wedlock, bastard”
Q. veryanwë n. “wedding”
ᴺQ. !vesquen n. “spouse (gender neutral)”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. vesta¹ n. “matrimony, [ᴱQ.] state of marriage”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. vestalë n. “wedding”
⚠️ᴱQ. vestanoina adj. “related by marriage”

2.341 Married Couple

⚠️ᴱQ. veringwi n. “husband and wife, married pair”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !verinu “married pair”
ᴺQ. !verinu coll. “married pair”
⚠️ᴹQ. veru² coll. “husband and wife, married pair”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !verinu “married pair”

2.35 Father

Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. atar¹ n. “father”
⚠️ᴱQ. atta¹ n. “father (child’s word)”; see instead:
Q. atto “daddy, father (familiar/family)”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. atto n. “daddy, father (familiar/family)”
⚠️ᴱQ. attu n. “father”; see instead:
Q. atto “daddy, father (familiar/family)”
Q. atya¹ n. “daddy, (my) father”
⚠️Q. #tata n. “*daddy”; see instead:
Q. atya¹ “daddy, (my) father”

2.36 Mother

⚠️ᴱQ. ama n. “mother”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ammë “mummy, mother”
⚠️ᴱQ. ambi n. “mother”; see instead:
Q. amil(lë) “mother”
Q., ᴹQ. amil(lë) n. “mother”
⚠️ᴱQ. amis (amits-) n. “mother”; see instead:
Q. amil(lë) “mother”
ᴺQ. [Q.], ᴹQ. ammë n. “mummy, mother”
Q. amya n. “mummy, (orig.) my mother”
⚠️Q. emmë² n. “mummy, mother (familiar/family)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ammë “mummy, mother”
⚠️ᴱQ. (m)ambë n. “mother”; see instead:
Q. amil(lë) “mother”
⚠️Q. mamil n. “*mummy”; see instead:
Q. amya “mummy, (orig.) my mother”

2.37 Parent

⚠️ᴱQ. †attawhi n. “parents”; see instead:
Q. #nostar “*ancestor; ⚠️parent, begetter”
Q. #nostar n. “*ancestor; ⚠️parent, begetter”
ᴺQ. !ontar n. “parent (gender neutral)”
ᴹQ. ontarë n. “begetter, parent (f.)”
⚠️Q. ontari(l) n. “*mother, (lit.) genetrix”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ontarë “begetter, parent (f.)”
Q. amil(lë) “mother”
ᴹQ. ontaro n. “begetter, parent”
⚠️ᴱQ. puyando n. “parent”; see instead:
Q. #nostar “*ancestor; ⚠️parent, begetter”

2.41 Son

⚠️Q. anon n. “son”; see instead:
Q. yondo “son, ⚠️boy; [ᴱQ.] male descendant, (great) grandson”
⚠️ᴱQ. fion (fiond-) n. “son”; see instead:
Q. yondo “son, ⚠️boy; [ᴱQ.] male descendant, (great) grandson”
⚠️ᴱQ. hilu n. “son”; see instead:
Q. yondo “son, ⚠️boy; [ᴱQ.] male descendant, (great) grandson”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. -ion suf. “-son, masculine patronymic”
⚠️ᴱQ. ion n. “son”; see instead:
Q. yondo “son, ⚠️boy; [ᴱQ.] male descendant, (great) grandson”
⚠️ᴱQ. vondo n. “son”; see instead:
Q. yondo “son, ⚠️boy; [ᴱQ.] male descendant, (great) grandson”
⚠️ᴱQ. † n. “son”; see instead:
Q. yondo “son, ⚠️boy; [ᴱQ.] male descendant, (great) grandson”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. yondo n. “son, ⚠️boy; [ᴱQ.] male descendant, (great) grandson”

2.42 Daughter

⚠️Q. anel n. “daughter”; see instead:
Q. seldë “daughter; [ᴹQ.] child [f.], *girl”
⚠️ᴱQ. aris (arits-) n. “daughter, maid”
Q., ᴹQ. -iel suf. “-daughter; feminine suffix”
⚠️ᴱQ. -il suf. “*(feminine) patronymic”; see instead:
Q. -iel “-daughter; feminine suffix”
Q., ᴹQ. seldë n. “daughter; [ᴹQ.] child [f.], *girl”
Q. selyë n. “daughter (diminutive)”
⚠️ᴱQ. sildë n. “daughter”; see instead:
Q. seldë “daughter; [ᴹQ.] child [f.], *girl”
⚠️ᴱQ. sui n. “daughter”; see instead:
Q. seldë “daughter; [ᴹQ.] child [f.], *girl”
Q., ᴹQ. yeldë n. “daughter”
⚠️ᴹQ. yen(dë) n. “daughter”; see instead:
Q. yeldë “daughter”

2.44 Brother

Q. hanno n. “brother (diminutive)”
Q. háno n. “brother”
⚠️ᴱQ. herendo n. “brother”; see instead:
Q. háno “brother”
⚠️ᴱQ. hestaner n. “brother”; see instead:
Q. háno “brother”
⚠️ᴱQ. hestanu n. “brother”; see instead:
Q. háno “brother”
Q. #melotorno n. “love-brother”
ᴹQ. otornassë n. “brotherhood, *association”
ᴹQ. otorno n. “sworn brother, associate [m.]”
ᴹQ. toron (torn-) n. “brother”

2.45 Sister

⚠️ᴱQ. heressë n. “sister”; see instead:
Q. nésa “sister”
⚠️ᴱQ. hestani n. “sister”; see instead:
Q. nésa “sister”
⚠️ᴱQ. hestaquin n. “sister”; see instead:
Q. nésa “sister”
ᴺQ. [Q.] ^melesellë [þ] n. “love-sister”
⚠️Q. #meletheldë n. “love-sister”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^melesellë “love-sister”
Q. nésa [þ] n. “sister”
ᴹQ. osellë [þ] n. “[sworn] sister, associate [f.]”
ᴹQ. seler (sell-) [þ] n. “sister”

2.452 Sibling

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] hes (hest-) n. “*sibling”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] hesta(lë) n. “the nearest consanguinity”
⚠️ᴱQ. hestanoina adj. “bearing the nearest consanguinity”

2.46 Grandfather

⚠️ᴺQ. !atartur n. “patriarch, (lit.) master-father”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !nossetur “patriarch, family head”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] haru n. “grandfather”
ᴺQ. !nossetur n. “patriarch, family head”

2.47 Grandmother

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] haruni n. “grandmother”

2.48 Grandson

ᴹQ. indyo n. “grandchild, descendant, grandson, *granddaughter”

2.53 Nephew

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] súyon n. “nephew, ⚠️daughter’s son”

2.54 Niece

ᴺQ. !súyel n. “niece”

2.55 Cousin

⚠️ᴱQ. etta n. “cousin”; see instead:
ᴺQ. rendo “male cousin, kinsman, *relative”
ᴺQ. ressë “female cousin, kinsman, *relative”
⚠️ᴱQ. ettani n. “female cousin”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ressë “female cousin, kinsman, *relative”
⚠️ᴱQ. ettanu n. “male cousin”; see instead:
ᴺQ. rendo “male cousin, kinsman, *relative”
⚠️ᴱQ. ettarendi n. “cousinship”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^rendë “kinship, kin, kindred, clan”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] rendo n. “male cousin, kinsman, *relative”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] rendolë n. “cousinship”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ressë n. “female cousin, kinsman, *relative”

2.57 Descendant

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^hilmë¹ n. “offspring, *descendant”
⚠️ᴱQ. hilmi coll. “family, offspring”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hilmë¹ “offspring, *descendant”
ᴺQ. !hilyalë n. “succession, dynasty”
ᴺQ. !nónarë n. “generation”
Q., ᴹQ. ontalë n. “descent, *derivation, ancestry”

2.65 Brother-in-Law

ᴺQ. !verrendo n. “brother in law, kinsman by marriage”

2.66 Sister-in-Law

ᴺQ. !verressë n. “sister in law, kinswoman by marriage”

2.75 Orphan

ᴺQ. !hinta- v. “to adopt”
ᴺQ. !nostarenca adj. “orphaned, (lit.) parent-less”
⚠️ᴺQ. !yenta- v. “to adopt (a daughter)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !hinta- “to adopt”
⚠️ᴺQ. !yentarë n. “adoptive mother (for a daughter)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !hinta- “to adopt”
⚠️ᴺQ. !yentaro n. “adoptive father (for a daughter)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !hinta- “to adopt”
⚠️ᴺQ. !yonta- v. “to adopt (a son)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !hinta- “to adopt”
⚠️ᴺQ. !yontarë n. “adoptive mother (for a son)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !hinta- “to adopt”
⚠️ᴺQ. !yontaro n. “adoptive father (for a son)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !hinta- “to adopt”

2.76 Widow

ᴺQ. !verulóra adj. and n. “widowed; widow”

2.81 Relative

ᴹQ. onónë n. “kinswoman; ⚠️sister”
ᴹQ. onóro n. “kinsman; ⚠️brother”

2.82 Family

ᴺQ. !orendë n. “(nuclear) family”
⚠️ᴱQ. soresta n. “family”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !orendë “(nuclear) family”

3. Animals

3.11 Animal

Q. #celva n. “animal, living thing that moves”
ᴺQ. !celvavëa adj. “animal-like”
⚠️ᴱQ. coisiva adj. “animal, bodily”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !hröava “corporeal, bodily”
⚠️ᴱQ. coitë (coisi-) n. “living thing, being, animal”; see instead:
Q. #celva “animal, living thing that moves”
⚠️Q. #cuima n. “creature, animal”; see instead:
Q. #celva “animal, living thing that moves”
⚠️Q. #cuiva n. “animal”; see instead:
Q. #celva “animal, living thing that moves”
Q. hravan n. “wild beast”
⚠️ᴱQ. lama n. “animal, beast; head of cattle or sheep”; see instead:
Q. laman “animal, [ᴹQ.] tame beast”
Q., ᴹQ. laman (lamn-) n. “animal, [ᴹQ.] tame beast”
⚠️ᴹQ. nasto n. “animal, beast”; see instead:
Q. laman “animal, [ᴹQ.] tame beast”
⚠️ᴱQ. röa n. “wild beast”; see instead:
Q. hravan “wild beast”
Q. röa “dog”
⚠️ᴱQ. talar (talard-) n. “beast of burden”
Q., ᴹQ. vëo n. “living creature, *living being, ⚠️[ᴹQ.] man”

3.16 to Pasture

⚠️ᴺQ. !narasta- v. “to pasture, *graze, give to feed”; see instead:
ᴺQ. nesta-¹ “to graze, pasture, give to feed, feed”
⚠️ᴱQ. nese- v. “to graze, pasture, give to feed, feed”; see instead:
ᴺQ. nesta-¹ “to graze, pasture, give to feed, feed”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] nesta-¹ v. “to graze, pasture, give to feed, feed”
ᴺQ. !tiucata- v. “to fatten, to feed up”

3.17 Pasture

⚠️ᴺQ. !narassë n. “pasture”; see instead:
ᴺQ. nesselë “pasture, mead[ow]; pasturage”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] nesselë n. “pasture, mead[ow]; pasturage”

3.18 Herdsman

Q. #emer- v. “?to herd (sheep)”
ᴺQ. !emerro n. “shepherd, herdsman”
Q. emerwen n. “shepherdess”
⚠️ᴱQ. lamandar n. “herdsman, shepherd”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !emerro “shepherd, herdsman”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] lamnarë n. “flock, *herd”
⚠️ᴱQ. mavar(do) n. “shepherd”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !emerro “shepherd, herdsman”
⚠️ᴱQ. möar(do) (möard-) n. “shepherd”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !emerro “shepherd, herdsman”

3.21 Bull

Q. mundo n. “bull, ox”
⚠️ᴱQ. tarucco n. “bull, ox”; see instead:
Q. mundo “bull, ox”

3.22 Ox, Steer

⚠️ᴱQ. yac(c)o n. “ox”; see instead:
Q. mundo “bull, ox”

3.23 Cow

⚠️ᴱQ. mui n. “cow”; see instead:
ᴺQ. yaxë “cow”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] yaxë n. “cow”
⚠️ᴱQ. yaxi n. “cow”; see instead:
ᴺQ. yaxë “cow”

3.24 Calf

ᴺQ. !mundollë n. “calf”

3.25 Sheep

⚠️ᴱQ. arma n. “flock of sheep”; see instead:
ᴺQ. lamnarë “flock, *herd”
Q. arma “ray of sunlight”
Q. máma n. “sheep”
ᴺQ. !mámalin n. “sheepfold”
⚠️ᴱQ. möa n. “sheep”; see instead:
Q. máma “sheep”
⚠️ᴱQ. möalin n. “sheepfold”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !mámalin “sheepfold”
⚠️ᴱQ. sauvë n. “sheep”

3.26 Ram

⚠️ᴱQ. camo n. “ram”
ᴺQ. !pollo n. “ram”

3.29 Lamb

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] eulë n. “lamb”
⚠️ᴱQ. eulitsë n. “*little lamb”; see instead:
ᴺQ. eulë “lamb”

3.32 Boar

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] carcapolca n. “boar, *(lit.) tusk-pig”
⚠️ᴱQ. úro n. “boar”; see instead:
Q. úro “*evil, nastiness”
ᴺQ. carcapolca “boar, *(lit.) tusk-pig”

3.35 Pig

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] polca n. “pig”

3.36 Goat

ᴺQ. !naico n. “goat”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] nyé n. “bleat, cry of goat or sheep”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] nyéni n. “(she) goat”
⚠️ᴹQ. yat² (yac-) n. “goat”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !naico “goat”

3.41 Horse (generic)

⚠️ᴺQ. !antolatta n. “bridle, (lit.) mouth-strap”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !pérappa “bridle, (lit.) lip-rope”
ᴺQ. !eretildo n. “unicorn”
⚠️ᴱQ. lópa n. “horse, mare”; see instead:
Q. rocco “horse”
⚠️ᴱQ. mairu n. “(horse) mane, flowing hair; charger”
⚠️ᴹQ. olombo n. “horse”; see instead:
Q. rocco “horse”
ᴺQ. !pérappa n. “bridle, (lit.) lip-rope”
ᴺQ. !rimperocco n. “zebra, (lit.) stripe-horse”
Q., ᴹQ. rocco n. “horse”

3.44 Mare

⚠️ᴱQ. lopsi n. “mare”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !roccë “mare”
ᴺQ. !roccë n. “mare”

3.45 Foal, Colt

ᴺQ. !rocollë n. “colt”

3.46 Ass, Donkey

ᴺQ. !pellopë n. “donkey, ass”

3.51 Chicken (generic)

⚠️ᴱQ. cectecet (cectecett-) n. “clucking”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^cehtecet “clucking”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^cehtecet n. “clucking”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] porocë n. “hen, barn fowl, *chicken”
⚠️ᴱQ. porocellë n. “chicken”
⚠️ᴱQ. porocoi ? “[unglossed]”

3.52 Cock, Rooster

ᴺQ. !hollo n. “cock, cockerel, rooster”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] tocot n. “cock, *rooster”

3.54 Hen

ᴺQ. !holyë n. “hen”
⚠️ᴱQ. oi n. “bird, hen”; see instead:
Q. aiwë “(small) bird”
ᴺQ. !holyë “hen”

3.56 Goose

ᴹQ. ván n. “goose”
⚠️ᴱQ. yanwa n. “goose”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ván “goose”

3.57 Duck

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quá n. “duck”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quaqua- v. “to quack, squawk, cackle, *croak”

3.61 Dog

⚠️ᴱQ. fan (fand-) n. “dog”; see instead:
ᴹQ. huan “hound, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] dog”
⚠️Q. n. “hound (or ?heart)”; see instead:
ᴹQ. huo “dog”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. huan (hún-) n. “hound, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] dog”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^huar n. “wild dog, jackal”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^huarda n. “pack (of dogs, wolves)”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^húni n. “bitch, *female dog”
ᴹQ. huo n. “dog”
Q. röa n. “dog”
ᴹQ. ronyo n. “‘chaser’, hound of chase, *hunting dog”
⚠️ᴱQ. savar n. “wild dog, jackal”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^huar “wild dog, jackal”
⚠️ᴱQ. savarda n. “pack (of dogs, wolves)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^huarda “pack (of dogs, wolves)”
⚠️ᴱQ. suni n. “bitch, *female dog”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^húni “bitch, *female dog”

3.612 Puppy

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^huolë n. “litter (of pups, cubs, etc.)”
⚠️ᴱQ. saulë n. “litter (of pups, cubs, etc.)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^huolë “litter (of pups, cubs, etc.)”

3.62 Cat

⚠️ᴱQ. meoi n. “cat”; see instead:
ᴹQ. miuë “cat”
ᴹQ. miuë (miuy-) n. “cat”
ᴹQ. miulë n. “whining, mewing”
⚠️ᴺQ. !miura n. “cat”; see instead:
ᴹQ. miuë “cat”
⚠️ᴺQ. !miurë n. “cat”; see instead:
ᴹQ. miuë “cat”
⚠️ᴺQ. !miuro n. “cat”; see instead:
ᴹQ. miuë “cat”
ᴹQ. titsë (tits-) n. “kitten”
⚠️ᴱQ. yaulë n. “cat”; see instead:
ᴹQ. miuë “cat”

3.63 Mouse, Rodent

ᴺQ. !farinë n. “vermin”
ᴺQ. !nyarrincë n. “mouse”
ᴹQ. nyarro n. “rat”
Q. peccuvo n. “squirrel, (lit.) nut-hider”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^quin- v. “to speak high, squeak”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quínë n. “squeaking, *squeak”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quínëa adj. “squeaking”
⚠️ᴱQ. quíni- v. “to speak high, squeak”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^quin- “to speak high, squeak”
Q. rasillo [þ] n. “squirrel”
⚠️ᴱQ. rausimë n. “vermin”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !farinë “vermin”
ᴺQ. !rimpeccuvo n. “chipmunk”

3.64 Bird

Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. aiwë n. “(small) bird”
⚠️ᴺQ. !aiwestë n. “bird’s nest”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !aiwestë “bird’s nest”
⚠️ᴱQ. cilapitya- v. “to chirp”
ᴺQ. !hausta n. “nest”
⚠️ᴹQ. oio (oiw-) n. “bird”; see instead:
Q. aiwë “(small) bird”
Q. oi(o) “ever, everlastingly; an endless period, *aeon”
⚠️ᴱQ. oivë n. “bird”; see instead:
Q. aiwë “(small) bird”
⚠️ᴱQ. wilin n. “bird”; see instead:
Q. aiwë “(small) bird”
⚠️ᴱQ. wilindëa adj. “as a bird”

3.641 Eagle, Hawk

⚠️ᴱQ. ëa(r) n. “(young) eagle”; see instead:
Q. ëar “sea, great sea, [ᴹQ.] open sea; ⚠️water”
Q. soron “eagle”
⚠️ᴱQ. ëaren (ëarend-) n. “eyrie, (young) eagle”; see instead:
ᴺQ. sornion “eyrie”
Q. soron “eagle”
ᴹQ. fion (fiond-) n. “hawk, ⚠️haste”
⚠️ᴹQ. haro n. “hawk”; see instead:
ᴹQ. fion “hawk, ⚠️haste”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] n. “owl”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] sornion n. “eyrie”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. soron (sorn-) [þ] n. “eagle”

3.642 Crow, Raven

⚠️ᴱQ. caron n. “crow”
ᴹQ. corco n. “crow”
⚠️Q. quáco n. “crow”; see instead:
ᴹQ. corco “crow”
Q. quácë “frog”

3.647 Gull, Petrel

Q., ᴹQ. maiwë n. “gull”
⚠️ᴱQ. máwë (máwi-) n. “gull, seamew”; see instead:
Q. maiwë “gull”
ᴹQ. quénë n. “petrel”

3.648 Swan

Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. alqua n. “swan”
⚠️ᴱQ. siloinë (siloini-) n. “swan”; see instead:
Q. alqua “swan”

3.649 Bird (other)

⚠️Q. aimenal n. “lark”; see instead:
Q. lirulin “lark”
ᴹQ. ambalë n. “yellow bird, yellow hammer”
⚠️ᴱQ. ambarin (ambarind-) n. “lark”; see instead:
Q. lirulin “lark”
⚠️ᴱQ. carnëambar n. and adj. “robin, (lit.) red-breast”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^carniambos “robin, (lit.) red-breast”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^carniambos n. “robin, (lit.) red-breast”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] cecet n. “pheasant”
⚠️ᴱQ. cilapi n. “robin”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^carniambos “robin, (lit.) red-breast”
Q. #cirincë n. “scarlet-plumed species of bird”
ᴹQ. cucua n. “dove”
ᴺQ. !cucuollë n. “turtledove”
Q., ᴹQ. filincë n. “finch”
ᴹQ. filit (filic-) n. “small bird, sparrow”
ᴹQ. halatir(no) (halatirn-) n. “kingsfisher, (lit.) fish-watcher”
ᴺQ. !hendelúpëa cecet n. “peafowl, (lit.) eye-plumed pheasant”
⚠️ᴱQ. imbilinc n. “sparrow”; see instead:
ᴹQ. filit “small bird, sparrow”
⚠️ᴱQ. lintuilinda adj. “many-swallows of autumn”
⚠️ᴹQ. liri n. “finch”; see instead:
Q. filincë “finch”
Q. lirulin n. “lark”
Q., ᴹQ. lómelindë n. “nightingale, (lit.) dusk-singer”
⚠️ᴹQ. morilindë n. “nightingale”; see instead:
Q. lómelindë “nightingale, (lit.) dusk-singer”
ᴺQ. !morilúpë n. “blackbird, (lit.) black plume”
ᴺQ. !nyatso n. “magpie, (lit.) chatterer”
⚠️ᴺQ. !russambos n. “robin”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^carniambos “robin, (lit.) red-breast”
ᴹQ. tambaro n. “woodpecker, (lit.) knocker”
ᴺQ. !tinwerúmë n. “starling, (lit.) abundance of stars”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. tuilindo n. “swallow, (lit.) spring-singer”

3.65 Fish

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^cullingwë n. “goldfish”
⚠️ᴱQ. culuin (culuind-) n. “goldfish”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^cullingwë “goldfish”
ᴹQ. hala n. “(small) fish”
⚠️ᴱQ. ingwë (ingwi-) n. “fish”; see instead:
Q. #lingwë “fish”
⚠️ᴱQ. ingwil(in) (ingwiling-) n. “eel”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !lingwileuca “eel”
Q., ᴹQ. #lingwë (lingwi-) n. “fish”
ᴺQ. !lingwëa adj. “fishlike”
ᴺQ. !lingwileuca n. “eel”
ᴹQ. nixë n. “minnow, little fish”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] telpingwë n. “silverfish”
⚠️ᴱQ. windëa adj. “fishlike”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !lingwëa “fishlike”

3.66 Fisherman

ᴺQ. !lingwimo n. “fisherman”
ᴺQ. !lingwiremnë n. “fishing”
⚠️ᴺQ. !raito n. “fisher”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !lingwimo “fisherman”

3.71 Wolf

⚠️ᴹQ. harma² n. “wolf, hound”
⚠️ᴹQ. hu n. “howl”; see instead:
Q. nwámë “wolvish howling”
⚠️ᴹQ. húna- v. “to howl”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !nauna- “to howl”
ᴹQ. narmo [ñ-] n. “wolf”
⚠️ᴹQ. naulë [ñ-] n. “wolfhowl”; see instead:
Q. nwámë “wolvish howling”
ᴺQ. !nauna- [ñ-] v. “to howl”
Q., ᴹQ. nauro [ñ-] n. “werewolf, wolf (not wild wolves)”
Q. nwámë n. “wolvish howling”
ᴹQ. ráca n. “wolf”
⚠️ᴱQ. ulcu n. “wolf”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ráca “wolf”
⚠️ᴱQ. ulqui n. “she-wolf”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ráca “wolf”

3.72 Lion

ᴺQ. !picara n. “leopard”
Q., ᴹQ. †rá¹ (ráv-) n. “lion”
⚠️ᴱQ. rau (rav-) n. “lion”; see instead:
Q. †rá¹ “lion”
Q. rauro n. “lion”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ravennë n. “she-lion, *lioness”

3.73 Bear

⚠️ᴱQ. #matsilë n. “bear”; see instead:
ᴹQ. morco “bear”
ᴹQ. morco n. “bear”

3.74 Fox

Q. rusco (ruscu-) n. “fox”
Q. ruscuitë adj. “foxy”

3.75 Deer

⚠️ᴺQ. !arassë n. “deer, hart, stag”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !arasso “hart, stag, (male) deer”
ᴺQ. !arasso n. “hart, stag, (male) deer”
ᴺQ. !celvë n. “hind, deer, doe”
⚠️ᴱQ. opolë n. “fawn, young deer”

3.76 Monkey

ᴺQ. !maimun n. “monkey, ape”

3.77 Elephant

ᴹQ. andamunda n. “elephant”
⚠️ᴱQ. hunto n. “elephant”; see instead:
ᴹQ. andamunda “elephant”

3.78 Camel

⚠️ᴱQ. cuptulo n. “camel”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ulumpë “camel”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ulumpë n. “camel”
⚠️ᴱQ. uluntilla n. “camel’s hair”

3.79 to Hunt

ᴹQ. fafarra- v. “*to keep on hunting”
Q., ᴹQ. fara- v. “to hunt”
Q., ᴹQ. faralë n. “hunting”
ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.] ^farasta n. “hunting, the chase”
⚠️ᴹQ. farastë n. “hunting, the chase”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^farasta “hunting, the chase”
ᴹQ. farastëa adj. “of the chase (that it is proper to hunt), *of prey”
ᴹQ. farina adj. “fugitive, hunted”
ᴹQ. farna n. “quarry, prey”
⚠️ᴱQ. rausima adj. “*hunted”; see instead:
ᴹQ. farina “fugitive, hunted”
⚠️ᴱQ. raustë n. “hunting, preying, the hunt”; see instead:
Q. faralë “hunting”
⚠️ᴱQ. raustëa adj. “of prey”; see instead:
ᴹQ. farastëa “of the chase (that it is proper to hunt), *of prey”
⚠️ᴱQ. rauta- v. “to chase, hunt, pursue; to extirpate, exterminate; to steal”; see instead:
Q. fara- “to hunt”
ᴹQ. roita- “to pursue, *chase”
ᴺQ. pil- “to steal”
ᴹQ. roimë n. “hunt, hunting”

3.81 Insect

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] malo n. “moth”
ᴺQ. !nastaro n. “scorpion”
Q. n. “small insect, fly, *mite, gnat; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] speck, spot, dot, mote”
⚠️ᴱQ. pin n. “little thing, mite”; see instead:
Q. “small insect, fly, *mite, gnat; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] speck, spot, dot, mote”
ᴺQ. !salquecápo n. “grasshopper”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^ulumpembë n. “caterpillar, (lit.) camel worm”
⚠️ᴱQ. ulumpingwë n. “caterpillar”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^ulumpembë “caterpillar, (lit.) camel worm”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. wilwarin (wilwarind-) n. “butterfly”
⚠️ᴱQ. wilwarinda adj. “butterflylike”; see instead:
Q. wilwarindëa “like a butterfly”
Q. wilwarindëa adj. “like a butterfly”

3.811 Spider

⚠️ᴱQ. cangalë n. “web”; see instead:
Q. ungwë “spider’s web; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] spider; [ᴹQ.] gloom”
⚠️ᴱQ. cangaris (cangarist-) n. “spider”; see instead:
ᴹQ. liantë “spider, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] tendril, vine”
⚠️ᴱQ. cangawinda n. “cobweb”; see instead:
ᴹQ. línë “cobweb; [ᴱQ.] cotton, ⚠️thread”
⚠️ᴹQ. filet (filec-) n. “cobweb”; see instead:
ᴹQ. línë “cobweb; [ᴱQ.] cotton, ⚠️thread”
⚠️ᴱQ. lenquelénu n. “(daddy) long-legs”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. liantë n. “spider, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] tendril, vine”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. línë n. “cobweb; [ᴱQ.] cotton, ⚠️thread”
ᴺQ. *ungol n. “(monstrous) spider”
Q., ᴱQ. ungwë n. “spider’s web; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] spider; [ᴹQ.] gloom”

3.82 Bee

⚠️ᴱQ. imbë n. “hive”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] nier n. “(honey) bee”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^nieres (nieress-) n. “hive”
⚠️ᴱQ. nierwes (nierwest-) n. “hive”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^nieres “hive”

3.83 Fly (n)

⚠️ᴹQ. camparu n. “?flea”; see instead:
ᴺQ. campo “flea”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] campo n. “flea”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] itis [þ] n. “fly bite; *itch”
ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.], ᴱQ. itsë n. “fly”
⚠️ᴹQ. n. “small fly”; see instead:
Q. “small insect, fly, *mite, gnat; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] speck, spot, dot, mote”
Q., ᴹQ. pupso n. “large fly, [ᴹQ.] blow fly”
⚠️ᴹQ. †tsettë n. “fly”; see instead:
ᴺQ. itsë “fly”

3.84 Worm

⚠️ᴱQ. lingwë n. “snake, worm”; see instead:
Q. hlócë “reptile, snake, serpant, worm, *lizard; [ᴹQ.] dragon”
Q. #lingwë “fish”
⚠️ᴱQ. testë n. “small worm”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^vembë “worm”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^vembë n. “worm”
⚠️ᴱQ. wembë n. “worm”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^vembë “worm”
⚠️ᴱQ. wembil n. “worm”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^vembë “worm”

3.85 Snake

ᴹQ. ango (angu-) n. “snake, dragon”
⚠️ᴱQ. histe- v. “to hiss”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !surya- “to hiss”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. hlócë (hlóci-) n. “reptile, snake, serpant, worm, *lizard; [ᴹQ.] dragon”
Q. leuca n. “snake”
⚠️ᴱQ. lin² (ling-) n. “snake”; see instead:
Q. leuca “snake”
ᴹQ. lingwilócë n. “fish-dragon, sea-serpent”
⚠️ᴱQ. lingwin n. “serpent, dragon”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lingwilócë “fish-dragon, sea-serpent”
⚠️ᴱQ. oqui n. “snake”; see instead:
Q. leuca “snake”
ᴺQ. !surya- v. “to hiss”

3.99 Animals (other)

ᴺQ. !andalango n. “giraffe, (lit.) long-neck”
ᴺQ. !andanyarro n. “weasel, ferret, mink, stoat, polecat, (lit.) long-rat”
ᴺQ. !canguru n. “kangaroo”
ᴺQ. !carastanyarro n. “beaver, (lit.) build-rat”
⚠️ᴺQ. !carpo n. “frog”; see instead:
Q. quácë “frog”
ᴺQ. !castor n. “beaver”
ᴺQ. !celvatarwa n. “zoo, (lit.) life-garden”
Q. ecellë n. “urchin, hedgehog”
ᴺQ. !ehtipolca n. “porcupine, (lit.) spike-pig”
Q. ?fanto n. “whale”
ᴺQ. !filiculumpë n. “ostrich, (lit.) sparrow-camel”
⚠️ᴱQ. lapatl n. “leveret”
⚠️ᴱQ. lapattë (lapatsi-) n. “rabbit”; see instead:
Q. #lopoldë “rabbit”
⚠️ᴹQ. lopo n. “rabbit”; see instead:
Q. #lopoldë “rabbit”
Q. #lopoldë n. “rabbit”
ᴹQ. lopotundo (lopotundu-) n. “rabbithole”
ᴺQ. !mórolingwë n. “squid, (lit.) ink-fish”
Q. #nendil n. “beast that lives in the water”
ᴺQ. !nengarmo n. “otter, (lit.) water-wolf”
⚠️ᴱQ. noldarë n. “mole”; see instead:
ᴺQ. nolpa “mole”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] nolpa n. “mole”
ᴺQ. !nuinerocco n. “hippopotamus, (lit.) river-horse”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] oryat (oryap-) n. “badger”
ᴺQ. !poco(lle)nyarro n. “opossum, (lit.) pouch-rat”
ᴺQ. !quaccas (quaccar-) n. “tadpole, (lit.) frog head”
Q. quácë n. “frog”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quildarë n. “bat”
ᴺQ. !rassemunda n. “rhinoceros, (lit.) horn-snout”
ᴺQ. !sauroryat [þ] n. “skunk, (lit.) stink-badger”
ᴺQ. !sovamorco n. “raccoon, (lit.) wash-bear”

4. Body Parts and Functions

4.11 Body

⚠️ᴱQ. columë n. “body”; see instead:
Q. hröa “body, bodily form, ⚠️flesh; physical matter”
Q. hröa n. “body, bodily form, ⚠️flesh; physical matter”
ᴺQ. !hröava adj. “corporeal, bodily”
⚠️Q. hrondo n. “(physical) body, corporeal form”; see instead:
Q. hröa “body, bodily form, ⚠️flesh; physical matter”
Q. #mirröanwë n. and adj. “incarnate”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] pulco n. “trunk, bole of tree, *torso, ⚠️body”
⚠️ᴱQ. sarcuva adj. “corporeal, bodily”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !hröava “corporeal, bodily”

4.12 Skin, Hide

⚠️ᴹQ. halma n. “skin, fell”; see instead:
ᴹQ. helma “skin, fell, *hide”
ᴹQ. helma n. “skin, fell, *hide”
ᴺQ. !helmunquë n. “wrinkle, (lit.) skin-hollow”
⚠️ᴱQ. nautë n. “skin”; see instead:
ᴹQ. helma “skin, fell, *hide”
ᴹQ. †psára n. “peel”

4.13 Flesh

⚠️ᴱQ. hara(nda) n. “flesh-meat”; see instead:
Q. hrávë “flesh”
ᴹQ. apsa¹ “meat, cooked food”
⚠️ᴱQ. haranwa adj. “fleshly, carnal”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !hrávëa “fleshly, carnal”
Q. hrávë n. “flesh”
ᴺQ. !hrávëa adj. “fleshly, carnal”
⚠️ᴱQ. mimbë n. “flesh”; see instead:
Q. hrávë “flesh”
⚠️ᴱQ. mindl n. “piece of flesh”; see instead:
Q. hrávë “flesh”
⚠️ᴱQ. sarco¹ (sarcu-) n. “flesh, living flesh, body”; see instead:
Q. hrávë “flesh”
Q. hröa “body, bodily form, ⚠️flesh; physical matter”
⚠️ᴱQ. sarqua adj. “fleshy”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !larmëa “fleshy, fatty”

4.14 Hair

⚠️ᴱQ. filma n. “fine hair, line”; see instead:
Q. finë “(single) hair, filament”
ᴹQ. tëa “straight line, road”
Q., ᴹQ. findë n. “hair (especially of the head); tress or plait of hair, [ᴹQ.] braid of hair”
Q. findelë n. “tress, lock [of hair]”
Q. findessë n. “head of hair, person’s hair as a whole”
⚠️Q. findilë n. “head of hair”; see instead:
Q. findessë “head of hair, person’s hair as a whole”
Q. findelë “tress, lock [of hair]”
⚠️ᴱQ. findl n. “lock of hair, tress”; see instead:
Q. findelë “tress, lock [of hair]”
Q. finë (fini-) n. “(single) hair, filament”
⚠️ᴱQ. laxa n. “tress”; see instead:
ᴹQ. loxë “hair [in general]”
ᴹQ. loxë n. “hair [in general]”
⚠️ᴱQ. silquë n. “tress of hair; (glossy) hair”; see instead:
Q. findë “hair (especially of the head); tress or plait of hair, [ᴹQ.] braid of hair”
⚠️ᴱQ. silqueléna adj. “having tresses”
⚠️ᴱQ. silquelossëa adj. “with hair like white flowers”
⚠️ᴱQ. til (tiln-) n. “(single) hair”; see instead:
Q. finë “(single) hair, filament”

4.142 Beard

Q., ᴹQ. #fanga n. “beard”
⚠️ᴱQ. fangë n. “beard”; see instead:
Q. #fanga “beard”
⚠️ᴱQ. pöa n. “beard”; see instead:
Q. #fanga “beard”
⚠️ᴱQ. veltë n. “beard”; see instead:
Q. #fanga “beard”

4.143 Hair (other)

⚠️ᴱQ. andesilquë adj. “long-haired, long-tressed”
⚠️ᴱQ. aulë (auli-) adj. “shaggy”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !fassa “shaggy, tangled [hair]”
ᴹQ. aulë “invention”
ᴺQ. !fassa adj. “shaggy, tangled [hair]”
ᴹQ. fassë n. “tangled hair, shaggy lock”
ᴹQ. fasta-¹ v. “to tangle”
Q. finda¹ adj. “having hair, -haired”
ᴺQ. !findimaitar n. “barber, hairdresser”
ᴺQ. !finëa adj. “downy, hairy [specifically fine, light hair]”
⚠️Q. hróva¹ adj. “dark, dark brown (of hair)”; see instead:
Q. nolya “dark-haired, *brown-haired”
⚠️ᴺQ. !locco n. “ringlet”; see instead:
Q. lócë¹ “bight, bend, curl of hair”
Q. lócë¹ n. “bight, bend, curl of hair”
⚠️Q. loxa adj. “brown of hair”; see instead:
Q. nolya “dark-haired, *brown-haired”
Q. nolya [ñ-] adj. “dark-haired, *brown-haired”
⚠️ᴱQ. tilinya adj. “downy, hairy”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !finëa “downy, hairy [specifically fine, light hair]”
ᴺQ. [Q.] vaina¹ adj. “blonde, fair of hair”

4.15 Blood

ᴺQ. !etserca- v. “to bleed out, exsanguinate”
⚠️ᴱQ. hari n. “blood”; see instead:
Q. sercë “blood”
⚠️ᴱQ. mëar (mëarn-) n. “gore, blood”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^mehar “gore”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^mehar n. “gore”
ᴺQ. !serca- v. “to bleed”
Q. sercë (serci-) n. “blood”
⚠️ᴱQ. vísi n. “blood”; see instead:
Q. sercë “blood”
⚠️ᴹQ. yár (yar-) n. “blood”; see instead:
Q. sercë “blood”

4.16 Bone

⚠️ᴱQ. as (ass-) n. “bone”; see instead:
Q. axo¹ “bone”
⚠️ᴱQ. assëa adj. “bony”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !axula “bony”
⚠️ᴹQ. #asto² (astu-) n. “bone”; see instead:
Q. axo¹ “bone”
⚠️ᴹQ. astula adj. “bony”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !axula “bony”
⚠️ᴱQ. aswa adj. “of bone”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !axula “bony”
ᴺQ. !axendë n. “marrow”
Q. axo¹ n. “bone”
ᴺQ. !axula adj. “bony”
⚠️ᴱQ. hón(a) n. “bone”; see instead:
Q. axo¹ “bone”
ᴺQ. !ilcaxo n. “ivory, (lit.) gleam bone”

4.17 Horn (animal)

ᴹQ. hyalma n. “conch, shell, horn of Ulmo”
Q., ᴹQ. rassë n. “horn [of both animals and mountains]”
ᴺQ. !rassëa adj. “horned”
ᴹQ. tarca n. “horn [of animals]”
⚠️ᴱQ. taru n. “horn”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tarca “horn [of animals]”
⚠️ᴱQ. tarucca adj. “horned”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !rassëa “horned”

4.18 Tail

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^pimpë n. “tail”
⚠️ᴱQ. pint (pimp-) n. “tail”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^pimpë “tail”

4.19 Back

ᴺQ. !catta n. “back”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] hacca n. “the hams, buttocks”

4.20 Head

⚠️ᴹQ., ᴱQ. cár (cas-) n. “head”; see instead:
Q. cas “head, [ᴱQ.] top, ⚠️summit”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. cas (car-) n. “head, [ᴱQ.] top, ⚠️summit”

4.202 Skull

⚠️ᴺQ. !caraxo n. “skull, *(lit.) head-bone”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !corpë “skull”
⚠️ᴺQ. !coropë n. “skull”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !corpë “skull”
ᴺQ. !corpë n. “skull”

4.204 Face

⚠️ᴱQ. alma n. “face”; see instead:
Q. cendelë “face, *visage”
ᴹQ. alma “good fortune, weal, wealth, *well-being”
ᴺQ. [Q.], ᴹQ., ᴱQ. anta n. “[ᴹQ.] face, *front of the head, [ᴱQ.] cheek; ⚠️[Q.] jaw”
⚠️Q. #canwa² n. “face”; see instead:
Q. cendelë “face, *visage”
Q. cendelë n. “face, *visage”
⚠️ᴺQ. !nívë n. “face”; see instead:
ᴺQ. anta “[ᴹQ.] face, *front of the head, [ᴱQ.] cheek; ⚠️[Q.] jaw”
Q. -stir suf. “face”
⚠️ᴱQ. yéma n. “face”; see instead:
Q. cendelë “face, *visage”

4.205 Forehead

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] candóla n. “crown of head”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] timbarë n. “forehead”

4.206 Eyebrow

Q. *estirnë n. “brow”

4.207 Jaw

Q., ᴹQ. anca n. “jaws; [ᴹQ.] jaw, row of teeth”
⚠️ᴱQ. n. “jaw”; see instead:
Q. anca “jaws; [ᴹQ.] jaw, row of teeth”
⚠️ᴱQ. maquar n. “jaw”; see instead:
Q. anca “jaws; [ᴹQ.] jaw, row of teeth”
ᴹQ. nangwa n. “jaw”

4.209 Chin

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] venta n. “chin”

4.21 Eye

Q. alahen (alahend-) adj. “eyeless”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. #hen (hend-) n. “eye”
ᴺQ. !hentópa n. “eyelid”
⚠️ᴱQ. n. “eye, eyeball, pupil”; see instead:
Q. #hen “eye”
⚠️ᴱQ. sehtë (sehti-) n. “pupil; bead; †eye, eyeball”
⚠️ᴱQ. sinda¹ n. “eye”; see instead:
Q. #hen “eye”
⚠️ᴹQ. yé² n. “eye”; see instead:
Q. #hen “eye”

4.212 Sharpeyed

Q. hendumaica adj. “sharp-eye[d]”

4.213 Evileyed

ᴹQ. henulca adj. “*evil-eyed”

4.22 Ear

⚠️ᴱQ. ancar (ancas-) n. “ear (of men)”; see instead:
Q. hlas “ear”
Q. hlas (hlar-) n. “ear”
⚠️ᴹQ. lár n. “ear”; see instead:
Q. hlas “ear”
⚠️ᴱQ. quan (quand-) n. “ear”; see instead:
Q. hlas “ear”
⚠️ᴱQ. unc(o) (unqu-) n. “ear (of animals); corner, sticking out edge”; see instead:
Q. hlas “ear”

4.23 Nose

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^mén (mem-) n. “beak, ⚠️nose”
⚠️ᴱQ. men¹ (mem-) n. “nose, beak”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^mén “beak, ⚠️nose”
ᴹQ. mundo (mundu-) n. “snout, nose; cape [of land]”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] nen (neng-) n. “nostril”
ᴹQ. nengwë (nengwi-) n. “nose”
ᴹQ. nengwëa adj. “nasal”
⚠️ᴹQ. nin (ning-) n. “nose, beak”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nengwë “nose”
⚠️ᴱQ. ‽penta n. “nose, beak (probably of such birds as woodpeckers)”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nengwë “nose”
⚠️ᴱQ. súma n. “nostril”; see instead:
ᴺQ. nen “nostril”
⚠️ᴱQ. súnë n. “(human) nose”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nengwë “nose”

4.24 Mouth

Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. anto n. “mouth [as a thing for eating]; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] jaw”
⚠️Q. carpa n. “(entire) mouth; phonetic system”; see instead:
Q. náva² “*mouth (including tongue, lips and teeth), speech apparatus”
Q. lambelë “phonetics”
⚠️ᴱQ. matu n. “the mouth (inside)”; see instead:
Q. songa “mouth (interior cavity behind the teeth containing the tongue)”
Q. náva² [ñ-] n. “*mouth (including tongue, lips and teeth), speech apparatus”
Q. ópa n. “mouth (opening of which the lips are the edges)”
⚠️ᴱQ. ó(vo) n. “mouth”; see instead:
Q. ópa “mouth (opening of which the lips are the edges)”
⚠️Q. páva n. “mouth”; see instead:
Q. náva² “*mouth (including tongue, lips and teeth), speech apparatus”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. n. “(closed) mouth; the two lips [as dual], ⚠️lip”
Q. songa n. “mouth (interior cavity behind the teeth containing the tongue)”

4.25 Lip

⚠️ᴱQ. cailë n. “lip”; see instead:
Q. #pempë “lip”
⚠️ᴱQ. cilmë n. “lip”; see instead:
Q. #pempë “lip”
Q. #pempë n. “lip”

4.26 Tongue

Q., ᴹQ. lamba n. “(physical) tongue”

4.27 Tooth

Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. carca n. “fang, [ᴹQ.] tooth, [ᴱQ.] tusk; ⚠️[Q.] rock”
ᴹQ. carcanë n. “row of teeth”
⚠️ᴱQ. carcanel n. “fang”; see instead:
Q. carca “fang, [ᴹQ.] tooth, [ᴱQ.] tusk; ⚠️[Q.] rock”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] carcara adj. “toothed”
ᴹQ. nelet (nelc-) n. “tooth”
⚠️ᴱQ. nyat n. “tooth”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nelcë “tooth”

4.28 Neck

Q. axë n. “neck [vertebrae], *(upper) spine; rock ridge”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. lango n. “neck, [ᴹQ.] throat”
⚠️ᴹQ., ᴱQ. yat¹ (yaht-) n. “neck; [ᴱQ.] isthmus”; see instead:
Q. axë “neck [vertebrae], *(upper) spine; rock ridge”
ᴹQ. yatta “(narrow) neck, isthmus; *(lit.) joining”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. yatta n. “(narrow) neck, isthmus; *(lit.) joining”

4.29 Throat

⚠️ᴱQ. caicta- v. “to strangle”
⚠️ᴱQ. cailen n. “throat, gullet”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !hlunco “pharynx, gullet”
⚠️ᴱQ. carco (carcu-) n. “alimentary canel”
ᴺQ. !hluc- v. “to swallow”
ᴺQ. !hlunco n. “pharynx, gullet”
⚠️ᴹQ. lanco n. “throat”; see instead:
Q. lango “neck, [ᴹQ.] throat”
ᴺQ. !hlunco “pharynx, gullet”
⚠️ᴱQ. quelqua n. “throat”; see instead:
Q. lango “neck, [ᴹQ.] throat”
⚠️ᴱQ. querca n. “throat”; see instead:
Q. lango “neck, [ᴹQ.] throat”

4.30 Shoulder

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] almo n. “shoulder, ⚠️back”

4.31 Arm

⚠️ᴱQ. lenc (lenqu-) n. “limb”
⚠️ᴱQ. olet (olec-) n. “forearm”
⚠️ᴱQ. n. “arm”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ranco “arm”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. ranco (rancu-) n. “arm”

4.32 Elbow

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ólemë n. “elbow”

4.33 Hand

Q. camba n. “(cupped) hand, hollow of the hand”
⚠️Q., ᴹQ. #cambë n. “(hollow of) hand”; see instead:
Q. camba “(cupped) hand, hollow of the hand”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. n. “hand”
⚠️ᴱQ. †mactë¹ (maxi-) n. “hand”; see instead:
Q. “hand”
Q. nonda n. “hand especially in (?clutching)”
Q., ᴹQ. quár(ë) n. “fist, closed hand”

4.332 Hand (other)

Q. ataformaitë adj. “ambidextrous”
Q. atamaitë adj. “two-handed”
⚠️ᴱQ. erumaili adj. “one handed”
⚠️ᴱQ. #maili adj. “handed”; see instead:
Q. maitë “handy, skillful, [ᴹQ.] skilled; [Q.] shapely, well-shaped; (as suffix) having a hand, handed”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. maitë (maiti-) adj. “handy, skillful, [ᴹQ.] skilled; [Q.] shapely, well-shaped; (as suffix) having a hand, handed”
Q. málimë (málimi-) n. “wrist, (lit.) hand-link”
⚠️ᴱQ. maqua adj. “handy, skilled (with hands)”; see instead:
Q. maitë “handy, skillful, [ᴹQ.] skilled; [Q.] shapely, well-shaped; (as suffix) having a hand, handed”
Q. maqua “hand-full, group of five (similar) things; hand (colloquial); ⚠️closing or closed [hand] (facing down) for taking”
Q. maqua n. “hand-full, group of five (similar) things; hand (colloquial); ⚠️closing or closed [hand] (facing down) for taking”
⚠️ᴱQ. maqualëa adj. “handy, skilled (with hands)”; see instead:
Q. maitë “handy, skillful, [ᴹQ.] skilled; [Q.] shapely, well-shaped; (as suffix) having a hand, handed”
⚠️ᴱQ. maricta n. “wrist”; see instead:
Q. málimë “wrist, (lit.) hand-link”
⚠️ᴱQ. mavoitë (mavoisi-) adj. “having hands”; see instead:
Q. maitë “handy, skillful, [ᴹQ.] skilled; [Q.] shapely, well-shaped; (as suffix) having a hand, handed”
⚠️Q. maxë n. “handiness”; see instead:
Q. massë² “portion, share; capacity, [ᴹQ.] measure; the personal measure or capacity of a man, a talent; [Q.] †handful”
Q., ᴹQ. morimaitë adj. “black-handed”
Q., ᴱQ. palta n. “flat of the hand, *palm; [ᴱQ.] shelf”
⚠️ᴱQ. paltya n. “flat of hand, palm of hand”; see instead:
Q. palta “flat of the hand, *palm; [ᴱQ.] shelf”

4.34 Finger

⚠️Q. amaltil n. “*mother finger”; see instead:
Q. lepetas “index finger”
⚠️ᴱQ. anda-lepta adj. “long-fingered”
⚠️Q. antil n. “*middle finger”; see instead:
Q. lependë “middle finger”
⚠️Q. cantil n. “fourth finger”; see instead:
Q. lepecan “fourth finger”
⚠️Q. enestil n. “*middle finger”; see instead:
Q. lependë “middle finger”
Q. lepecan (lepecant-) n. “fourth finger”
Q. lependë n. “middle finger”
Q. †lepenel n. “middle finger”
Q. lepentë n. “fourth finger”
Q. leper n. “finger”
Q. lepetas (lepetass-) n. “index finger”
Q. lepincë (lepinci-) n. “little finger”
⚠️Q., ᴹQ. lepsë n. “*finger”; see instead:
Q. leper “finger”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. lepta adj. and n. “fingered; ⚠️thumb, [ᴱQ.] finger”
⚠️ᴹQ., ᴱQ. let (leps-) n. “finger”; see instead:
Q. leper “finger”
⚠️Q. leuta n. “finger”; see instead:
Q. leper “finger”
Q. nícë n. “little finger”
⚠️Q. nihtil n. “little [finger]”; see instead:
Q. lepincë “little finger”
⚠️Q. seltil n. “daughter [finger name]”; see instead:
Q. lepecan “fourth finger”
⚠️ᴱQ. tapatenda adj. “taper fingered, light fingered, long fingered”
Q. tassa n. “index finger”
⚠️Q. tastil n. “*index finger”; see instead:
Q. lepetas “index finger”
⚠️ᴱQ. -tenda suf. “having fingers”; see instead:
Q. lepta “fingered; ⚠️thumb, [ᴱQ.] finger”
⚠️ᴱQ. tenna n. “finger”; see instead:
Q. leper “finger”
Q. tolyo n. “sticker-up”
⚠️Q. yontil n. “boy, son [finger name]”; see instead:
Q. lependë “middle finger”

4.342 Thumb

⚠️Q. atartil n. “thumb [nursery rhymes]”; see instead:
Q. nápo “thumb, (lit.) picker”
Q. nápo n. “thumb, (lit.) picker”
⚠️Q. tollë² n. “thumb”; see instead:
Q. nápo “thumb, (lit.) picker”
⚠️Q. tolpë n. “thumb”; see instead:
Q. nápo “thumb, (lit.) picker”
⚠️Q. toltil n. “thumb”; see instead:
Q. nápo “thumb, (lit.) picker”
⚠️ᴱQ. tyútë (tyúsi-) n. “thumb”; see instead:
Q. nápo “thumb, (lit.) picker”

4.35 Leg

⚠️ᴱQ. attalaitë adj. “biped”; see instead:
Q. #attalya “biped, *(lit.) two-footed”
⚠️ᴱQ. attalin n. “biped”; see instead:
Q. #attalya “biped, *(lit.) two-footed”
Q. #attalya n. and adj. “biped, *(lit.) two-footed”
ᴺQ. !cantalya adj. and n. “four-legged, quadruped, (lit.) four-footed”
⚠️Q., ᴹQ. ciuca n. “*thigh”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tiuco “thigh”
⚠️ᴹQ. nöa² n. “thigh”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tiuco “thigh”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] oswë [þ] n. “hip”
⚠️ᴹQ., ᴱQ. pelco n. “leg”; see instead:
Q. telco “leg; stem”
⚠️ᴱQ. piu n. “calf of leg”
ᴹQ. quingatelco adj. “*bow-legged”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. telco n. “leg; stem”
ᴹQ. tiuco n. “thigh”
⚠️ᴹQ. tyúca n. “thigh”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tiuco “thigh”
⚠️ᴱQ. tyú(ta) n. “thigh”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tiuco “thigh”

4.36 Knee

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] occa n. “knee”

4.37 Foot

ᴹQ. runya n. “slot, footprint”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. tál (tal-) n. “foot; [ᴹQ.] bottom, [ᴱQ.] lowest part”
⚠️ᴱQ. tala¹ n. “foot; bottom, lowest part”; see instead:
Q. tál “foot; [ᴹQ.] bottom, [ᴱQ.] lowest part”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] talaitë (talaiti-) adj. “footed”
⚠️ᴱQ. talas (talast-) n. “sole”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tallunë “sole of foot”
ᴺQ. !tallimë (tallimi-) n. “ankle, (lit.) foot-link”
ᴹQ. tallunë n. “sole of foot”

4.38 Toe

Q. pirë n. “toe”
Q. taltil (taltill-) n. “toe, *(lit.) foot-tip”
Q. taltol n. “big toe”
Q. tolbo n. “big toe; stump, stub; ⚠️thumb”

4.39 Nail, Claw

Q. nappa n. “claw, talon”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] nyelet (nyelec-) n. “nail (of the finger)”
ᴹQ. #racca n. “*claw”
ᴹQ. raccalepta adj. “*claw-fingered”

4.392 Wing

⚠️ᴱQ. #ala² n. “wing”; see instead:
Q. ráma “wing; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] arm”
⚠️ᴱQ. anda-ráma adj. “long-arm(ed); long-wing(ed)”
⚠️ᴱQ. ehtaráma adj. “having a wing like a sword”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. ráma n. “wing; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] arm”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] rámaitë (rámaiti-) adj. “winged, having wings”
⚠️ᴱQ. rámavoitë adj. “winged, having wings”; see instead:
ᴺQ. rámaitë “winged, having wings”
⚠️ᴺQ. !ramna n. “wing (horn)”; see instead:
Q. ráma “wing; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] arm”
⚠️ᴱQ. vassë (vassi-) n. “wing”; see instead:
Q. ráma “wing; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] arm”
⚠️ᴱQ. vassivaswë n. “beating or rushing of wings”
⚠️ᴱQ. wilda adj. “winged”; see instead:
ᴺQ. rámaitë “winged, having wings”

4.393 Feather

ᴹQ. lúpë n. “plume”
⚠️ᴱQ. pectë (pexi-) n. “plume, cox-comb”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lúpë “plume”
⚠️ᴹQ. pilen n. “feather”; see instead:
Q. quessë “feather”
ᴹQ. pilin “arrow; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] feather”
⚠️ᴱQ. pilinquasilla n. “nodding plume”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lúpë “plume”
Q. pilinehtar “an unidentified plant, (lit.) ?arrow thorns”
⚠️ᴱQ. pilintelë n. “plumage”
⚠️ᴱQ. quasilla n. “tuft, nodding spray, tassel, plume”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lúpë “plume”
Q., ᴹQ. quessë n. “feather”

4.40 Front of Chest

⚠️ᴹQ. ambor n. “breast, *chest”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^ambos “breast, chest”
ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.] ^ambos (ambor-) n. “breast, chest”
⚠️ᴱQ. ambos (ambost-) n. “breast”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^ambos “breast, chest”

4.41 Breast of Woman

⚠️ᴱQ. ambar² (ambas-) n. “breast, bosom”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^ambos “breast, chest”
Q. súma n. “hollow cavity, bosom”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] tittë n. “breast [of a woman], ⚠️teat”
ᴺQ. !tyet- v. “to suckle, nurse”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] tyetsë n. “teat, *nipple”

4.44 Heart

⚠️ᴱQ. elwen n. “heart”; see instead:
Q. hón “heart (physical organ)”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. hón (hom-) n. “heart (physical organ)”
Q. #honda adj. “hearted”
⚠️ᴹQ. #hondo adj. “*hearted”; see instead:
Q. #honda “hearted”
ᴺQ. !hontompa n. “heartbeat”
Q. sincahonda adj. “flint-hearted”
⚠️ᴹQ. tingahondo adj. “flint-hearted”; see instead:
Q. sincahonda “flint-hearted”

4.45 Liver

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] lepsa n. “liver”

4.46 Belly, Stomach

ᴹQ. #cumba adj. “*bellied”
ᴺQ. !cumbo n. “belly”
⚠️ᴱQ. famba n. “belly, fat body”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cumbo “belly”
ᴺQ. !hirdë n. “entrails, bowels”
⚠️ᴱQ. palla n. “paunch”
ᴹQ. sauricumba [þ] adj. “*foul-bellied”

4.47 Womb

⚠️Q. #carva n. “*womb”; see instead:
Q. #móna “*womb”
⚠️Q. #colba n. “*womb”; see instead:
Q. #móna “*womb”
Q. #móna n. “*womb”
ᴺQ. !pucco (puccu-) n. “cunnus, vagina”

4.48 Egg

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ohtë n. “egg”

4.49 Testicle

⚠️ᴱQ. milt n. “semen”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^miltë “semen”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^miltë (milti-) n. “semen”

4.492 Penis

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] hapta- v. “to eject, ejaculate”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^puncil n. “male organ, penis”
⚠️ᴱQ. puntl n. “mem. vir., *penis”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^puncil “male organ, penis”
ᴺQ. !vielóra n. “eunuch”

4.51 to Breathe; Breath

Q. föa n. “breath, puff of breath”
Q. *nef- v. “to breathe (air)”
Q. #nefítë adj. “air-breathing”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quor- v. “to choke, suffocate, (esp.) drown”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quorin adj. “drowned, choked, speechless”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quosta- v. “to choke, drown (trans.)”
Q., ᴹQ. súlë [þ] n. “spirit, emission of power (of will or desire); breath”
ᴹQ. súya- [þ] v. “to breathe”

4.52 to Gape, Yawn

Q. #hac- v. “to yawn”
Q. hácala adj. “yawning”
⚠️ᴱQ. yámë adj. “yawning”; see instead:
Q. hácala “yawning”
ᴹQ. yanga- v. “to yawn”

4.53 to Cough

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] hototyossë n. “a cough and a sneeze”
⚠️ᴱQ. hútatyosta n. “whooping cough”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] hyuxo n. “hiccup”
⚠️ᴱQ. nang- v. “I have a cold”; see instead:
ᴺQ. nungwë “cold (in the nose or head)”
⚠️ᴱQ. nungo n. “cold (in the nose or head)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. nungwë “cold (in the nose or head)”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] nungwë n. “cold (in the nose or head)”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] tyos (tyoss-) n. “cough”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^tyosta- v. “to cough”
⚠️ᴱQ. tyosto- v. “to cough”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^tyosta- “to cough”

4.54 to Sneeze

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] hont n. “sneeze”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] hontossë n. “loud sneeze”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^hotya- v. “to sneeze”
⚠️ᴱQ. #hotyo- v. “to sneeze”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hotya- “to sneeze”

4.56 to Spit

⚠️ᴹQ. pis- [þ] v. “to spit”; see instead:
ᴹQ. piuta- “to spit”
⚠️ᴱQ. pist- v. “to spit”; see instead:
ᴹQ. piuta- “to spit”
ᴹQ. piuta- v. “to spit”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] recca n. “spittle, *saliva”
⚠️ᴱQ. rent (renty-) n. “spittle, saliva”; see instead:
ᴺQ. recca “spittle, *saliva”
⚠️ᴱQ. retye- v. “to spit”; see instead:
ᴹQ. piuta- “to spit”

4.57 to Vomit

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quam- v. “to be ill, vomit”
ᴺQ. !quamna n. “vomit”
ᴺQ. !sála n. “gall, bile”

4.58 to Bite

ᴹQ., ᴱQ. nac-² v. “to bite”
ᴹQ. nahta¹ n. “bite”
⚠️ᴺQ. !nyanda- v. “to gnaw”; see instead:
Q. #nwar- “to fret, wear away, [ᴹQ.] erode; to gnaw”

4.59 to Lick

ᴹQ. lapsa- v. “to lick (frequentative)”
⚠️ᴹQ. lapsa n. “licking up (food or drink), gluttonous eating”; see instead:
ᴺQ. laptë “gluttonous eating, [ᴹQ.] †licking up (food or drink)”
ᴺQ. [Q.] laptë n. “gluttonous eating, [ᴹQ.] †licking up (food or drink)”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. lav- v. “to lick”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. salpa- v. “to lick up, sup, sip, [ᴱQ.] take a sup of; to sample”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^salpë n. “sip, ⚠️taste”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. sulpa- v. “to lap up, drink greedily; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] to lick, sup, lick up, sup up; to sip, taste; to drink”
⚠️ᴱQ. sult (sulp-) n. “sip, taste”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^salpë “sip, ⚠️taste”

4.61 to Sleep; Sleep

⚠️ᴱQ. fansa n. “swoon”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !lortalë “swoon, faint, dizziness”
⚠️ᴱQ. fanta- v. “to fall asleep, go dazed, swoon”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !lorta- “to faint, swoon, become dazed”
ᴺQ. !loru- “to fall asleep”
⚠️ᴱQ. fum- v. “to sleep”; see instead:
ᴹQ. #lor- “to sleep, [ᴱQ.] slumber”
⚠️ᴱQ. fúmë n. “(deep) sleep”; see instead:
Q. lórë “[ᴹQ.] slumber, *sleep; [Q.] dream”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. #lor- v. “to sleep, [ᴱQ.] slumber”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] lorda adj. “slumbrous, drowsy”
ᴹQ. lorna adj. “asleep”
ᴺQ. !lornata- v. “to put to sleep”
ᴺQ. !lornatála adj. “sleep-inducing”
ᴺQ. !lorta- v. “to faint, swoon, become dazed”
ᴺQ. !lortalë n. “swoon, faint, dizziness”
ᴺQ. !loru- v. “to fall asleep”
⚠️ᴱQ. murmë n. “slumber, sleep”; see instead:
Q. lórë “[ᴹQ.] slumber, *sleep; [Q.] dream”
⚠️ᴱQ. murmëa adj. “slumbrous”; see instead:
ᴺQ. lorda “slumbrous, drowsy”
⚠️ᴱQ. muru- v. “to slumber, sleep”; see instead:
ᴹQ. #lor- “to sleep, [ᴱQ.] slumber”

4.62 Dream

ᴺQ. !cuilórë n. “day-dream, (lit.) awake-dream”
⚠️ᴱQ. fanórë n. “day-dream”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cuilórë “day-dream, (lit.) awake-dream”
⚠️ᴱQ. fantl n. “vision, dream, hazy notion, imaginary idea”; see instead:
Q. olor “dream, vision”
Q. tenna³ “thought, notion, idea”
⚠️ᴱQ. fanwë n. “dream”; see instead:
Q. olor “dream, vision”
Q. indemma n. “mind-picture (of apparition in dream)”
Q., ᴹQ. lórë n. “[ᴹQ.] slumber, *sleep; [Q.] dream”
Q. óla- v. “to dream (impersonal)”
⚠️ᴹQ. olar n. “dream”; see instead:
Q. olor “dream, vision”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. olor n. “dream, vision”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] olorda adj. “dreamy, drowsy; in dreams”
⚠️ᴱQ. olórë n. “dream”; see instead:
Q. olor “dream, vision”
⚠️ᴱQ. olórëa adj. “dreamy, dreamlike”; see instead:
Q. olosta “dreamy, *dreamlike”
Q. olosta adj. “dreamy, *dreamlike”

4.63 to Wake

ᴺQ. [Q.] cuita- v. “to waken, rouse; ⚠️to live”
ᴺQ. !cuiva adj. “awake”
⚠️ᴺQ. !cuiva- v. “to awake”; see instead:
ᴺQ. cuita- “to waken, rouse; ⚠️to live”
ᴹQ. cuivëa adj. “wakening”
Q., ᴹQ. cuivië¹ n. “awakening”
⚠️ᴹQ. eccoita- v. “to awake”; see instead:
ᴺQ. cuita- “to waken, rouse; ⚠️to live”
ᴺQ. !eccuinu- v. “to awake, wake up”
⚠️ᴱQ. quíva adj. “awake”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cuiva “awake”
⚠️ᴱQ. quívië n. “awakening”; see instead:
Q. cuivië¹ “awakening”

4.65 to Urinate; Urine

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] mis (mist-) n. “urine”

4.66 to Void Excrement; Dung, Excrement

ᴺQ. !catassa n. “anus, arsehole, (lit.) behind-hole”
ᴺQ. !hexan (hexamb-) n. “toilet, lavatory”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] múco n. “dung, *manure, muck”
⚠️ᴱQ. mucta- v. “cacare [Latin], *to empty bowels”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^muhta- “*to defecate, empty bowels”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^muhta- v. “*to defecate, empty bowels”
⚠️ᴺQ. !satyasambë [þ] n. “privy, lavatory”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !hexan “toilet, lavatory”

4.67 to have Sexual Intercourse

ᴺQ. !hrupuhta- v. “to fornicate”
ᴺQ. !hrupuhtië n. “fornication”
ᴺQ. !hrupuhto n. “fornicator”
⚠️ᴱQ. pucta- v. “*to copulate”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^puhta- “to copulate, have sex”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] puhta n. “coitus, *sex”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^puhta- v. “to copulate, have sex”
ᴺQ. !puhtëa adj. “sexual”
⚠️ᴺQ. !úpuhta- v. “to fornicate”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !hrupuhta- “to fornicate”
⚠️ᴺQ. !úpuhtalë n. “fornication”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !hrupuhtië “fornication”
⚠️ᴹQ. yérë n. “*sexual desire”; see instead:
Q. yermë “sexual desire (for marriage and procreation)”
Q. yermë n. “sexual desire (for marriage and procreation)”

4.71 to Beget (of Father)

⚠️ᴱQ. ciw- v. “*to germinate, impregnate”
Q., ᴹQ. onta- v. “to beget, *conceive (a child); [ᴹQ.] to create”
⚠️ᴱQ. puita- v. “to beget”; see instead:
Q. onta- “to beget, *conceive (a child); [ᴹQ.] to create”

4.72 to Bear (of Mother)

ᴺQ. !ennóna adj. “born again”
⚠️ᴺQ. !enontië n. “rebirth, resurrection”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !enortalë “resurrection”
ᴺQ. !enortalë n. “resurrection”
ᴺQ. !ernóna adj. “only-born, only-begotten”
Q. #nóna adj. “born”
⚠️ᴺQ. !nónië n. “birth”; see instead:
ᴺQ. nosta “birth, ⚠️birthday”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] nosta n. “birth, ⚠️birthday”
Q., ᴱQ. nosta- v. “to beget, [ᴱQ.] give birth to; [Q.] to be begotten, *be born [impersonal]; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] to cause”
ᴺQ. !nostarë n. “birthday”

4.73 Pregnant

⚠️Q. colbamarië n. “gestation, *(lit.) womb-residence”; see instead:
Q. colbanavië “gestation, *(lit.) womb-being”
Q. colbanavië n. “gestation, *(lit.) womb-being”
⚠️ᴺQ. !lapsarwa adj. “pregnant, (lit.) baby-having”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !lapselunga “pregnant, (lit.) baby-heavy”
ᴺQ. !lapselunga adj. “pregnant, (lit.) baby-heavy”

4.74 to Live; Living; Life

Q. ceula adj. “?alive (of vegetable)”
ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.], ᴱQ. coina adj. “alive, ⚠️living”
⚠️ᴱQ. coirë n. “life”; see instead:
Q. coivië “life, [ᴱQ.] liveliness; ⚠️awakening”
Q. coirë “stirring, early spring; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] life”
Q., ᴱQ. coirëa adj. “living, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] lively, alive”
⚠️ᴱQ. coiresta- v. “to spend one’s life”
Q., ᴹQ. #coita- v. “[ᴹQ.] to live, be alive, have life”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] coiva adj. “lively, ⚠️living; awake”
ᴺQ. !coivenqua adj. “lively, vibrant, vivacious, (lit.) full of life”
Q., ᴱQ. coivië n. “life, [ᴱQ.] liveliness; ⚠️awakening”
⚠️ᴹQ. cuilë n. “life, being alive”; see instead:
Q. coivië “life, [ᴱQ.] liveliness; ⚠️awakening”
⚠️ᴹQ. cuina adj. “alive”; see instead:
ᴺQ. coina “alive, ⚠️living”
⚠️ᴺQ. !cuina- v. “to live, be alive”; see instead:
Q. #coita- “[ᴹQ.] to live, be alive, have life”
ᴹQ. (ec)coiru- v. “to come to life”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] laulë n. “mode of life”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] laulesta n. “livelihood”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] laulesta- v. “to lead a life, gain a living”
⚠️ᴱQ. lausiva adj. “living (of plants)”; see instead:
Q. ceula “?alive (of vegetable)”
⚠️ᴱQ. löa n. “life”; see instead:
Q. löa “(seasonal) year, (lit.) (time of) growth, blooming”
Q. coivië “life, [ᴱQ.] liveliness; ⚠️awakening”
Q. vehtë n. “[a span of] life; habitat, haunt”
Q. vehtequentalë n. “biography”

4.742 Immortal

ᴹQ. #alfírima adj. “immortal”
ᴹQ. Alfírimo n. “Immortal”
⚠️ᴹQ. ilfirin adj. “immortal”; see instead:
ᴹQ. #alfírima “immortal”

4.75 to Die; Dead; Death

⚠️ᴹQ. fairë² n. “natural death (as act)”; see instead:
Q. fírië “death (of Men), *natural death”
⚠️ᴱQ. n. “last hour, last breath, (act of) death”; see instead:
Q. fírië “death (of Men), *natural death”
Q., ᴹQ. fir- v. “to die, fade, †expire, breathe forth”
Q. fírië n. “death (of Men), *natural death”
Q., ᴹQ. fírima adj. “mortal, *(lit.) able to die”
ᴹQ. fírimárë n. “mortality, the state of being mortal”
ᴹQ. firin adj. “dead (by natural cause)”
⚠️ᴱQ. mána adj. “dead”; see instead:
ᴹQ. qualin “dead, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] dying”
Q. mána “blessing, good thing; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] blessed”
⚠️ᴱQ. #narca² adj. “dead”; see instead:
ᴹQ. qualin “dead, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] dying”
ᴹQ. nuru [ñ-] n. “death [abstract]”
Q., ᴱQ. qual- v. “to die”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. qualin adj. “dead, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] dying”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. qualmë n. “(process of) death, (death) agony”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] qualmëa adj. “deadly, deathly”
⚠️ᴱQ. †qualna adj. “dead”; see instead:
ᴹQ. qualin “dead, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] dying”
⚠️ᴱQ. †qualumë¹ n. “death”; see instead:
ᴹQ. qualmë “(process of) death, (death) agony”
⚠️ᴱQ. †qualúmëa adj. “deadly”; see instead:
ᴺQ. qualmëa “deadly, deathly”
⚠️ᴱQ. urdu n. “death”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nuru “death [abstract]”
⚠️Q. ?urtu n. “death”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nuru “death [abstract]”
⚠️ᴱQ. warda adj. “dead”; see instead:
ᴹQ. qualin “dead, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] dying”

4.76 to Kill

ᴺQ. !atannahtar n. “man-slayer”
⚠️ᴺQ. !firta- v. “to kill”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !qualta- “to kill, murder”
⚠️ᴱQ. macca n. “slaughter”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !nahtalë “slaughter”
⚠️ᴱQ. macta- v. “to slay, slaughter”; see instead:
Q. nahta-¹ “to slay, [ᴱQ.] slay cruelly; ⚠️[Q.] to hurt, injure, wound”
Q. mahta- “to handle, wield, use, make use of; to manage, deal with, treat, control; [ᴹQ.] to stroke, feel; to wield a weapon, fight”
⚠️ᴱQ. mactya- v. “to kill”; see instead:
Q. nahta-¹ “to slay, [ᴱQ.] slay cruelly; ⚠️[Q.] to hurt, injure, wound”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. nahta-¹ v. “to slay, [ᴱQ.] slay cruelly; ⚠️[Q.] to hurt, injure, wound”
ᴺQ. !nahtalë n. “slaughter”
Q. nahtana adj. “*slain”
ᴺQ. !nahtar n. “slayer, murderer”
Q. #nehtar n. “slayer”
ᴺQ. !qualta- v. “to kill, murder”

4.77 Corpse, Body

⚠️ᴱQ. caivo n. “corpse”; see instead:
Q. loico “corpse, dead body”
Q. loico n. “corpse, dead body”
⚠️ᴱQ. quelectë n. “carcasse”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^quelehtë “carcasse”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^quelehtë n. “carcasse”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. quelet (quelett-) n. “corpse”

4.79 Grave, Tomb

⚠️ᴱQ. caunë n. “grave”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^sapta “(delved) hole, pit; [ᴱQ.] grave”
⚠️ᴹQ. lára² n. “grave”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^sapta “(delved) hole, pit; [ᴱQ.] grave”
Q. #noirë n. “tomb”

4.81 Strong, Mighty, Powerful

⚠️ᴱQ. anúva adj. “doughty”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hanúva “doughty, *manly”
ᴺQ. [Q.] astalda adj. “*valiant; ⚠️strong”
Q. melehta adj. “mighty”
ᴺQ. [Q.] melehtë n. “might, power (inherent)”
⚠️ᴱQ. nertu n. “strength”; see instead:
ᴹQ. poldorë “[ᴱQ.] physical strength; ⚠️might”
ᴺQ. !poldavë adv. “strongly”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. poldorë n. “[ᴱQ.] physical strength; ⚠️might”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. poldórëa adj. “strong, strong-bodied, [ᴱQ.] muscular, ⚠️powerful”
⚠️ᴺQ. !pollië adv. “hard, strongly”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !poldavë “strongly”
Q., ᴹQ. taura adj. “(very) mighty, masterful; vast, of unmeasured might or size”
⚠️ᴺQ. !torya- v. “to strengthen”; see instead:
ᴹQ. turya- “to strengthen”
ᴹQ. tuo n. “muscle, sinew; vigour, physical strength”
Q., ᴱQ. #turca adj. “strong, powerful (in body)”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] turwa adj. “powerful [in a general sense]”
Q., ᴹQ. turya- v. “[ᴹQ.] to strengthen”
Q., ᴹQ. turyandë n. “fortification, [ᴹQ.] strengthening”
ᴹQ. turyanwa adj. “fortified, *strengthened”
ᴹQ. vëassë n. “vigour”

4.82 Weak, Infirm

Q. limpa adj. “frail, slender and drooping”
Q. úmaitë adj. “clumsy(-handed), unskilled”

4.83 Well; Health

⚠️ᴹQ. al- v. “to thrive”; see instead:
Q. ala-¹ “to grow (of plants) [intr. and trans.], plant; *to thrive, flourish (of other creatures)”
Q. málë n. “good health”
ᴺQ. !málëa adj. “healthy, healthful”

4.84 Sick; Sickness

ᴹQ. caila adj. “lying in bed, *abed, ⚠️bedridden; sickness”
ᴹQ. caimassë n. “sickness, †lying in bed”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. caimassëa adj. “bedridden, sick, [ᴱQ.] confined to bed, a-bed”
Q., ᴹQ. #engwa adj. “sickly”
ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.] ^hlaiwa adj. “sickly, sick, ill”
ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.] ^hlívë n. “sickness, *disease”
ᴺQ. !hruhirdië n. “dysentery”
⚠️ᴹQ. laiwa adj. “sickly, sick, ill”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hlaiwa “sickly, sick, ill”
⚠️ᴱQ. leucë (leuci-) adj. “sick, ill; pallid, wan”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hlaiwa “sickly, sick, ill”
ᴹQ. malwa “fallow, pale, [ᴱQ.] yellowish, *wan”
⚠️ᴱQ. leumë n. “sickness”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hlívë “sickness, *disease”
⚠️ᴹQ. lívë n. “sickness”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hlívë “sickness, *disease”
⚠️ᴱQ. naica² adj. “stricken ill, sick”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hlaiwa “sickly, sick, ill”
ᴺQ. quámëa “sick, *nauseous”
⚠️ᴱQ. naico adv. “*sickly”; see instead:
Q. #engwa “sickly”
Q. nimpa adj. “drooping, ailing”
⚠️ᴱQ. quamba adj. “unwell, sick”; see instead:
ᴺQ. quámëa “sick, *nauseous”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. quámë n. “sickness, [ᴱQ.] nausea”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quámëa adj. “sick, *nauseous”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quol- v. “to ail, *be sick”
⚠️ᴱQ. quolda adj. “ill”; see instead:
ᴺQ. quolina “ill, sickly, ailing”
⚠️ᴱQ. quolima adj. “sickly, ailing”; see instead:
ᴺQ. quolina “ill, sickly, ailing”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quolimo n. “invalid”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quolina adj. “ill, sickly, ailing”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quolu n. “disease”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quolúva adj. “pestilent, pestilential”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quolúvië n. “pestilence”
ᴺQ. !sauluppo (sauluppu-) n. “cancer (disease) ”

4.85 to Wound; Wound; Wounded

ᴹQ. harna- v. “to wound”
ᴹQ. harna¹ adj. “wounded”
ᴹQ. harwë² n. “wound”
Q. nahtë n. “wounding, wound”
⚠️ᴹQ. nirwa² adj. “scarred”
⚠️ᴹQ. nirwë n. “scar”
⚠️ᴱQ. sastya adj. “sore, galled”; see instead:
ᴺQ. sistina “ulcerated, sore”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] sistë (sisti-) n. “ulcer, sore, boil”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] sistina adj. “ulcerated, sore”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] welet n. “boil, tumor”

4.86 to Cure, Heal

Q. #envinyata- v. “to renew, heal, *restore”
Q. hasa- [þ] v. “to treat (medically), (help to) cure; to treat kindly, make easy”
ᴺQ. !hasaino [þ] n. “patient, (lit.) medically treated one”
⚠️ᴺQ. !nesta-² v. “to heal”; see instead:
Q. hasa- “to treat (medically), (help to) cure; to treat kindly, make easy”
Q. #envinyata- “to renew, heal, *restore”

4.87 Physician

Q. asar(o) [þ] n. “doctor, leech”
Q. asarta [þ] n. “doctor, leech”
ᴺQ. !hlaimar (hlaimard-) n. “hospital”
⚠️ᴺQ. !nestando n. “healer, physician”; see instead:
Q. asarta “doctor, leech”

4.88 Medicine, Drug

Q., ᴹQ. asëa [þ] n. “healing herb, ⚠️athelas”
⚠️ᴹQ. asëa aranaitë [þ] n. “*kingsfoil”; see instead:
Q. asëa aranion “kingsfoil, asëa of the Kings”
Q. asëa aranion [þ] n. “kingsfoil, asëa of the Kings”
ᴺQ. !colma n. “stretcher”
ᴺQ. !hasarë [þ] n. “medicine”
ᴺQ. !hasarëa [þ] adj. “medical”
⚠️ᴺQ. !haswa [þ] n. “medicine”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !hasarë “medicine”
Q. hröangolmë n. “lore of the body and arts of healing”

4.89 Poison

⚠️ᴱQ. fuiyáru n. “deadly nightshade”
⚠️ᴱQ. heno (henu-) n. “venom, poison”; see instead:
Q. hloima “poison, poisonous substance”
⚠️ᴱQ. henuva adj. “venomous, poisonous”; see instead:
Q. hloirëa “venomous, *poisonous”
Q. hloima n. “poison, poisonous substance”
Q. hloirë n. “venom, poison, poisonousness”
Q. hloirëa adj. “venomous, *poisonous”
Q. hloita- v. “to poison, envenom, fill with poison”
⚠️ᴹQ. sangwa n. “poison”; see instead:
Q. hloima “poison, poisonous substance”

4.91 Tired, Weary

ᴹQ. lumba adj. “weary”
⚠️ᴱQ. quiqui- v. “to hang, droop”; see instead:
Q. *linga- “[ᴹQ.] to hang, dangle”
⚠️ᴱQ. #rúsë (rúsi-) adj. “weary”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lumba “weary”
Q. rúsë “wrath”
ᴺQ. !sapsarrima adj. “boring, tedious”
⚠️ᴱQ. tarwa² adj. “tired”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lumba “weary”

4.92 Lazy

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quinqua adj. “languid, *lazy, relaxed, ⚠️drooping”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quinquelë n. “languor, *relaxation”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quinquelëa adj. “languorous, *relaxing”

4.93 Bald

⚠️ᴱQ. falcasse(a) adj. “bald”; see instead:
Q. parnë “bald, bare, ⚠️naked”
Q. parnë adj. “bald, bare, ⚠️naked”

4.94 Lame

⚠️ᴱQ. cauco (caucu-) n. “humpback”
⚠️ᴱQ. cupta- v. “to hump up, look lumpy”
ᴺQ. !hröaloica n. “cripple”
ᴺQ. !lalevítë adj. “lame”
⚠️ᴱQ. maita adj. “maimed”
ᴺQ. !úlévima adj. “paralyzed, ⚠️lame”

4.95 Deaf

⚠️ᴺQ. !hlárelóra adj. “deaf, (lit.) hearing-less”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !lahlaraitë “deaf, (lit.) unable to hear”
ᴺQ. !lahlaraitë adj. “deaf, (lit.) unable to hear”

4.96 Dumb

Q. úpa adj. “dumb [unable to speak]”
Q. úpahtëa adj. “speechless”

4.97 Blind

⚠️ᴺQ. !cellóra adj. “blind, sightless”; see instead:
ᴺQ. lacenítë “unseeing, blind”
⚠️ᴺQ. !cénelóra n. “blind”; see instead:
ᴺQ. lacenítë “unseeing, blind”
⚠️ᴺQ. !cenenca adj. “blind, sightless”; see instead:
ᴺQ. lacenítë “unseeing, blind”
ᴺQ. [Q.] lacenítë adj. “unseeing, blind”
ᴺQ. [Q.] lomba adj. “blind”

4.98 Drunk

ᴺQ. !limpunqua adj. “drunken”
ᴺQ. !limpunquië n. “drunkenness”

4.99 Naked, Bare

⚠️ᴱQ. carp- v. “to pluck”
⚠️ᴱQ. carpalë n. “a plucking, tugging, wrenching; deceiving, tricking”
⚠️ᴱQ. falca¹ adj. “naked, bare”; see instead:
ᴹQ. helda¹ “naked, stripped bare”
⚠️ᴱQ. falin adj. “bare, nude, fallow, wild (of land)”; see instead:
Q. parnë “bald, bare, ⚠️naked”
ᴺQ. !laréra “fallow, (lit.) not sown”
⚠️ᴹQ. halla² adj. “naked”; see instead:
ᴹQ. helda¹ “naked, stripped bare”
ᴹQ. helda¹ adj. “naked, stripped bare”
ᴺQ. !heldassë n. “nakedness”
⚠️ᴱQ. hulin adj. “naked”; see instead:
ᴹQ. helda¹ “naked, stripped bare”
⚠️ᴱQ. hulqua adj. “naked”; see instead:
ᴹQ. helda¹ “naked, stripped bare”
⚠️Q. parca adj. “naked (of persons)”; see instead:
ᴹQ. helda¹ “naked, stripped bare”
ᴹQ. parca “dry; ⚠️thirsty”

4.999 Body Parts and Functions (other)

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] lepsilë (lepsily-) n. “tendril”

5. Food and Drink

5.11 to Eat

ᴺQ. !accamátala adj. “over-eating”
ᴺQ. !accamatië n. “over-eating”
⚠️ᴱQ. camanta- v. “to make eat, give to eat”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !matya- “to feed”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] lávëar n. “glutton”
⚠️ᴱQ. ‽malu- v. “to devour”; see instead:
Q. mammata- “to go on eating, gorge oneself; to gobble up, [ᴹQ.] devour”
Q., ᴹQ. mammata- v. “to go on eating, gorge oneself; to gobble up, [ᴹQ.] devour”
⚠️ᴱQ. manta adj. “eaten”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !matina “eaten”
Q. #manta- “to bless”
⚠️Q., ᴱQ. mastima adj. “edible”; see instead:
Q. mátima “edible”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. mat- v. “to eat”
ᴹQ. #matië n. “eating”
ᴺQ. !matila adj. “eating”
Q. mátima adj. “edible”
ᴺQ. !matimar (matimard-) n. “restaurant, (lit.) eating hall”
ᴺQ. !matina adj. “eaten”
⚠️ᴱQ. matsa adj. “good to eat, nice”
⚠️ᴹQ. mattima adj. “edible”; see instead:
Q. mátima “edible”
⚠️ᴱQ. #matwa adj. “*eating”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !matila “eating”
Q. #-matya “eating”
Q. #-matya suf. “eating”
ᴺQ. !matya- v. “to feed”
⚠️ᴱQ. nesta n. “(act of) feeding”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] tyuc- v. “to chew”
⚠️ᴱQ. tyúca² n. “cud”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^tyuxë “cud”
⚠️ᴱQ. tyus (tyux-) n. “cud”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^tyuxë “cud”
⚠️ᴱQ. tyustyucta- v. “to chew the cud; to reflect, reminisce”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^tyustyuhta- “to chew the cud; to reflect, reminisce”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^tyustyuhta- v. “to chew the cud; to reflect, reminisce”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^tyuxë n. “cud”

5.12 Food

ᴺQ. !celvamatta n. “animal food”
⚠️ᴱQ. coisimatl n. “animal food”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !celvamatta “animal food”
⚠️ᴱQ. matl n. “food”; see instead:
Q. matta “food”
⚠️ᴱQ. matso n. “food”; see instead:
Q. matta “food”
Q. matta n. “food”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] nes (nest-) n. “food, feed, fodder”

5.13 to Drink

ᴺQ. !accasúcala adj. “over-drinking”
ᴺQ. !accasucië n. “over-drinking”
⚠️ᴱQ. soco- v. “to drink”; see instead:
ᴹQ. suc- “to drink”
⚠️ᴱQ. socto- v. “to give to drink, drench”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^sohta- “to give to drink, drench”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^sohta- v. “to give to drink, drench”
⚠️ᴱQ. soqu- v. “to drink”; see instead:
ᴹQ. suc- “to drink”
ᴹQ. suc- v. “to drink”
ᴹQ. suhto n. “draught”
Q. yul- v. “to drink”
Q. yulda¹ n. “drink, draught, thing drunk; cup”
Q. yulda² adj. “drunk”
Q. yúlima adj. “drinkable”
Q. yulmë n. “drinking, carousal”
ᴺQ. !yulmo n. “drinker”
Q. yuluitë (yuluiti-) adj. “drinking (as a habit), *aquatic”

5.14 Hunger

Q. maita adj. “hungry”
ᴺQ. !maitië n. “hunger”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^saica- v. “to be hungry”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] saicë n. “hunger”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] saicelë n. “famine”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] saicelëa adj. “famished”
⚠️ᴱQ. saicelta- v. “to starve”; see instead:
ᴺQ. saitya- “to starve”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] saiqua adj. “hungry”
⚠️ᴱQ. saita- v. “to be hungry”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^saica- “to be hungry”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] saitya- v. “to starve”

5.15 Thirst

⚠️ᴱQ. loimë n. “thirst”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !soicië “thirst”
ᴺQ. !soicië n. “thirst”

5.151 Thirsty

ᴹQ. fauca adj. “thirsty, parched, (lit.) open-mouthed”
⚠️ᴱQ. loimëa adj. “thirsty”; see instead:
Q. soica “thirsty”
ᴹQ. fauca “thirsty, parched, (lit.) open-mouthed”
⚠️ᴱQ. loirë (loiri-) adj. “thirsty”; see instead:
Q. soica “thirsty”
ᴹQ. fauca “thirsty, parched, (lit.) open-mouthed”
⚠️ᴱQ. loyo- v. “be thirsty (impers.)”; see instead:
Q. soica “thirsty”
Q. soica adj. “thirsty”

5.17 to Mix, Blend

ᴺQ. !hwinta- v. “to mix, stir; to confuse”
ᴹQ. hwinya- v. “to swirl, eddy, gyrate”
Q. #ostimë n. “blend”

5.21 to Cook

⚠️ᴺQ. !aptaina adj. “cooked, broiled”; see instead:
Q. apta- “to refuse, deny, say nay”
ᴺQ. maxa- “to cook”
⚠️ᴱQ. maswa adj. “soft, cooked, ripe”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] maxa- v. “to cook”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] maxar n. “cook”

5.24 to Bake

⚠️ᴱQ. mas- v. “to bake, cook”; see instead:
ᴹQ. masta- “to bake”
ᴹQ. masta- v. “to bake”
ᴺQ. !mastanwa adj. “baked”
⚠️ᴱQ. torina adj. “baked, done”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !mastanwa “baked”
⚠️ᴱQ. toro- v. “to bake”; see instead:
ᴹQ. masta- “to bake”

5.25 Oven

⚠️ᴱQ. torma n. “oven”; see instead:
ᴺQ. urna “oven”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] urna n. “oven”

5.26 Pot

ᴹQ., ᴱQ. calpa n. “water-vessel, bucket”
ᴹQ. tambë (tambi-) n. “pot”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] tambin n. “cauldron”

5.31 Dish

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] venë n. “dish, [eating] vessel, ⚠️small boat”

5.33 Bowl

Q. nanwa² n. “a (large) bowl”
⚠️ᴱQ. salpa n. “bowl”; see instead:
ᴺQ. tolpo “bowl”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] tolpo n. “bowl”

5.34 Jug, Pitcher

ᴹQ. capsa n. “case, vessel, *container”
ᴺQ. !helmolpë n. “skin-bottle, wine-skin”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] olpë n. “bottle”
⚠️ᴱQ. unquilla(r) n. “handle of jar; pothook”

5.35 Cup

Q. cilinyul n. “drinking-vessel (made of glass)”
ᴹQ. súlo (*súlu-) n. “goblet”
⚠️ᴹQ. sungwa n. “drinking-vessel”; see instead:
Q. yulma “cup, drinking vessel, drinking implement, goblet”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ulma n. “flagon, *pitcher”
Q. yulma n. “cup, drinking vessel, drinking implement, goblet”
ᴺQ. !yulmon n. “chalice”

5.37 Spoon

ᴺQ. !calampa n. “spoon”

5.41 a Meal

ᴹQ., ᴱQ. mat (matt-) n. “meal, [ᴱQ.] meal time; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] food”

5.42 Breakfast

ᴺQ. !arinwat n. “breakfast, (lit.) morning-meal”

5.44 Dinner

ᴺQ. !sinyemat [þ] n. “evening meal”

5.45 Supper

ᴹQ. ahtumat n. “supper, *(lit.) maker’s meal”

5.51 Bread

ᴺQ. !alapulúna adj. “unleavened, unfermented”
Q. coimas (*coimass-) n. “life-bread, lembas”
⚠️ᴱQ. cornë n. “loaf”; see instead:
Q. masta “bread, cake, loaf”
Q. háva n. “bread (collective)”
Q. havar n. “a loaf or cake of bread”
⚠️Q. lerembas n. “bread taken on leaving home (for a long journey)”; see instead:
Q. coimas “life-bread, lembas”
Q. #massa n. “bread”
Q. massánië n. “the Lady, breadgiver”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. masta n. “bread, cake, loaf”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] mastacornë n. “loaf”

5.52 Cake

⚠️ᴱQ. corma n. “cake, lump”; see instead:
Q. masta “bread, cake, loaf”

5.53 Dough

ᴺQ. !malma² n. “pulp, paste, mash, mush; dough, grume”
ᴹQ. maxë¹ n. “dough”
ᴺQ. !pulmaxë n. “leaven(ing), *yeast”

5.54 to Knead

ᴺQ. !maxata- v. “to knead”

5.55 Meal, Flour

Q. mulë n. “meal”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] mulma n. “fine flour”
⚠️Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. polë (poli-) n. “meal, grist, [ᴱQ.] oats, grain (unground kernels of oats, wheat, etc.)”; see instead:
Q. mulë “meal”
⚠️ᴱQ. polessë n. “porridge”
ᴹQ. porë (pori-) n. “flour, ⚠️meal”

5.56 to Grind

⚠️ᴱQ. mard(a)- v. “to grind, pulverize”; see instead:
ᴺQ. mul- “to grind, *pulverize”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] mul- v. “to grind, *pulverize”

5.57 Mill

⚠️ᴺQ. !mulmanen n. “mill”; see instead:
ᴺQ. mulmin “mill”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] mulmar n. “miller”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] mulmin n. “mill”
ᴺQ. !mulondo n. “millstone”

5.61 Meat

ᴹQ. apsa¹ n. “meat, cooked food”
ᴺQ. !celvamatya adj. “carnivorous, (lit.) animal-eating”
⚠️ᴱQ. coisimatwa adj. “carnivorous”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !celvamatya “carnivorous, (lit.) animal-eating”
⚠️ᴹQ. maxë² n. “meat”; see instead:
ᴹQ. apsa¹ “meat, cooked food”
ᴹQ. maxë¹ “dough”
⚠️ᴱQ. mimbematwa adj. “carnivorous”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !celvamatya “carnivorous, (lit.) animal-eating”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] tarquin(a) n. and adj. “salt meat; salted, dried, *(lit.) preserved”

5.612 Butcher

ᴺQ. !celvacir n. “butcher”
⚠️ᴺQ. !cuimacir n. “butcher”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !celvacir “butcher”

5.614 Fat, Grease

ᴹQ. lar n. “fat, richness, ⚠️riches”
ᴹQ. lárëa adj. “fat, rich”
ᴹQ. larma n. “(?pig-)fat, flesh”
ᴺQ. !larmëa adj. “fleshy, fatty”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] laru n. “grease, ⚠️fat”
⚠️ᴱQ. larucë adj. “fat, rich”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lárëa “fat, rich”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] larúva adj. “greasy”
⚠️ᴱQ. lisë (lihy-) n. “grease”; see instead:
ᴺQ. laru “grease, ⚠️fat”
⚠️ᴱQ. lisiva adj. “greasy”; see instead:
ᴺQ. larúva “greasy”
Q. lúvo adj. “greasy, fat”
⚠️ᴱQ. mangë¹ (mangi-) n. “grease”; see instead:
ᴺQ. laru “grease, ⚠️fat”
⚠️ᴱQ. piulë adj. “greasy, overfat; overfed, spoilt”; see instead:
ᴺQ. larúva “greasy”
⚠️ᴱQ. píwë n. “fatness, richness, goodness”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lar “fat, richness, ⚠️riches”
⚠️ᴱQ. silc(in)a adj. “rich, fat, glossy”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lárëa “fat, rich”
ᴺQ. oiwa “glossy”

5.64 Soup, Broth

ᴺQ. !salpa n. “broth”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] sulpa n. “soup”

5.65 Vegetables

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] colosta n. “cucumber”
ᴺQ. !laimamatta n. “vegetable food”
ᴺQ. !laimamatya adj. “herbivorous, vegetarian, (lit.) plant-eating”
⚠️ᴱQ. laucë (lauci-) n. “vegetable, plant (species)”; see instead:
Q. quëa “vegetable”
Q. laima “plant”
⚠️ᴱQ. lausimatl n. “vegetable food”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !laimamatta “vegetable food”
⚠️ᴱQ. lausimatwa adj. “vegetarian”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !laimamatya “herbivorous, vegetarian, (lit.) plant-eating”
⚠️ᴱQ. lautë (lausi-) n. “living thing, (esp.) vegetable”; see instead:
Q. quëa “vegetable”
Q. quëa n. “vegetable”
ᴺQ. !rassulca n. “carrot”
ᴺQ. !velyávë n. “Cucurbitaceae, the gourd family”

5.67 Pea

⚠️ᴱQ. mildi coll. “pease”

5.69 Cabbage

⚠️ᴱQ. calar n. “lettuce”

5.70 Potato

ᴺQ. !cemorva n. “potato(es)”

5.71 Fruit

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] aipio n. “cherry”
ᴹQ. culuma n. “orange [fruit]”
ᴺQ. !malma¹ n. “lemon”
⚠️ᴱQ. marinnë n. “fruit tree”
ᴺQ. !relyávalda n. “fig-tree”
ᴺQ. !relyávë n. “fig”
ᴺQ. !wenwa n. “lime (fruit)”
⚠️ᴱQ. yáva n. “fruit, produce”; see instead:
Q. yávë “fruit”
Q., ᴹQ. yávë n. “fruit”
ᴺQ. !yávelóra adj. “fruitless”
ᴺQ. !yávinqua adj. “fruitful”

5.72 Apple

⚠️ᴱQ. marin n. “(ripe) fruit, apple”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] orva n. “apple”

5.76 Grape

ᴺQ. !mirupio n. “grape, (lit.) wine-berry”
⚠️ᴺQ. !tiuma n. “grape”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !mirupio “grape, (lit.) wine-berry”

5.77 Nut

⚠️ᴱQ. cotë (cotsi-) n. “nut”
⚠️ᴱQ. cotsia adj. “nutty”
⚠️ᴱQ. cotsivoitë adj. “nut-bearing, nutty”
⚠️ᴱQ. cottulë n. “hazel”
⚠️ᴱQ. mavoisi n. “chestnut”
Q. #pecco n. “nut”

5.78 Olive

ᴺQ. !milpialda n. “olive tree”
ᴺQ. !milpio n. “olive, (lit.) oily-berry”
ᴺQ. !piemillo n. “olive oil”

5.79 Oil

Q. ?elp- v. “to anoint”
⚠️ᴱQ. ilma¹ n. “oil”; see instead:
ᴺQ. millo “oil”
⚠️ᴱQ. ilqua adj. “oily”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !milla “oily”
ᴹQ. laivë n. “ointment”
ᴺQ. !liv- v. “to anoint”
ᴺQ. !milla adj. “oily”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] millo (millu-) n. “oil”
⚠️ᴱQ. oinalis (oinaliss-) n. “ointment”; see instead:
ᴹQ. laivë “ointment”
⚠️ᴱQ. oinë n. “unguent”; see instead:
ᴹQ. laivë “ointment”
ᴺQ. !ondomillo (ondomillu-) n. “petrol, petroleum, gasoline, gas”

5.80 Berry

⚠️ᴱQ. melpo n. “gooseberry”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] pio n. “plum, berry, cherry”
⚠️ᴱQ. pi(o)pin n. “haws, fruit of hawthorns”
⚠️ᴱQ. piucca n. “blackberry”

5.81 Salt

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] singë (singi-) n. “salt”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] singwa adj. “salt, *salty”

5.84 Honey

⚠️ᴱQ. ilë n. “honey”; see instead:
Q. lís “honey, *sugar”
Q., ᴹQ. lís (liss-) n. “honey, *sugar”
⚠️Q. #melu n. “honey”; see instead:
Q. nehtë² “honey; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] honeycomb”
⚠️Q. melumatya adj. “honey-eating”; see instead:
Q. nehtë² “honey; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] honeycomb”
⚠️ᴱQ. nectë n. “honey”; see instead:
Q. nehtë² “honey; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] honeycomb”
⚠️ᴱQ. nectelë n. “honeycomb”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^nehtelë “honeycomb”
Q., ᴹQ. nehtë² n. “honey; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] honeycomb”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^nehtelë n. “honeycomb”

5.86 Milk

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ilimba adj. “milky”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ilin (ilim-) n. “milk”

5.88 Cheese

⚠️ᴱQ. tyur (tyurd-) n. “cheese”; see instead:
ᴺQ. tyurmë “cheese”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] tyurmë n. “cheese”

5.89 Butter

ᴺQ. !helquir (helquirm-) n. “ice cream”
⚠️ᴱQ. lis² (lisi-) n. “butter”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^mandya “butter”
Q. lís “honey, *sugar”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^mandya n. “butter”
⚠️ᴱQ. manya¹ n. “butter”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^mandya “butter”
⚠️ᴱQ. mingwë n. “butter”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^mandya “butter”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quirmë n. “cream”
⚠️ᴱQ. telpë² n. “butter”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^mandya “butter”
Q. telpë “silver; [ᴱQ.] money”
⚠️ᴱQ. úlë n. “butter”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^mandya “butter”

5.91 Mead

Q., ᴱQ. miruvórë n. “mead, nectar, special wine or cordial, drink of the Elves, (lit.) precious juice, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] sweet drink”

5.92 Wine

⚠️ᴱQ. io n. “wine”; see instead:
ᴺQ. miru “wine”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. limpë n. “wine, ⚠️drink of the Valar, [ᴱQ.] drink of the fairies, fairy-drink, elfwine”
ᴺQ. !limpevorma n. “wine-press”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] miru n. “wine”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] mirúva adj. “like wine, winy”
⚠️ᴱQ. ulmë n. “a kind of wine”; see instead:
ᴹQ. limpë “wine, ⚠️drink of the Valar, [ᴱQ.] drink of the fairies, fairy-drink, elfwine”

5.94 Juice

⚠️ᴹQ. apsa² n. “juice”; see instead:
ᴹQ. sáva “juice”
ᴹQ. apsa¹ “meat, cooked food”
⚠️ᴱQ. marc n. “ripe juice, sap, ooze, moisture”; see instead:
ᴹQ. pirya “juice, syrup, *sap”
⚠️ᴱQ. marqua adj. “oozy, juicy, moist”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !pirina “juicy, oozy”
⚠️ᴱQ. maru n. “pulp”
⚠️ᴱQ. pihyë n. “sap, juice”; see instead:
ᴹQ. pirya “juice, syrup, *sap”
ᴺQ. !pirina adj. “juicy, oozy”
ᴹQ. pirya n. “juice, syrup, *sap”
⚠️ᴹQ. pitë n. “juice”; see instead:
ᴹQ. pirya “juice, syrup, *sap”
⚠️ᴱQ. pulquë n. “juice”; see instead:
ᴹQ. pirya “juice, syrup, *sap”
ᴹQ. sáva n. “juice”
⚠️ᴱQ. vasa n. “juice”; see instead:
ᴹQ. sáva “juice”

5.999 Food (Other)

ᴺQ. !cacáva n. “cocoa”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] colucë n. “strainer”
ᴺQ. !culvelyávë n. “pumpkin”
ᴺQ. !laivelyávë n. “(water)melon”
ᴺQ. !sinapio n. “mustard”
ᴺQ. !tyávelassë n. “spice, (lit.) taste-leaf”
⚠️ᴱQ. tyé n. “tea”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !yullas “tea”
ᴺQ. !tyocolat n. “chocolate”
ᴺQ. !yullas (yullass-) n. “tea”

6. Clothing and Adornment

6.11 to Clothe, Dress

⚠️ᴺQ. !hap-¹ v. “to clothe, enfold”; see instead:
ᴹQ. vaita- “to enfold, [ᴱQ.] wrap”
ᴺQ. vaimata- “to robe, *clothe; to get dressed, put on clothing”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] vaimata- v. “to robe, *clothe; to get dressed, put on clothing”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] vaina² adj. “clad”

6.12 Clothes, Clothing

ᴺQ. !hampë n. “clothing, garment”
Q. #larma n. “raiment”

6.13 Tailor, Seamstress

Q. serindë [þ] n. “broideress, needlewoman, *seamstress”

6.21 Cloth

ᴹQ. lannë n. “tissue, cloth”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] lapil n. “swathe, flowing cloth”
ᴹQ. talat n. “sheet”

6.22 Wool

⚠️ᴱQ. carpan n. “hank (of wool etc.)”
⚠️ᴱQ. öa n. “wool”; see instead:
ᴹQ. “wool”
⚠️ᴱQ. öallë n. “blanket”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^töallë “blanket”
⚠️ᴱQ. öara adj. “of wool”; see instead:
ᴹQ. töa “of wool, woollen”
ᴹQ. n. “wool”
⚠️ᴱQ. töa n. “wool”; see instead:
ᴹQ. “wool”
ᴹQ. töa adj. “of wool, woollen”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^töallë n. “blanket”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^tuë n. “fleece”
⚠️ᴱQ. ue n. “fleece”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^tuë “fleece”

6.23 Flax, Linen

ᴺQ. !pásë [þ] n. “linen”
ᴺQ. !páselannë [þ] n. “linen-cloth”
ᴺQ. !páselarma [þ] n. “linen-raiment”

6.25 Silk

⚠️ᴱQ. samin (samind-) n. “silk”
⚠️ᴱQ. saminda adj. “silken”

6.26 Lace

Q. raiwë n. “lace”

6.28 Fur

⚠️ᴱQ. fara n. “fur, fell”
ᴺQ. !helet (helets-) n. “fur, fur-coat”
⚠️ᴱQ. vórë (vóri-) n. “fur”
⚠️ᴱQ. vórina adj. “of fur”
⚠️ᴱQ. vóriva adj. “like fur”

6.29 Leather

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] alu n. “(dressed) leather”
ᴺQ. !alumo n. “leather-worker”
ᴹQ. latta² n. “strap”
⚠️ᴱQ. límen n. “thong, band”; see instead:
ᴹQ. latta² “strap”

6.31 to Spin

⚠️ᴱQ. piri- v. “to spin, turn”; see instead:
ᴺQ. quirna- “to stir, make spin”
⚠️ᴱQ. quiri-¹ v. “to stir (make spin)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. quirna- “to stir, make spin”
ᴺQ. !quirilda adj. “twirling, pirouetting”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quirna- v. “to stir, make spin”
⚠️ᴱQ. werelinda adj. “twirling, pirouetting”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !quirilda “twirling, pirouetting”

6.32 Spindle

⚠️ᴱQ. quindl n. “a spindle, top”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !quiril “spindle; [spinning] top, *whirligig”
ᴺQ. !quiril n. “spindle; [spinning] top, *whirligig”
⚠️ᴱQ. werelin (werelind-) n. “whirligig”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !quiril “spindle; [spinning] top, *whirligig”

6.33 to Weave

⚠️ᴱQ. #canga- v. “to weave, spin”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lanya- “to weave”
ᴹQ. lanat n. “weft, woof”
ᴺQ. !lanina adj. “woven”
ᴹQ. lanya- v. “to weave”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quint n. “loop, stitch for knitting”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^quit- v. “to knit”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quitima adj. “for knitting”
⚠️ᴱQ. quity- v. “to knit”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^quit- “to knit”
⚠️ᴺQ. !vírina adj. “woven”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !lanina “woven”
⚠️Q. were- v. “to weave”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lanya- “to weave”
⚠️ᴱQ. winda n. “woof”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lanat “weft, woof”
⚠️ᴱQ. wistë n. “weft”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lanat “weft, woof”

6.34 Loom

ᴹQ. lanwa n. “loom”
⚠️ᴱQ. tantl n. “shuttle”
⚠️ᴱQ. windelë n. “loom”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lanwa “loom”

6.35 to Sew

ᴺQ. !lilma n. “patch”
⚠️ᴱQ. neme- v. “to sew”; see instead:
Q. #ser- “*to sew”
Q. #ser- [þ] v. “*to sew”

6.36 Needle

ᴺQ. !leppa n. “thimble”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] nelma n. “needle”

6.38 Thread

Q. ipsin n. “fine thread”
Q. #lanya n. “thread, warp, twine”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. lia n. “fine thread, spider filament; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] twine”
⚠️ᴱQ. nemba n. “thread”; see instead:
Q. ipsin “fine thread”
⚠️ᴱQ. tendl n. “string”; see instead:
ᴺQ. serma “string, ⚠️cord”

6.41 Cloak

⚠️ᴱQ. carapë n. “cloak, outer garment”
Q. collo n. “cloak”

6.412 Overcoat

⚠️ᴱQ. vailë n. “covering”; see instead:
Q. vailë “[strong] wind, *gale”
ᴹQ. telmë “hood, covering”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] vaima n. “wrap, robe”

6.43 Coat

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] vacco n. “jacket, coat”

6.44 Shirt

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] laupë n. “tunic, shirt”

6.47 Apron

ᴺQ. !quiltalannë n. “apron”

6.51 Shoe

⚠️ᴱQ. hyapa n. “shoe”; see instead:
ᴹQ. hyapat “shoe”
ᴹQ. hyapat n. “shoe”

6.52 Boot

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] saipo n. “boot”

6.53 Slipper

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] patinca n. “slipper, ⚠️shoe”

6.55 Hat, Cap

ᴺQ. !carpë n. “hat”
Q. ría n. “garland, wreath”
⚠️ᴺQ. !ríanta- v. “to crown, coronate”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !rínata- “to crown, coronate”
Q., ᴹQ. rië¹ n. “garland, [ᴹQ.] crown”
Q. ríma n. “fillet, snood, *hairnet”
Q., ᴹQ. rína adj. “garlanded, crowned”
ᴺQ. !rínata- v. “to crown, coronate”
ᴺQ. !sarnunta [þ] n. “diadem”
⚠️ᴱQ. serin (serind-) n. “wreath, crown”; see instead:
Q. rië¹ “garland, [ᴹQ.] crown”
⚠️ᴱQ. táta n. “hat”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !carpë “hat”

6.57 Belt, Girdle

Q. #lesta n. “*girdle, belt”
⚠️ᴱQ. qualta adj. “girdled, girt”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !quiltaina “girdled, girt”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quilta n. “belt, ⚠️girdle”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^quilta- v. “to gird, encircle”
ᴺQ. !quiltaina adj. “girdled, girt”
⚠️ᴱQ. quilti- v. “to gird, encircle”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^quilta- “to gird, encircle”

6.58 Glove

⚠️ᴱQ. mantelë n. “gauntlet”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^mantil n. “glove”
⚠️ᴱQ. mantl n. “glove”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^mantil “glove”

6.63 Pin, Brooch

⚠️ᴱQ. piec (piecc-) n. “pin”
⚠️ᴱQ. piexin n. “brooch”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] pirin (pirind-) n. “thin rod, pin”
Q. tancal(a) n. “brooch, clasp”
⚠️ᴹQ. tancil n. “brooch, clasp, pin; fastener”; see instead:
Q. tancal(a) “brooch, clasp”
ᴹQ. tangwa n. “hasp, clasp”

6.71 Adornment (personal)

Q. carrëa n. “tressure”
Q. netil n. “trinket, (?small thing) of personal adornment”
Q. netya- v. “to trim, adorn”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quilin adj. “adorned, bright-coloured, embroidered”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quilinoitë adj. “broidered”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quiltassë n. “(em)broidery”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quilya- v. “to adorn, embellish, colour”

6.72 Gem, Jewel

ᴺQ. !culmírë n. “jasper, (lit.) orange-jewel”
ᴺQ. !ëarsil n. “pearl, (lit.) sea-sheen”
⚠️ᴺQ. !ëassar (ëassarn-) n. “pearl, (lit.) sea-pebble/stone”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !ëarsil “pearl, (lit.) sea-sheen”
ᴺQ. !falmaril n. “aquamarine, (lit.) wave-crysta”
ᴺQ. !fanorcarnë n. “sardonyx”
ᴺQ. !inwissar (inwissarn-) n. “opal, (lit.) mood-change stone”
ᴺQ. !laicelumir (laicelumír-) n. “malachite (lit.) green-flowing-jewel”
ᴺQ. !lailinquë n. “beryllium, (lit.) fresh-liquid light”
ᴺQ. !laimaril n. “emerald”
⚠️ᴺQ. !laiquaril n. “emerald”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !laimaril “emerald”
ᴺQ. !lómaril n. “jade”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^luilë n. “blue stone, sapphire”
ᴺQ. !luinion (luiniond-) n. “lapis lazuli, (lit.) blue-rock”
⚠️ᴱQ. lúlë n. “blue stone, sapphire”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^luilë “blue stone, sapphire”
⚠️ᴱQ. lúlëa adj. “sapphirine”
ᴺQ. !malatsar (malatsard-) n. “chrysolite”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] malicon n. “amber”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] malicondëa adj. “of amber”
⚠️ᴱQ. marilla n. “pearl”
Q., ᴹQ. mírë n. and adj. “jewel, gem, precious thing, treasure; precious”
Q. mírëa adj. “jewelled, *gemmed”
ᴹQ. miril (mirill-) n. “shining jewel”
ᴺQ. !mirumírë n. “amethyst, (lit.) wine-jewel”
ᴺQ. !nambírë n. “jasper, (lit.) orange-jewel”
⚠️ᴱQ. nindon (nindond-) n. “lapis lazuli”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] nyelecca n. “onyx”
ᴺQ. !orvamir n. “chrysoprase, (lit.) apple-jewel”
ᴺQ. !ostimmir n. “topaz, (lit.) blend-jewel”
ᴺQ. !runyaril (runyarill-) n. “garnet, (lit.) fiery red radiance”
ᴺQ. !sardanar (sardanár-) n. “corundum, (lit.) hard sun”
ᴺQ. !serciril (sercirill-) n. “ruby, (lit.) blood-glitter”
ᴺQ. !sinilë n. “agate”
⚠️ᴱQ. sinquë n. “jewel, gem”; see instead:
Q. mírë “jewel, gem, precious thing, treasure; precious”
⚠️ᴱQ. sinque?? adj. “sparkle as with gems”
⚠️ᴱQ. sinquevoitë adj. “gemmed”; see instead:
Q. mírëa “jewelled, *gemmed”
ᴺQ. !tinwírë n. “sparkling gem, diamond”

6.73 Finger Ring

⚠️ᴹQ. colma n. “ring (?on finger)”; see instead:
Q. #corma “ring”
Q. #corma n. “ring”
⚠️Q. #millë n. “?ring”; see instead:
Q. #corma “ring”

6.75 Necklace

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] firinga n. “carcanet, necklace”

6.91 Comb

ᴹQ. hat (haht-) n. “comb, ridge”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] pequ- v. “to comb, card wool, tease”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] pequen n. “comb”

6.95 Soap

ᴹQ. lipsa n. “soap”
ᴺQ. !lipsanë n. “lather”
⚠️ᴱQ. ‽poimë (poimi-) n. “soap”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lipsa “soap”
⚠️ᴱQ. poiminë n. “lather, foam; mermaid”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !lipsanë “lather”

6.96 Mirror

Q. angal n. “mirror”
⚠️ᴺQ. !ceniril(lë) n. “mirror”; see instead:
Q. cilintilla “looking-glass, *mirror”
⚠️Q. cilintilla n. “looking-glass, *mirror”; see instead:
Q. angal “mirror”
⚠️ᴺQ. !nalma [ñ-] n. “reflector, mirror”; see instead:
Q. angal “mirror”

6.999 Adornment (other)

ᴹQ. atsa² n. “tassel, fryse, fringe”
⚠️ᴱQ. enyarin n. “device, escutcheon, blazon”; see instead:
ᴹQ. aulë “invention”
⚠️ᴱQ. fatsalë n. “(tasseled) fringe”
⚠️ᴱQ. fatsevoitë adj. “tasseled”
⚠️ᴱQ. pimpilin (pimpilind-) n. “hanging tail, tassel”; see instead:
ᴹQ. atsa² “tassel, fryse, fringe”
⚠️ᴱQ. quinquenna n. “Solomon’s-seal”
ᴺQ. !tarolwen n. “sceptre, (lit.) royal branch”

7. Dwelling and Furniture

7.11 to Live, Dwell

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] laulema adj. “inhabiting”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] laulemo n. “inhabitant”
⚠️ᴱQ. manda- v. “to dwell, remain”; see instead:
Q. mar- “to abide, be settled or fixed, [ᴱQ.] dwell, live”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. mar- v. “to abide, be settled or fixed, [ᴱQ.] dwell, live”
⚠️ᴱQ. mardo n. “dweller”
ᴺQ. !marindo n. “settler”
ᴺQ. !marya- v. “to found, establish, settle (as dwelling)”
⚠️ᴱQ. wasta- v. “to dwell”; see instead:
Q. mar- “to abide, be settled or fixed, [ᴱQ.] dwell, live”

7.12 House

ᴹQ. car¹ (card-) n. “building, house”
Q. cöa n. “house; outhouse, shed, hut, booth; building used for a dwelling or other purposes; †body”
ᴺQ. !cöantur n. “householder, master of the house”
⚠️ᴱQ. indo n. “house”; see instead:
Q. mar(da) “house, dwelling, residence, mansion, a thing or place dwelt in, ⚠️home; [ᴱQ.] world”
Q. indo “(state of) mind, (inner) thought, mood; will, resolve; [ᴹQ.] heart”
⚠️ᴱQ. indor n. “master of house”; see instead:
Q. heru “lord, master”
Q., ᴱQ. mar(da) (mard-) n. “house, dwelling, residence, mansion, a thing or place dwelt in, ⚠️home; [ᴱQ.] world”
Q. martan (martam-) n. “dwelling-house”
⚠️ᴱQ. os (ost-) n. “cottage, house”; see instead:
Q. cöa “house; outhouse, shed, hut, booth; building used for a dwelling or other purposes; †body”
⚠️ᴱQ. san² (samb-) n. “hall, dwelling house”; see instead:
Q. martan “dwelling-house”

7.122 Home

ᴺQ. !avamarwa adj. “homeless”
⚠️ᴱQ. caimë n. “dwelling, home”; see instead:
Q. már “home, dwelling, habitation; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] house; earth”
⚠️ᴱQ. indoitë adj. “indoors, at home, homely, domestic”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !mardaitë “indoors, at home, homely, domestic”
⚠️ᴱQ. indolis n. “domicile”
⚠️ᴱQ. indositsina adj. “domestic(ated)”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. már (mar-) n. “home, dwelling, habitation; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] house; earth”
ᴺQ. !mardaitë adj. “indoors, at home, homely, domestic”
ᴹQ. mar(dar) adv. “homewards”
ᴹQ. marrë adv. “at home”
⚠️ᴹQ. marta² n. “home”; see instead:
Q. mar(da) “house, dwelling, residence, mansion, a thing or place dwelt in, ⚠️home; [ᴱQ.] world”
Q. mélamar n. “(emotional) home”
⚠️ᴱQ. osta n. “homestead”

7.14 Tent

ᴺQ. !estolië n. “camp”
ᴺQ. !lancöa n. “tent, (lit.) cloth shelter”

7.15 Yard, Court

ᴺQ. !lietarwa n. “park, (lit.) people-garden”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] palis n. “sward, green, lawn”
⚠️ᴺQ. !paswa n. “sward”; see instead:
ᴺQ. palis “sward, green, lawn”

7.21 Room

ᴹQ., ᴱQ. caimasan (caimasamb-) [þ] n. “bedchamber”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. sambë [þ] n. “room, chamber”
Q. solma² n. “hall”

7.22 Door, Gate

Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. ando n. “gate, (great) door; †entrances, approaches”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. andon (andond-) n. “great gate, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] door, gate”
ᴺQ. !andosan (andosamb-) [þ] n. “vestibule, (lit.) gate room”
ᴹQ. fenda n. “threshold”
ᴺQ. !fendassë n. “doorway, gateway”
Q. fendë n. “door”
ᴺQ. !fennatir n. “door-watcher”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] lat n. “flap, small hinged door, lid”
⚠️ᴱQ. pondo n. “gate”; see instead:
Q. ando “gate, (great) door; †entrances, approaches”
⚠️ᴱQ. posta n. “door”; see instead:
Q. fendë “door”
⚠️ᴱQ. #tarnon n. “door”; see instead:
Q. fendë “door”
Q. ando “gate, (great) door; †entrances, approaches”

7.24 Key

ᴺQ. !latil n. “key”
⚠️ᴺQ. !patil n. “key”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !latil “key”

7.25 Window

⚠️ᴺQ. !hendelë n. “window”; see instead:
ᴺQ. lattin “window”
⚠️ᴺQ. !henet (henets-) n. “window”; see instead:
ᴺQ. lattin “window”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] lattin n. “window”

7.26 Floor

ᴺQ. !ettalan n. “balcony”
Q., ᴹQ. talan (talam-) n. “flat space, platform; [ᴹQ.] floor, ⚠️ground”
⚠️Q. talma² n. “flat space, platform”; see instead:
Q. talan “flat space, platform; [ᴹQ.] floor, ⚠️ground”

7.27 Wall

⚠️ᴱQ. ossa n. “wall and moat”
Q., ᴹQ. ramba n. “wall”

7.28 Roof

ᴹQ. coromindo n. “cupola, dome”
⚠️ᴱQ. tel (teld-) n. “roof”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tópa “roof”
⚠️ᴱQ. telda adj. “having a roof”; see instead:
Q. telda “last, final”
⚠️ᴱQ. telëa adj. “*roofed”
⚠️ᴱQ. telimbo n. “canopy; sky”; see instead:
Q. telumë “roof, canopy; heaven, sky; [ᴹQ.] vault, dome (of heaven), [ᴱQ.] firmament”
⚠️ᴱQ. telin (telimb-) n. “roof, covering”; see instead:
ᴹQ. telmë “hood, covering”
⚠️ᴱQ. telintulë (telintuli-) adj. “bearing a roof, roofed”
Q. telluma n. “dome, cupola, vault”
⚠️ᴱQ. teltassë n. “awning”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. telumë n. “roof, canopy; heaven, sky; [ᴹQ.] vault, dome (of heaven), [ᴱQ.] firmament”
ᴹQ. telumet (telumett-) n. “canopy”
ᴹQ. tópa n. “roof”
ᴹQ. tópa- v. “to roof”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] túpelë n. “roofing, tiles, ⚠️roof”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] tupin adj. “roofed, having a lid, having hat on”
ᴹQ. tupsë n. “thatch”
ᴺQ. !ulutelmë n. “umbrella, rainshade”

7.29 House (other)

ᴹQ. ampano n. “building (especially of wood), wooden hall, construction, edifice”
⚠️ᴺQ. !arcöa n. “palace, (lit.) noble-house”; see instead:
ᴺQ. túrion “palace”
ᴹQ. ataquë n. “construction, building”
ᴺQ. !aucelië n. “sewer, (lit.) away-flowing”
⚠️ᴺQ. !autamar (autamard-) n. “museum, (lit.) hall of the past”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !vanwamar “museum, (lit.) hall of the past”
ᴺQ. !combemen n. “museum”
ᴺQ. !látacar n. “pub, public house, (lit.) open-house”
⚠️ᴱQ. turindo n. “palace”; see instead:
ᴺQ. túrion “palace”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] túrion (túriond-) n. “palace”
ᴺQ. !vanwamar (vanwamard-) n. “museum, (lit.) hall of the past”

7.31 Hearth, Fireplace

⚠️ᴱQ. arin n. “hearth”; see instead:
Q. ruimen “fireplace, hearth”
⚠️ᴱQ. arinya adj. “fireside”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !ruimenya “fireside, by the fire”
ᴹQ. arinya “morning, early”
⚠️ᴱQ. purin (purind-) n. “hearth”; see instead:
Q. ruimen “fireplace, hearth”
Q. ruimen n. “fireplace, hearth”
ᴺQ. !ruimenya adj. “fireside, by the fire”

7.32 Stove

ᴺQ. !mastasan (mastasamb-) [þ] n. “kitchen”

7.412 Furniture (other)

⚠️ᴱQ. anc (anqu-) n. “loop, handle, ring”
ᴹQ. farma n. “?carpet”
ᴺQ. !palusta n. “shelf, bookshelf”
Q. rantala [þ] n. “ladder”
Q. tolma n. “protuberance contrived to serve a purpose, knob, short rounded handle”
⚠️ᴱQ. tolos (toloss-) n. “knob, lump”; see instead:
Q. tolma “protuberance contrived to serve a purpose, knob, short rounded handle”
Q. tyellë n. “grade, order, step (in a stairway or ladder)”
⚠️ᴺQ. !tyellesta n. “ladder”; see instead:
Q. rantala “ladder”

7.42 Bed

ᴹQ., ᴱQ. caima n. “bed, [ᴱQ.] couch”
⚠️ᴱQ. camba n. “bed”; see instead:
ᴹQ. caima “bed, [ᴱQ.] couch”
ᴹQ. nirwa n. “bolster, cushion”
ᴹQ. quesset (*quessec-) n. “pillow”

7.43 Chair

⚠️ᴺQ. !hamba n. “seat”; see instead:
Q. hanwa “seat, *chair”
⚠️ᴹQ. hamma n. “chair”; see instead:
Q. hanwa “seat, *chair”
⚠️ᴹQ. handa² n. “chair”; see instead:
Q. hanwa “seat, *chair”
Q. hanwa n. “seat, *chair”
Q. mahalma n. “throne”
ᴺQ. !sarassë [þ] n. “hassock, footstool”
⚠️ᴱQ. sonda n. “seat, chair”; see instead:
Q. hanwa “seat, *chair”
⚠️ᴱQ. sóra¹ n. “seat”; see instead:
Q. hanwa “seat, *chair”
⚠️ᴱQ. sorin (sorind-) n. “throne”; see instead:
Q. tarhanwa “throne, (lit.) high seat”
Q. tarhanwa n. “throne, (lit.) high seat”
⚠️ᴱQ. tult (tulp-) n. “leg of chair, etc.”; see instead:
Q. telco “leg; stem”

7.44 Table

⚠️ᴱQ. palasar (palasard-) n. “great table”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^paluhta “table”
⚠️ᴱQ. palucta n. “table”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^paluhta “table”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^paluhta n. “table”
⚠️ᴱQ. sarno n. “table”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^paluhta “table”

7.45 Lamp

Q. calar n. “lamp”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. calma n. “lamp, (device for shining) light, [ᴱQ.] ⚠️candle; (day)light”
Q. calmatan n. “lampwright”
ᴺQ. !calmatarma n. “lampstand”
⚠️ᴱQ. calumë n. “an (artificial) light”; see instead:
Q. calma “lamp, (device for shining) light, [ᴱQ.] ⚠️candle; (day)light”
⚠️ᴹQ., ᴱQ. calumet (calumett-) n. “lamp”; see instead:
Q. calma “lamp, (device for shining) light, [ᴱQ.] ⚠️candle; (day)light”

7.46 Candle

⚠️ᴱQ. catinca n. “candle”; see instead:
Q. lícuma “taper, candle”
Q. líco (lícu-) n. “wax”
Q. lícuma n. “taper, candle”
ᴺQ. !lihta n. “seal”
ᴺQ. !lihta- v. “to seal”
ᴺQ. !lihtaina adj. “sealed”
Q. loicolícuma n. “corpse-candle”
⚠️ᴱQ. neitë n. “wax”; see instead:
Q. líco “wax”
ᴺQ. !urulanya n. “wick, (lit.) fire-thread”

8. Agriculture and Vegetation

8.11 Farmer

ᴺQ. !alamo n. “cultivator, grower”
ᴺQ. !cemendur n. “farmer”

8.12 Field for Cultivation

⚠️ᴱQ. arwa n. “field”; see instead:
Q. resta “sown field, tilled ground, acre; *fair”
⚠️ᴱQ. milnar(wa) n. “sown field”; see instead:
Q. resta “sown field, tilled ground, acre; *fair”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. peler n. “fenced field, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] fence”
⚠️ᴱQ. pelto n. “hedge, hedged field”; see instead:
ᴹQ. peler “fenced field, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] fence”
⚠️ᴱQ. pingwa adj. “fat, rich (of soil)”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lárëa “fat, rich”
Q., ᴹQ. resta n. “sown field, tilled ground, acre; *fair”

8.13 Garden, Orchard

⚠️ᴱQ. laucien (lauciend-) n. “vegetable or kitchen garden”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !quëatarwa “vegetable or kitchen garden”
ᴺQ., ᴱQ. !lotarwa n. “[flower] garden”
ᴺQ. !quëatarwa n. “vegetable or kitchen garden”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] tarwa n. “garden, enclosure”
ᴺQ. !tarwandur n. “gardener”

8.14 Barn

ᴺQ. !salquecolca n. “manger, (lit.) grass-box”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] tumpo n. “shed, barn”

8.212 Furrow

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ríma n. “line of seeds planted, row, series, furrow”

8.22 to Dig, Delve

⚠️ᴱQ. cava- v. “to dig”; see instead:
ᴺQ. sap- “to dig”
⚠️Q. felehta- v. “*to excavate, tunnel, mine”
⚠️ᴱQ. ilt n. “a dig or stab”
⚠️ᴺQ. !rosta- v. “to hollow out, excavate”; see instead:
Q. felehta- “*to excavate, tunnel, mine”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] sap- v. “to dig”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^sappa adj. “hollow, dug-out, excavated”
⚠️ᴱQ. satwa adj. “hollow, dug-out, excavated”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^sappa “hollow, dug-out, excavated”

8.23 Spade

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] sampa n. “spade, *shovel”

8.29 Blade, Share

⚠️ᴱQ. hyanda¹ n. “blade, share”; see instead:
Q. #hyando “cleaver, [ᴹQ.] hewer (sword)”
Q. maica² n. “blade of a cutting tool or weapon (especially sword-blade)”
⚠️ᴱQ. valcë (valci-) n. “edge, sharp blade”; see instead:
Q. maica² “blade of a cutting tool or weapon (especially sword-blade)”

8.30 Plough

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] hyar n. “plough”

8.31 to Sow; Seed

Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. ala-¹ v. “to grow (of plants) [intr. and trans.], plant; *to thrive, flourish (of other creatures)”
Q., ᴹQ. erdë n. “singularity; [ᴹQ.] seed, germ”
ᴺQ. !erdevainë n. “seed pod, pea”
ᴺQ. !laréra adj. “fallow, (lit.) not sown”
⚠️ᴱQ. milë (mili-) n. “seed”; see instead:
Q. erdë “singularity; [ᴹQ.] seed, germ”
⚠️ᴱQ. milin n. “grain of seed”; see instead:
Q. erdë “singularity; [ᴹQ.] seed, germ”
⚠️ᴱQ. orë (ori-) n. “seed, grain”; see instead:
Q. erdë “singularity; [ᴹQ.] seed, germ”
⚠️ᴱQ. orivainë n. “pod, seed pod, pea; peapod (a boat)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !erdevainë “seed pod, pea”
⚠️ᴱQ. orya- v. “to sow”; see instead:
ᴹQ. #rer- “to sow”
Q. orya-¹ “to rise”
⚠️ᴱQ. ‽polu n. “kernel”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^poru “kernel”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^poru n. “kernel”
ᴹQ. #rer- v. “to sow”
ᴺQ. !réra adj. “sown”
ᴺQ. !rerindo n. “sower”
⚠️ᴱQ. rista- v. “to plant”; see instead:
Q. ala-¹ “to grow (of plants) [intr. and trans.], plant; *to thrive, flourish (of other creatures)”
ᴹQ. rista- “to cut”
⚠️ᴱQ. ristalë n. “sowing time”
⚠️ᴱQ. ristar n. “sower”

8.32 to Mow, Reap

⚠️ᴺQ. !cer- v. “reap”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cirihta- “to reap, harvest”
⚠️ᴺQ. !cerihtando n. “reaper”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cirihtando “reaper”
ᴺQ. !cirihta- v. “to reap, harvest”
ᴺQ. !cirihtando n. “reaper”
⚠️ᴱQ. hyanda- v. “to mow, cleave”; see instead:
ᴹQ. hyar- “to cleave; [ᴱQ.] to plough”
ᴺQ. ^salca- “to mow, scythe, mow down”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^salca- n. “to mow, scythe, mow down”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^salcima adj. “ready for cutting, *harvestable”
⚠️ᴱQ. silci- v. “to mow, scythe, mow down”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^salca- “to mow, scythe, mow down”
⚠️ᴱQ. silcima adj. “ready for cutting”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^salcima “ready for cutting, *harvestable”

8.33 Scythe, Sickle

⚠️ᴱQ. calca n. “sickle”; see instead:
Q. circa “sickle”
Q., ᴹQ. circa n. “sickle”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] salca n. “scythe”

8.41 Crop, Harvest

⚠️ᴺQ. !cermië n. “harvest”; see instead:
Q. yávië “autumn, harvest [time or act]”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^salcessë n. “harvest [product], *produce”
⚠️ᴱQ. silcessë n. “harvest”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^salcessë “harvest [product], *produce”
⚠️ᴱQ. toquo- v. “to yield, give, bear, bring forth”; see instead:
ᴺQ. yava- “to bear (fruit), *yield, bring forth, produce”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] yausta n. “crop”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] yava- v. “to bear (fruit), *yield, bring forth, produce”
⚠️ᴱQ. yávan n. “harvest, autumn”; see instead:
Q. yávië “autumn, harvest [time or act]”
Q. yávië n. “autumn, harvest [time or act]”

8.42 Grain (generic, British Corn)

ᴺQ. !máhis n. “maize, either sweet corn or field corn”
ᴺQ. !ospor n. “chaff”
ᴺQ. !porisalquë n. “corn, (lit.) flour-grass”

8.44 Barley

ᴺQ. !findorë n. “barley”

8.46 Oats

⚠️ᴱQ. polenta n. “oatmeal”
⚠️ᴱQ. polina adj. “oaten”

8.51 Grass

⚠️ᴱQ. fen (feng-) n. “reed”; see instead:
ᴹQ. liscë “reed, [ᴱQ.] sedge”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. liscë n. “reed, [ᴱQ.] sedge”
ᴹQ. n. “reed, grass-stem”
⚠️ᴱQ. salcë (salci-) n. “grass”; see instead:
ᴹQ. salquë “grass, [ᴱQ.] long mowing grass”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. salquë n. “grass, [ᴱQ.] long mowing grass”
ᴹQ. sara [þ] n. “stiff dry grass, bent [as a type of grass]”
Q. súriquessë n. “species of grass, (lit.) wind feather”

8.52 Hay

⚠️ᴱQ. nessë n. “(green) fodder, herb, grass”

8.53 Plant, Herb

Q. laima n. “plant”
Q. laiquë n. “herb”
Q. #olva n. “growing things with roots in the earth, *plant”

8.54 Root

⚠️ᴱQ. mólë n. “root”; see instead:
Q. sundo “base, root, [ᴹQ.] root-word”
ᴹQ. sulca “root (especially as edible)”
ᴺQ. mólë “labour, work”
ᴹQ. sulca n. “root (especially as edible)”
⚠️ᴱQ. tarca n. “root”; see instead:
ᴹQ. sulca “root (especially as edible)”
⚠️ᴱQ. tarcelë n. “great system of roots”; see instead:
ᴹQ. sulca “root (especially as edible)”
ᴹQ. turut n. “tree-stem”

8.55 Branch

ᴺQ. !nessornë n. “sapling”
Q. olba n. “branch”
⚠️ᴹQ. olwa n. “branch”; see instead:
Q. olba “branch”
⚠️ᴱQ. olwe(n) n. “branch, wand, stick”; see instead:
Q. olba “branch”
⚠️ᴱQ. rista n. “shoot (sowing), plant, seedling”; see instead:
ᴺQ. tuista “twig, shoot, ⚠️sprout, spray”
Q. rista “[ᴹQ.] cut”
⚠️ᴱQ. siripta n. “slender stem”; see instead:
ᴺQ. sirpë “stalk, slender tube, ⚠️stem, etc.”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] sirpë [þ] n. “stalk, slender tube, ⚠️stem, etc.”
⚠️ᴱQ. tetsë n. “bud”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tuima “sprout, bud”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] tuista n. “twig, shoot, ⚠️sprout, spray”

8.56 Leaf

Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. lassë n. “leaf; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] petal”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] lassëa adj. “with leaves, leafy”
ᴹQ. lassecanta adj. “leaf-shaped”
Q. lillassëa adj. “having many leaves”
Q. olass(i)ë n. “foliage, collection of leaves”
⚠️ᴱQ. pat (papt-) n. “small leaf”; see instead:
Q. lassë “leaf; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] petal”

8.565 Thorn

⚠️ᴱQ. eccë (ecci-) n. “thorn”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ecco “spine, point, thorn”
⚠️ᴱQ. eccia adj. “thorny”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^eccoia “thorny”
ᴹQ. ecco n. “spine, point, thorn”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^eccoia adj. “thorny”
⚠️ᴱQ. ehta¹ n. “thorn”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ecco “spine, point, thorn”
ᴹQ. erca n. “prickle, spine”
ᴹQ. nassë n. “thorn, spike”
Q. necel n. “thorn”

8.57 Flower

⚠️Q. alba n. “flower”; see instead:
Q. alma “flower”
Q. alma n. “flower”
Q. lilótëa adj. “having many flowers”
⚠️ᴹQ. lilótimë adj. “*many-flowered”; see instead:
Q. lilótëa “having many flowers”
⚠️ᴱQ. loctë (loxi-) n. “blossom, (flower) cluster, bunch”; see instead:
Q. lótë “flower, single blossom, [ᴱQ.] bloom”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. lótë n. “flower, single blossom, [ᴱQ.] bloom”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] lotella n. “floret”
⚠️ᴱQ. lótequilna adj. “broidered with flowers”
Q. lotsë n. “small (single) flower”
⚠️ᴱQ. meril n. “flowers”; see instead:
Q. lótë “flower, single blossom, [ᴱQ.] bloom”
⚠️ᴱQ. tetl n. “small flower”; see instead:
Q. lotsë “small (single) flower”

8.571 Bloom

⚠️Q. alalbë n. “inflorescence”; see instead:
Q. alalmë “inflorescence”
Q. alalmë n. “inflorescence”
Q. lós [þ] n. “inflorescense, mass of flowers”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. lossë² n. “[ᴹQ.] (white) blossom, flower; [ᴱQ.] (white) flower; [Q.] inflorescence (of white flowers); ⚠️[ᴱQ.] rose”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] lótëa adj. “full of blossom, *blooming, flowering”
⚠️ᴱQ. lotórë n. “blooming, flowering, best time, flower”
Q. olos¹ (olós-) [þ] n. “inflorescense, mass of flowers (on one plant)”
Q. olótë n. “bloom, the flowers collectively of a single plant”
⚠️ᴺQ. !olotsë n. “collection of flowers”; see instead:
Q. alalmë “inflorescence”
Q. olos¹ “inflorescense, mass of flowers (on one plant)”
⚠️ᴱQ. tettelë n. “burgeoning, efflorescence”; see instead:
Q. alalmë “inflorescence”

8.572 to Sprout, Bud, Blossom

⚠️ᴱQ. locta- v. “to sprout, bud, put forth leaves or flowers”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tuilu- “to bud, open (of flowers and leaves)”
Q. losta- v. “to bloom”
⚠️ᴱQ. lóto- v. “to bloom”; see instead:
Q. losta- “to bloom”
ᴹQ. tuia- v. “to sprout, spring”
ᴹQ. tuilu- v. “to bud, open (of flowers and leaves)”
ᴹQ. tuima n. “sprout, bud”
⚠️ᴱQ. tuita- v. “to bud, burst, burgeon, grow”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tuilu- “to bud, open (of flowers and leaves)”

8.575 Lily

⚠️ᴱQ. ailinon n. “water lily”; see instead:
Q. indil “lily, other large single flower”
ᴺQ. !helissar n. “hyacinth”
ᴺQ. !iasintë n. “hyacinth”
Q. indil n. “lily, other large single flower”
Q. linquë¹ n. “(leaf of a) hyacinth”
ᴺQ. !linquemir n. “hyacinth”
⚠️ᴱQ. narwë¹ n. “(sweet) lily”; see instead:
Q. indil “lily, other large single flower”
⚠️ᴱQ. nénu n. “yellow water lily”; see instead:
Q. indil “lily, other large single flower”
⚠️ᴱQ. nénuvar n. “pool of lilies”
⚠️ᴱQ. quiquilla n. “Lily of the Valley”; see instead:
Q. indil “lily, other large single flower”

8.58 Rose

⚠️ᴱQ. campilossë n. “wild-rose”
⚠️ᴱQ. campin n. “hips, (wild-rose) berries”
ᴺQ. !merillë n. “rose”

8.59 Violet

⚠️ᴱQ. helin n. “pansy, violet”
⚠️ᴱQ. helinillë n. “violet”
⚠️ᴱQ. helinillëa adj. “*violet”
⚠️ᴱQ. helinwa adj. “of pansies; (of colour) a blue-violet”; see instead:
ᴹQ. helwa “(pale) blue”

8.599 Flower (other)

⚠️ᴱQ. camillo n. “large poppy”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !lórelot “poppy, (lit.) flower of sleep”
⚠️ᴱQ. camilot n. “red clover”
⚠️ᴱQ. cancale-malina n. “daffodil, *(lit.) yellow laughter”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^lalië-malina “daffodil, *(lit.) yellow laughter”
⚠️ᴱQ. fumella n. “(red) poppy, (lit.) flower of sleep”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !lórelot “poppy, (lit.) flower of sleep”
ᴺQ. !lairemírë n. “daisy, (lit.) meadow-jewel *(or summer-jewel)”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^lalië-malina n. “daffodil, *(lit.) yellow laughter”
Q., ᴹQ. lávar n. “(golden) blossom”
ᴺQ. !lórelot n. “poppy, (lit.) flower of sleep”
ᴺQ. !luinyellë n. “bluebell”
ᴹQ. malo¹ (malu-) n. “pollen, yellow powder”
ᴺQ. !nendalaurë n. “golden water-flower, yellow iris”
ᴹQ. nil (nild-) n. “blue-bell, harebell”
Q. pirindë n. “flower that opened and shut quickly with any change of light”
⚠️ᴱQ. quillë¹ (quilli-) n. “blue-bell”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nil “blue-bell, harebell”
⚠️ᴱQ. quillinin (quillinind-) n. “blue-bell”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nil “blue-bell, harebell”
ᴺQ. !súriellë n. “windflower, anemone”

8.60 Tree (generic)

Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. alda n. “tree, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] branch”
Q. aldarembina adj. “tree-meshed”
ᴹQ. aldarwa adj. “having trees, tree-grown”
⚠️ᴱQ. aldëa adj. “tree-shadowed”; see instead:
Q. Aldëa “*Tuesday, Tree-day (Númenórean)”
Q. aldinga n. “tree-top”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. ornë n. “(tall) tree, [ᴹQ.] high isolated tree”
⚠️ᴱQ. taulë¹ n. “great tree”; see instead:
Q. táva “great tree”
Q. táva n. “great tree”

8.61 Oak

ᴹQ. lindornëa adj. “having many oak-trees”
⚠️ᴱQ. nor (norn-) n. “oak”; see instead:
Q. norno “oak”
⚠️Q. nordo n. “oak”; see instead:
Q. norno “oak”
⚠️ᴱQ. nornë n. “oak (tree), oak in general”; see instead:
Q. norno “oak”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. #nornëa adj. “*of oak”
⚠️ᴱQ. nornelassëa adj. “having oak-leaves”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^nornolassëa “having oak-leaves”
Q., ᴹQ. norno n. “oak”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^nornolassëa adj. “having oak-leaves”
⚠️ᴱQ. oromë n. “oak”

8.62 Beech

ᴹQ. ferinya adj. “beechen”
ᴹQ. fernë n. “beech-tree”
⚠️ᴱQ. líneneldora adj. “having many beeches”
⚠️ᴱQ. neldor n. “beech”; see instead:
ᴹQ. fernë “beech-tree”
S. neldor “beech”
⚠️ᴱQ. neldorin n. “beech-tree”; see instead:
ᴹQ. fernë “beech-tree”
⚠️ᴱQ. neldorion n. “beech wood”

8.63 Birch

Q. hwindë n. “birch”
⚠️ᴱQ. polondë n. “alder”
⚠️ᴱQ. sarco² n. “elder [tree]”
⚠️ᴱQ. silqueléni n. “silver birch, (lit.) long tresses”; see instead:
Q. hwindë “birch”
⚠️ᴱQ. silwin (silwind-) n. “birch”; see instead:
Q. hwindë “birch”
⚠️ᴱQ. ulwë n. “alder tree”
⚠️ᴱQ. ulwëa adj. “alder-grown”
⚠️ᴱQ. ulwenoitë adj. “alderlike”
⚠️ᴱQ. ulwe nornelassëa n. “oakleaved alder”
⚠️ᴱQ. ulwessë n. “alder-thicket”

8.635 Elm

⚠️ᴹQ., ᴱQ. alalmë n. “elm-tree”; see instead:
Q. alvë “elm”
Q. alalmë “inflorescence”
Q. alalvëa adj. “having many elms”
Q. alvë n. “elm”

8.64 Pine

⚠️ᴱQ. aicor n. “pine-tree”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !sono “pine”
⚠️ᴱQ. aiquairë n. “fir, pine (tree)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !sono “pine”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. finë n. “larch”
⚠️ᴱQ. hórë (hóri-) n. “pine, stone pine”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !sono “pine”
⚠️ᴱQ. horinel n. “pine-needle”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !sononel “pine-needle”
⚠️ᴱQ. pimpevinnë n. “larch”; see instead:
ᴹQ. finë “larch”
⚠️Q. sánë (sáni-) [þ] n. “pine”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !sono “pine”
⚠️ᴺQ. !sónë [þ] n. “pine tree”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !sono “pine”
ᴺQ. !sono [þ] n. “pine”
ᴺQ. !sononel [þ] n. “pine-needle”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] súcë [þ] n. “resinous trees, pine or fir”

8.655 Tree (other)

Q. culumalda n. “laburnum, *(lit.) orange-tree”
Q. farnë (farni-) n. “️ash, rowan; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] foliage”
⚠️ᴱQ. lailexë n. “willow”; see instead:
Q. tasar(ë) “willow”
Q. lairelossë n. “summer-snow-white, species of tree in Númenor”
Q. laurinquë n. “yellow-flowered tree”
ᴹQ. lavaralda n. “tree with long green leaves with golden undersides and pale flowers with a yellow flush”
Q. lepetta n. “Gondorian hardwood”
⚠️ᴱQ. lindeloctë n. “labernum, (lit.) singing cluster”
⚠️ᴱQ. lintasarindëa adj. “having many willows”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. lintyulussëa adj. “having many poplars”
⚠️ᴱQ. maisilanda n. “sycamore”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^palalassë “sycamore, (lit.) flat leaf”
⚠️ᴱQ. maitë² n. “maple”
Q. malinornë n. “mallorn, (lit.) golden/yellow tree”
⚠️ᴱQ. mapalin n. “plane, sycamore”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^palalassë “sycamore, (lit.) flat leaf”
Q. nessamelda n. “species of tree in Númenor, (lit.) beloved of Nessa”
⚠️ᴺQ. !nindornë n. “palm-tree”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^paltalda “palm tree”
Q. oiolairë n. “ever-summer (a species of tree)”
Q. ornemalin n. “bearing yellow flowers”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^palalassë n. “sycamore, (lit.) flat leaf”
⚠️ᴱQ. palapaptë n. “*sycamore”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^palalassë “sycamore, (lit.) flat leaf”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^paltalda n. “palm tree”
⚠️ᴱQ. paltyalda n. “palm tree”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^paltalda “palm tree”
⚠️ᴱQ. randa n. “bark; peel, rind, outer ring, circumference”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] siquilessë n. “weeping willow; ⚠️lamentation”
⚠️ᴱQ. tamuril n. “yew”
Q. taniquelassë n. “*high-white-leaf”
⚠️ᴱQ. tapatenda mavoisi n. “Spanish [chestnut]”
Q., ᴹQ. tasar(ë) (tasari-) [þ] n. “willow”
⚠️ᴱQ. tasarin n. “willow”; see instead:
Q. tasar(ë) “willow”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. tyulussë n. “poplar-tree”
Q. vardarianna n. “fragrant evergreen tree”

8.67 Vine

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] etil n. “ivy”
⚠️ᴱQ. etl n. “ivy”; see instead:
ᴺQ. etil “ivy”
⚠️ᴱQ. liantassë n. “vine”
ᴹQ. uilë n. “long trailing plant”

8.68 Tobacco

Q. alanessë n. “nicotiana, pipeweed”
ᴺQ. !uscil(lë) n. “cigarette”

8.99 Vegetation (other)

ᴺQ. !airasëa [þ] n. “hyssop”
ᴹQ. arat n. “weed”
Q. cëa n. “*hedge”
ᴹQ. ëaruilë n. “seaweed”
ᴺQ. !eccahta n. “hawthorn, (lit.) thorn-hedge”
ᴺQ. !eccalda n. “cactus, (lit.) spine tree”
⚠️ᴱQ. ectar² n. “hawthorn, thorn”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !eccahta “hawthorn, (lit.) thorn-hedge”
⚠️ᴱQ. eldasilquë n. “maidenhair fern, (lit.) elf tress”
ᴹQ. ercassë n. “holly”
⚠️ᴹQ. ercë n. “holly”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ercassë “holly”
⚠️ᴹQ. farnë n. “foliage”; see instead:
Q. farnë “️ash, rowan; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] foliage”
Q. olass(i)ë “foliage, collection of leaves”
⚠️ᴱQ. filquë n. “fern”
⚠️ᴱQ. heliloctë n. “wisteria, (lit.) purple cluster”
ᴹQ. hwan (hwand-) n. “sponge, fungus”
ᴺQ. !laiquelis (laiqueliss-) n. “rue (plant)”
ᴺQ. !lóma n. “moss”
⚠️ᴺQ. !nastalaima n. “thistle, (lit.) spear plant”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !nelmasirpë “thistle, (lit.) needle-stalk”
⚠️ᴱQ. nehta n. “hawthorn”
ᴺQ. !nelmasirpë [þ] n. “thistle, (lit.) needle-stalk”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] oricon n. “heather”
⚠️ᴱQ. #oron¹ (orond-) n. “bush”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tussa “bush”
Q. oron “mountain”
Q. pilinehtar n. “an unidentified plant, (lit.) ?arrow thorns”
⚠️ᴱQ. piosenna n. “holly”
⚠️ᴱQ. pi(pi)nectar n. “whitethorn, hawthorn”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !eccahta “hawthorn, (lit.) thorn-hedge”
ᴺQ. !sortöa [þ] n. “aloe, (lit.) eaglewood”
⚠️ᴱQ. tarassë n. “hawthorn”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !eccahta “hawthorn, (lit.) thorn-hedge”
Q. taras “great towering building (fort/city/castle), tower; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] mount, hill”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] telumbë n. “mushroom”
ᴹQ. tussa n. “bush”

9. Physical Acts and Materials

9.11 to Do, Make

⚠️ᴹQ. alcárima adj. “impossible to make”; see instead:
ᴺQ. lacárima “not feasible, impossible”
ᴺQ. !cacar- v. “to continue, go on doing”
ᴹQ. cacarra- v. “to keep on doing”
ᴺQ. !cacátu- v. “to design, shape or fashion slowly”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. car- v. “to do, make, [ᴹQ.] build”
ᴹQ. carië n. “making”
Q., ᴹQ. cárima adj. “feasible, possible (to do), able to be done, [ᴹQ.] able to be made”
Q., ᴱQ. carina adj. “done, [ᴱQ.] finished”
Q. #-carya suf. “doing”
⚠️ᴺQ. !eccat- v. “to fashion, make”; see instead:
Q. cat- “to shape, fashion”
Q. finya- v. “to do/make a thing (with fine work)”
ᴺQ. [Q.] lacárima adj. “not feasible, impossible”
Q. lacarina adj. “undone, *unfinished”

9.112 Doer, Agent

⚠️ᴹQ. -ando suf. “agent (male)”; see instead:
Q. -ndo “masculine agent”
⚠️ᴱQ. #-(a)r suf. “masculine/agental suffix”
⚠️ᴹQ. cáro n. “doer, actor, agent”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tyaro “doer, actor, agent”
Q. -ldë² suf. “feminine agent”
Q. -llë¹ suf. “feminine agent”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. -mo suf. “agental suffix”
Q. -ndë suf. “feminine agent”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. -ndo suf. “masculine agent”
Q. #-r(o) suf. “agental suffix”
ᴹQ. #-ro suf. “agental suffix”
ᴹQ. tyaro n. “doer, actor, agent”

9.114 Action

ᴺQ. [Q.] ahtar- v. “to do back, react; ⚠️to requite, avenge”
ᴺQ. !ahtarië v. “reaction; ⚠️vengeance”
⚠️ᴱQ. n. “deed, act, fact”; see instead:
Q. carda “deed”
ᴹQ. enna¹ “fact”
⚠️ᴺQ. !car n. “act, an action”; see instead:
Q. #carë “action, doing, making”
⚠️ᴹQ. car² (card-) n. “deed”; see instead:
Q. carda “deed”
Q., ᴹQ. caraitë (caraiti-) adj. “active, busy; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] able to make, handy, crafty, craftsmanlike, skilled”
Q. caraitië n. “activity, business”
Q. carda n. “deed”
Q. #carë n. “action, doing, making”
⚠️ᴱQ. carma n. “shape, fashion; act, deed”; see instead:
Q. canta² “shape, framework, [ᴹQ.] frame; shaped”
Q. carda “deed”
⚠️ᴱQ. caro n. “deed, act, action”; see instead:
Q. #carë “action, doing, making”
Q. lacaraitë adj. “*inactive; ⚠️impossible”
Q. lacarë n. “not-doing, inaction”
ᴺQ. ! n. “design”
ᴺQ. !ocaraitië n. “program, a set of activities”
⚠️Q. vecca adj. “active”

9.12 Work, Labor

ᴺQ. !fintemótalë n. “industry, (lit.) making toil”
ᴺQ. [Q.] mólë n. “labour, work”
⚠️ᴺQ. !molië n. “labour, work”; see instead:
ᴺQ. mólë “labour, work”
ᴺQ. !mólië “slavery, thralldom”
⚠️ᴺQ. !molindo n. “worker”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !mótaro “worker”
ᴹQ. mólomë n. “hard work, burden”
ᴺQ. !mótamen n. “office”
ᴺQ. !mótaro n. “worker”
⚠️ᴺQ. !tarassë n. “labour”; see instead:
ᴺQ. mólë “labour, work”
Q. taras “great towering building (fort/city/castle), tower; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] mount, hill”

9.13 to Work, Toil

Q. moia- v. “to be afflicted, *be laboured; ⚠️to labour”
ᴹQ. móta- v. “to labour, toil, *work”

9.14 to Bend

⚠️ᴱQ. cauta- v. “to bend”
ᴹQ. cucumba- v. “to nod repeatedly, (lit.) keep on bowing”
Q. cúna adj. “bent, curved”
Q. cúna- v. “to bend”
ᴹQ. cuv- v. “to bow”
Q. locin adj. “bent”
Q. luhta- v. “to bow”
Q. lúva n. “bow (in forming tengwar), bight, bend, curve”
Q. numba adj. “bent, humped”

9.16 to Bind

⚠️ᴺQ. !avanut- v. “to untie”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !únut- “to untie”
⚠️ᴱQ. hepe- v. “to bind”; see instead:
ᴹQ. #nut- “to tie, *bind”
ᴺQ. !hep- “to keep”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] lia- v. “to entwine”
⚠️ᴱQ. lim- v. “to bind”; see instead:
ᴹQ. #nut- “to tie, *bind”
ᴹQ. #nut- v. “to tie, *bind”
⚠️ᴱQ. serta- v. “to tie”; see instead:
ᴹQ. #nut- “to tie, *bind”

9.17 Bond

⚠️ᴹQ. aman n. “bond”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nútë “bond, knot”
ᴹQ. vérë “bond, troth, compact, oath”
⚠️ᴱQ. hetl n. “bond”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nútë “bond, knot”
Q. naxa¹ “bond, fetter”
ᴺQ. !minaxanwa adj. “enchained, bound, fettered”
Q. naxa¹ n. “bond, fetter”
ᴹQ. nútë n. “bond, knot”

9.18 Chain

⚠️ᴺQ. !angwenda n. “chain”; see instead:
ᴺQ. limil “chain”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] limil n. “chain”

9.19 Rope, Cord

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] hempa n. “cord”
Q. hísilanya [þ] n. “mist thread, grey elvish rope”
⚠️ᴺQ. !nurda n. “cord, rope”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !rappa “rope”
ᴺQ. !rappa n. “rope”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] serma [þ] n. “string, ⚠️cord”

9.192 Knot

ᴹQ. narda n. “knot”

9.21 to Hit, Strike, Beat

ᴺQ. !falpa- v. “to flog”
⚠️ᴱQ. hyalta- v. “to strike, make ring”
ᴹQ. lah- v. “to kick”
⚠️ᴱQ. lampa- v. “to beat, hit”; see instead:
ᴹQ. palpa- “to beat, batter”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^narambo n. “bang, buffet”
⚠️ᴱQ. otto- v. “to knock”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ton- “to tap, knock”
ᴹQ. palca- v. “to beat flat”
ᴹQ. palpa- v. “to beat, batter”
⚠️ᴱQ. panta-² v. “to beat”; see instead:
ᴹQ. palpa- “to beat, batter”
⚠️ᴱQ. pete- v. “to knock, strike”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tamba- “to knock, keep on knocking”
⚠️ᴱQ. pilt (pilty-) n. “blow, cuff, box on ear”
⚠️ᴱQ. pilty- v. “to strike (esp. with flat hand)”
ᴹQ. tam- v. “to tap”
ᴹQ. tamba- v. “to knock, keep on knocking”
⚠️ᴱQ. tanga- v. “to beat”; see instead:
ᴹQ. palpa- “to beat, batter”
⚠️ᴱQ. taran (taramb-) n. “bang, buffet”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^narambo “bang, buffet”
ᴹQ. ton- v. “to tap, knock”

9.22 to Cut

Q. #aucir- v. “to cut off (and get rid of or lose a portion)”
Q., ᴱQ. #cir- v. “to cut, [ᴱQ.] cleave; *to sail”
ᴺQ. !cirila adj. “cutting”
⚠️ᴱQ. #feng- v. “to cut”; see instead:
Q. #cir- “to cut, [ᴱQ.] cleave; *to sail”
⚠️ᴱQ. fenqua adj. “keen, cutting”; see instead:
ᴹQ. laica “keen, sharp, acute”
ᴺQ. !cirila “cutting”
Q. #hócir- v. “to cut off (so as to have or use a required portion)”
Q., ᴹQ. rista n. “[ᴹQ.] cut”
ᴹQ. rista- v. “to cut”
⚠️ᴱQ. vilci- v. “to cut”; see instead:
Q. #cir- “to cut, [ᴱQ.] cleave; *to sail”

9.23 Knife (tool)

Q. #cirma n. “knife”
Q. cirmacin (cirmacim-) n. “knife-edge”
⚠️ᴱQ. naica¹ n. “dagger”; see instead:
ᴹQ. sicil “dagger, knife”
ᴹQ. sicil n. “dagger, knife”

9.24 Shears, Scissors

⚠️ᴱQ. †öalúmë n. “shearing time”

9.25 Ax

⚠️ᴱQ. hanta n. “a blow with an axe”
ᴺQ. !ondopelet (ondopelecc-) n. “pickaxe”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] pelecco (peleccu-) n. “axe”
⚠️ᴱQ. taila n. “(axe) blade”; see instead:
Q. maica² “blade of a cutting tool or weapon (especially sword-blade)”
⚠️ᴱQ. tuacca n. “battle axe”; see instead:
ᴺQ. pelecco “axe”

9.26 to Break

ᴹQ. #ascat- v. “to rend, break asunder”
ᴹQ. hat-¹ v. “to break asunder”
⚠️ᴱQ. laira- v. “to wear out, break up”; see instead:
ᴹQ. yerya- “to wear (out), get old”
ᴹQ. nwara- “to gnaw, erode, wear away”
Q. rac- v. “to break”
Q. rácina adj. “broken”
⚠️ᴱQ. ranca adj. “broken”; see instead:
Q. rácina “broken”
⚠️ᴱQ. rusta adj. “broken”
ᴺQ. !ruv- v. “to burst, rupture”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] rúvina adj. “burst, ruptured”
Q. #ruxa- v. “to crumble”
ᴹQ. terhat- v. “to break apart”

9.27 to Split

⚠️ᴱQ. circis n. “cleft, crack”; see instead:
ᴹQ. cirissë “slash, gash”
⚠️ᴱQ. ciris (cirist-) n. “cleft, crack”; see instead:
Q. cirya² “cleft, pass”
ᴹQ. cirissë “slash, gash”
ᴹQ. cirissë n. “slash, gash”
⚠️ᴱQ. cisin adj. “cleft”; see instead:
Q. cirya² “cleft, pass”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. hyar- v. “to cleave; [ᴱQ.] to plough”
⚠️ᴺQ. !hyasta-² v. “to hack through”; see instead:
ᴹQ. hyar- “to cleave; [ᴱQ.] to plough”
ᴺQ. hyasta- “to rush, rustle”
ᴹQ. hyatsë n. “cleft, gash”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] sahta- [þ] v. “to split”
ᴹQ. sanca [þ] adj. “cleft, split”

9.28 to Tear

ᴹQ. naraca adj. “harsh, rending, violent of (?sounds)”
ᴹQ. narca- v. “to rend”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^narcë n. “*rend, tear; [ᴱQ.] snap of a dog; spiteful remark”
⚠️ᴱQ. sanca¹ n. “rend, jab”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^narcë “*rend, tear; [ᴱQ.] snap of a dog; spiteful remark”
ᴹQ. sanca “cleft, split”
⚠️ᴱQ. ulqu- v. “*to rend”; see instead:
ᴹQ. narca- “to rend”

9.29 to Flay, Skin

ᴺQ. !helta- v. “to strip, bar, peel; *to despoil, denude”
⚠️ᴱQ. par- v. “to peel”; see instead:
Q. par- “to learn”
⚠️ᴱQ. rara- v. “to scrape, peel, strip”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !helta- “to strip, bar, peel; *to despoil, denude”
⚠️ᴱQ. rasta n. “file, scraper”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ripta- v. “to cut in strips, tear up; to stripe, mark in parallel lines; to flay, flog”

9.31 to Rub

ᴺQ. !aupsar- v. “to wipe away”
Q., ᴹQ. †psar- v. “to rub”
ᴹQ. sapsarra- v. “to keep on rubbing, fray away”
⚠️ᴱQ. #wara- v. “to rub”; see instead:
Q. †psar- “to rub”

9.32 to Stretch

⚠️ᴱQ. lenu- v. “to stretch”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lat- “to be extended, stretch, [ᴱQ.] spread, extend; [ᴹQ.] to be situated (of an area), lie (of lands or regions)”
⚠️ᴱQ. racta-¹ v. “to stretch out, reach”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^rahta- “to stretch out, reach”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^rahta- v. “to stretch out, reach”
Q., ᴹQ. #tailë n. “lengthening, [ᴹQ.] extension”
Q. #taima n. “extension”
ᴹQ. #taima n. “extension”
Q., ᴹQ. taina¹ adj. “stretched, elongated; [ᴹQ.] lengthened, extended, prolonged”
ᴹQ. taita- v. “to prolong, *lengthen”
⚠️ᴱQ. tapa- v. “to taper, stretch out (intr.), extend thin”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lat- “to be extended, stretch, [ᴱQ.] spread, extend; [ᴹQ.] to be situated (of an area), lie (of lands or regions)”

9.33 to Draw, Pull

⚠️ᴱQ. cilt n. “tuck”
⚠️ᴱQ. #cilti- v. “to jerk, tuck”; see instead:
ᴹQ. rihta- “to jerk, give quick twist or move, twitch, *wrench”
ᴺQ. !ettuc- v. “to draw out”
⚠️ᴱQ. #halmë n. “drawing”
⚠️ᴱQ. hyecca n. “jerk”
⚠️ᴱQ. hyehta- v. “to jerk”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] luc- v. “to haul, drag, [ᴱQ.] pull”
ᴹQ. rihta- v. “to jerk, give quick twist or move, twitch, *wrench”
ᴹQ. rinca n. “twitch, jerk, sudden move, ⚠️trick”
⚠️ᴱQ. riqui- v. “to wrench, twist”; see instead:
ᴹQ. rihta- “to jerk, give quick twist or move, twitch, *wrench”
ᴹQ. tuc- v. “to draw, *pull (behind)”
ᴺQ. !tucië n. “drawing, pulling”

9.34 to Strew, Spread Out

ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.], ᴱQ. capta- v. “to make spring, scatter, [ᴱQ.] startle”
ᴺQ. !rerestë n. “scattering, diaspore”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] rína adj. “scattered, sown”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] rísima adj. “scattered, ubiquitous, universal”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] rísimandë adv. “passim [Latin]; *scatteredly, here and there, at random”
ᴺQ. !úpartalë n. “unorder, *disorder”
Q. winta- v. “to scatter, blow about”

9.342 to Press

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] mal- v. “to crush, squeeze; to hurt, pain”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] malda- v. “to pound, crush”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. sanga- v. “[ᴱQ.] to pack tight, compress, press; ⚠️to gather”
ᴹQ. sanguma n. “press, *thing that presses”
⚠️ᴱQ. tyac- v. “to stick”

9.35 to Pour

ᴹQ. calpa- v. “to draw water, scoop out, bale out”
ᴺQ. !etulya- v. “to pour forth, pour out”
Q. púlima adj. “pourable, liquid”
⚠️ᴱQ. ulto- v. “to pour (tr.)”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ulya- “to pour, flow”
⚠️ᴱQ. ulu- v. “to pour, gush (intr.)”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ulya- “to pour, flow”
ᴹQ. ululla- v. “to keep on pouring”
ᴹQ. ulya- v. “to pour, flow”

9.36 to Wash

ᴺQ. !alasóvinë adj. “unwashed”
⚠️ᴱQ. allu- v. “to wash”; see instead:
ᴺQ. sov- “to wash, *bathe”
⚠️ᴱQ. allumë n. “washing”; see instead:
ᴺQ. sovallë “washing, bathing, purification”
ᴺQ. !poitië “(act of) cleaning, cleansing”
⚠️ᴱQ. fascalan n. “bath”; see instead:
ᴺQ. saunë “bath, small pool”
⚠️ᴱQ. lusta n. “warm bath”; see instead:
ᴺQ. saunë “bath, small pool”
⚠️ᴱQ. lusta- v. “to bathe in warm water”; see instead:
ᴺQ. sov- “to wash, *bathe”
⚠️ᴱQ. lutto- v. “to swill, wash”; see instead:
ᴺQ. sov- “to wash, *bathe”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] poita- v. “to cleanse, *clean”
ᴺQ. !poitië n. “(act of) cleaning, cleansing”
⚠️ᴱQ. poitya- v. “to make clean, tidy, straighten”; see instead:
ᴺQ. poita- “to cleanse, *clean”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] saunë n. “bath, small pool”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] sausa n. “bath water, hot water”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] sov- v. “to wash, *bathe”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] sovallë n. “washing, bathing, purification”

9.38 Broom

ᴺQ. !olopsë n. “broom”

9.41 Craft, Trade

Q. arimaitë adj. “[supremely] skillful”
Q., ᴱQ. curu n. “skill; [ᴱQ.] magic, wizardry”
Q., ᴹQ. curwë n. “[ᴹQ.] craft, [Q.] skill of the hand, technical skill and invention”
ᴺQ. !móletyeller n. “career, (lit.) work-steps”
ᴺQ. !nórarwa n. “economy, (lit.) country-possessions”
Q. taman n. “thing made by handicraft”

9.412 Art

Q. carmë n. “art; making, production; structure”
Q. mairë n. “work of high and beautiful art, the process of producing a work”
Q. maita- v. “to make with art, design, compose”
Q. maitalë n. “the act of doing [artistic] work”
Q. maitar n. “artist; poet”
ᴺQ. !tirmen n. “theater”

9.413 Horn, Trumpet

ᴹQ. hyóla n. “trump, *trumpet”
ᴺQ. !hyólamo n. “trumpeter”
⚠️ᴱQ. licin n. “horn, curled horn”; see instead:
Q. romba “horn, trumpet”
⚠️ᴱQ. licinda- v. “to blow a trumpet”
⚠️ᴱQ. licinda n. “trumpet”; see instead:
Q. romba “horn, trumpet”
⚠️ᴱQ. licinnë n. “blowing of horns”; see instead:
Q. róma “horn; [ᴹQ.] loud sound, trumpet-sound, *blare”
Q., ᴹQ. róma n. “horn; [ᴹQ.] loud sound, trumpet-sound, *blare”
Q., ᴹQ. romba n. “horn, trumpet”
⚠️ᴱQ. tumbë n. “trumpet, (large) horn”; see instead:
Q. romba “horn, trumpet”

9.42 Artisan, Craftsman

ᴺQ. [Q.], ᴹQ. ahto n. “wright, maker”
ᴺQ. !carmatan n. “toolsmith”
ᴺQ. !maicatan n. “weaponsmith”
ᴺQ. !noremmatan n. “cartographer”

9.422 Tool

ᴺQ. !auma n. “machine”
Q. carma² n. “tool, implement, means, weapon”
ᴺQ. !cómë n. “[computer] file, *document”
Q. curo (curu-) n. “skillful (?device)”
ᴺQ. !curwesta n. “technology”
⚠️ᴱQ. enya n. “device, method, trick; machine, engine”; see instead:
Q. lé¹ “way, method, manner”
Q. #fintalë “trick”
ᴹQ. aulë “invention”
ᴹQ. tanwë “craft, thing made, device, construction”
ᴺQ. !imbenatsë n. “internet”
⚠️ᴺQ. !imberaima n. “internet”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !imbenatsë “internet”
ᴺQ. !lialóra adj. “cordless, wireless”
ᴺQ. !maxárma n. “software”
ᴺQ. !natsemen n. “website, (lit.) web-spot”
⚠️ᴺQ. !nonwa n. “computer, (lit.) implement for reckoning”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !nótar “computer, calculator”
ᴺQ. !nótar n. “computer, calculator”
ᴺQ. !palallon n. “telephone, (lit.) far-sound”
ᴺQ. !palancen n. “television, (lit.) far-sight”
ᴺQ. !palancenta n. “telecommunication”
⚠️ᴺQ. !palanóma n. “phone”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !palallon “telephone, (lit.) far-sound”
ᴺQ. !palantilla n. “telescope”
ᴹQ. sorasta n. “equipment”
Q. tamma n. “tool”
⚠️ᴱQ. yaima n. “implement”; see instead:
Q. carma² “tool, implement, means, weapon”
ᴺQ. !yungwa n. “appliance”
⚠️ᴺQ. !yuqua n. “appliance”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !yungwa “appliance”

9.423 to Use

Q., ᴹQ. mahta- v. “to handle, wield, use, make use of; to manage, deal with, treat, control; [ᴹQ.] to stroke, feel; to wield a weapon, fight”
ᴺQ. !sorastarwa adj. “furnished, equipped”
ᴺQ. !yuhta- v. “to use, employ”
ᴺQ. !yuhtaimalë n. “usefulness”
ᴺQ. !yuhtaina adj. “used”
⚠️ᴺQ. !yunca adj. “used”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !yuhtaina “used”
⚠️ᴺQ. !yungwë n. “usefulness”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !yuhtaimalë “usefulness”

9.43 Carpenter

ᴹQ. samno [þ] n. “carpenter, wright, builder”
Q. tautamo n. “carpenter (carver)”

9.44 to Build

ᴺQ. !amacarastië n. “upbuilding”
ᴹQ. #ampan- v. “to build”
ᴹQ. ampanóta- v. “to build, erect a (large) building”
ᴹQ. ampanotalëa adj. “architectural”
ᴹQ. ampanotastë n. “architecture”
ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.] ^carasta n. “making, manufacture, construction”
Q. carasta- v. “to build, construct”
⚠️ᴹQ. carastë n. “making, manufacture, construction”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^carasta “making, manufacture, construction”
ᴺQ. !cariendë n. “production”
Q. cat- v. “to shape, fashion”
ᴺQ. !nutanwë n. “infrastructure”
Q. tamna adj. and n. “artificial; artifact”
⚠️ᴺQ. !tan- v. “to make, fashion”; see instead:
Q. cat- “to shape, fashion”
ᴹQ. tanwë n. “craft, thing made, device, construction”
⚠️ᴱQ. taqua- v. “to build, fashion, construct, make”; see instead:
Q. carasta- “to build, construct”
Q. cat- “to shape, fashion”
⚠️ᴱQ. tump-¹ v. “to build; to beat”; see instead:
ᴹQ. #ampan- “to build”
ᴹQ. palpa- “to beat, batter”

9.45 to Hew

Q., ᴱQ. mac- v. “to hew (with a sword); ⚠️[ᴱQ.] to slay; to die”
Q., ᴹQ. #nac- v. “to hew, cut; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] to kill, slay; to hate”
Q. nanca adj. “*hewn, ⚠️slain”
⚠️ᴱQ. pelecta- v. “to hew”
⚠️ᴱQ. tyacta- v. “hew”; see instead:
Q. mac- “to hew (with a sword); ⚠️[ᴱQ.] to slay; to die”
ᴹQ. hyar- “to cleave; [ᴱQ.] to plough”

9.455 to Poke, Prick, Stab

⚠️ᴱQ. cen- v. “to prick”; see instead:
ᴹQ. erca- “to prick”
Q. cen- “to see, behold, look, *perceive”
⚠️ᴱQ. coli- v. “to prick”; see instead:
ᴹQ. erca- “to prick”
⚠️ᴱQ. colimen n. “prick”
ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.] ehta- v. “to stab”
ᴹQ. erca- v. “to prick”
⚠️ᴱQ. #irt- v. “to peck, prick”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^irta- “to peck, prick”
⚠️ᴱQ. irt (irty-) n. “peck, pinprick”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^irtë “peck, pinprick”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^irta- v. “to peck, prick”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^irtë (irti-) n. “peck, pinprick”
ᴹQ. nasta- v. “to prick, sting”
⚠️ᴱQ. piecta- v. “to prick, pin-prick”

9.46 to Bore

ᴺQ. !rotta- v. “to bore (a hole or tunnel)”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ter- v. “to pierce”
ᴺQ. !térala adj. “piercing”
⚠️ᴱQ. ‽terendl n. “lathe”

9.47 Auger

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] teret n. “auger, borer, gimlet”

9.48 Saw

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] carcasarma n. “large saw”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] sara- [þ] v. “to saw [wood]”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] sarma n. “saw”

9.49 Hammer

⚠️ᴱQ. artan (artam-) n. “hammer”; see instead:
ᴹQ. namba “hammer”
ᴹQ. namba n. “hammer”
ᴹQ. namba- v. “to hammer”
⚠️ᴱQ. petl n. “hammer”; see instead:
ᴹQ. namba “hammer”
⚠️ᴱQ. tonga n. “great hammer”; see instead:
ᴹQ. namba “hammer”

9.50 Nail, Peg

⚠️ᴱQ. tanca² n. “fastening, rivet”; see instead:
Q. tancal(a) “brooch, clasp”
ᴹQ. tanca “firm, fixed, sure, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] fast; steady, (stead)fast”
⚠️ᴱQ. tas (tax-) n. “nail”; see instead:
ᴹQ. taxë “nail”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. taxë n. “nail”

9.51 Beam

ᴹQ. andul n. “long pole”
ᴹQ. hana n. “post”
ᴺQ. !orpano n. “ridgepole”
ᴺQ. !otarmië n. “colonnade”
ᴺQ. !ramma n. “lever”
ᴹQ. ran (ramb-) n. “beam of wood”
⚠️Q. rondo² n. “staff (of hardwood)”
ᴹQ. samna¹ [þ] n. “wooden post”
⚠️ᴱQ. súlë n. “column, pillar”; see instead:
Q. tarma “pillar”
Q. #talca n. “post, mark”
Q. tarma n. “pillar”
⚠️ᴱQ. taulë² n. “pillar”; see instead:
Q. tarma “pillar”
⚠️ᴱQ. tulwë n. “tall thin pillar, standard, pole; banner”
⚠️ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^vandil n. “staff”; see instead:
ᴺQ. vanga “staff”
⚠️ᴱQ. vandl n. “staff”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^vandil “staff”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] vanga n. “staff”

9.52 Board

ᴹQ. pano n. “piece of shaped wood, *board, plank”
⚠️ᴱQ. panta² n. “board”; see instead:
ᴹQ. pano “piece of shaped wood, *board, plank”
ᴹQ. panta “open, [ᴱQ.] wide, spreading”
⚠️ᴱQ. sarat (saract-) n. “plank”; see instead:
ᴹQ. pano “piece of shaped wood, *board, plank”
Q. sarat “letter (of the Rúmilian alphabet)”
⚠️ᴱQ. saratwa n. “made of planks”

9.54 Brick

ᴹQ. ambal n. “shaped stone, flag”
⚠️ᴱQ. soraxa n. “shingle”; see instead:
Q. sarnië “shingle, pebble bank”
⚠️ᴱQ. telar n. “brick, tile”

9.60 Smith

Q. sintamo n. “smith”
⚠️ᴱQ. talca¹ n. “smith”
Q. tamo n. “smith, builder”
⚠️ᴹQ. tano n. “craftsman, smith”; see instead:
Q. tamo “smith, builder”
ᴺQ. !telpetan n. “silversmith”
⚠️ᴱQ. tongar n. “smith”; see instead:
Q. sintamo “smith”
ᴺQ. !urustan n. “copper-smith”

9.61 to Forge

ᴺQ. !maca- v. “to forge”
⚠️ᴱQ. tamilla n. “forge”; see instead:
ᴺQ. tamin “forge”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] tamin n. “forge”
ᴺQ. !ticuta- v. “to smelt”

9.62 Anvil

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] onin n. “anvil”

9.635 Metal

⚠️ᴹQ. rauta n. “metal”; see instead:
Q. tinco “metal”
⚠️ᴱQ. sinquina adj. “metallic”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !tincina “metallic”
ᴺQ. !tincina adj. “metallic”
Q., ᴹQ. tinco n. “metal”

9.64 Gold

⚠️ᴹQ., ᴱQ. culu n. “gold (metal)”; see instead:
Q. malta “gold (metal), gold as material”
⚠️ᴱQ. cululta adj. “of gold”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !maltaina “of gold”
⚠️ᴱQ. culurin n. “piece of gold; orange”; see instead:
ᴹQ. culuma “orange [fruit]”
⚠️ᴱQ. culusta n. “gold coin”
⚠️ᴱQ. culuva adj. “of gold”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !maltaina “of gold”
⚠️ᴱQ. culuvoitë (culuvoisi-) adj. “golden”; see instead:
Q. laurëa “golden (of hue)”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. laurë n. “gold (light or colour)”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. laurëa adj. “golden (of hue)”
Q. laurië n. and adv. “goldenness; like gold”
⚠️ᴱQ. laurina adj. “golden”; see instead:
Q. laurëa “golden (of hue)”
Q., ᴹQ. malta n. “gold (metal), gold as material”
ᴺQ. !maltaina adj. “of gold”

9.65 Silver

⚠️ᴱQ. ilsa n. “(the mystic name of) silver”; see instead:
Q. telpë “silver; [ᴱQ.] money”
ᴹQ. telemna adj. “*silver”
⚠️ᴹQ. telepsa adj. “of silver”; see instead:
Q. telepta “silver, [ᴱQ.] of silver”
Q., ᴱQ. telepta adj. “silver, [ᴱQ.] of silver”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. telpë (telep-) n. “silver; [ᴱQ.] money”
⚠️ᴱQ. telpëa adj. “silvern”; see instead:
Q. telperin “like silver (in hue or worth)”
Q. telperin adj. “like silver (in hue or worth)”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. telpina adj. “of silver”
Q., ᴹQ. †tyelpë (tyelep-) n. “silver”

9.66 Copper, Bronze

Q. calarus (calarust-) n. “polished copper”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] calas (calass-) n. “brass”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] calassina adj. “made of brass”
Q. lairus (lairust-) n. “verdigris”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] tambë (tambi-) n. “bronze, ⚠️copper”
⚠️ᴱQ. tambina adj. “of copper”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !urusta “of copper”
Q. urus (urust-) n. “copper”
ᴺQ. !urusta adj. “of copper”
ᴺQ. !urustamitta n. “copper-piece”

9.67 Iron

Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. anga n. “iron”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. angaina adj. “of iron”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] axë n. “steel”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] axina adj. “(of) steel, like steel”
⚠️ᴱQ. ere(n) n. “iron, steel”; see instead:
Q. anga “iron”
Q. tornanga “iron hard; hard-iron, *steel”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. malo² (malu-) n. “rust”
⚠️ᴱQ. tong??a adj. “of iron”; see instead:
ᴹQ. angaina “of iron”
⚠️ᴱQ. tongo n. “iron”; see instead:
Q. anga “iron”
⚠️ᴱQ. tongwa adj. “like iron”; see instead:
ᴹQ. angaina “of iron”
Q. tornanga adj. and n. “iron hard; hard-iron, *steel”
⚠️ᴱQ. yaxë¹ n. “steel”; see instead:
ᴺQ. axë “steel”
⚠️ᴱQ. yaxina adj. “of steel”; see instead:
ᴺQ. axina “(of) steel, like steel”
⚠️ᴱQ. yeraina adj. “of iron”; see instead:
ᴹQ. angaina “of iron”
⚠️ᴱQ. yere(n) n. “pig iron”; see instead:
Q. anga “iron”
⚠️ᴱQ. yerenwa adj. “like iron”; see instead:
ᴹQ. angaina “of iron”

9.68 Lead

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] canu n. “lead”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] canuina adj. “of lead”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] canuva adj. “leaden”
⚠️ᴱQ. núlë n. “lead”; see instead:
ᴺQ. canu “lead”
Q. núlë “black arts, sorcery”

9.69 Tin, Tin-Plate

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] latúcen n. “tin (metal)”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] latucenda adj. “of tin”
⚠️ᴺQ. !sin (sint-) [þ] n. “tin (metal)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. latúcen “tin (metal)”

9.71 Potter

ᴹQ. cemnaro n. “potter”
ᴺQ. !cemnassë n. “earthenware, pottery”
⚠️ᴺQ. !cennassë n. “pottery, ceramic vessel ”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cemnassë “earthenware, pottery”
⚠️ᴺQ. !centánië n. “ceramics, pottery-craft”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cemnassë “earthenware, pottery”
⚠️ᴹQ. centano n. “potter”; see instead:
ᴹQ. cemnaro “potter”
⚠️ᴱQ. cerë n. “earthenware; earthen jar”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cemnassë “earthenware, pottery”
⚠️ᴱQ. ceres (cerest-) n. “earthenware”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cemnassë “earthenware, pottery”
⚠️ᴱQ. ceresto n. “potter”; see instead:
ᴹQ. cemnaro “potter”
⚠️ᴱQ. cerexa adj. “of earthenware”; see instead:
ᴹQ. cemna “of earth, earthen”

9.74 Glass

Q. calca n. “glass”
ᴺQ. !calcata- v. “to glaze”
ᴺQ. !calcëa adj. “glassy, of glass”
⚠️Q. cilin n. “glass”; see instead:
Q. calca “glass”
ᴺQ. !hencalcat n. “eye-glasses, spectacles”
⚠️ᴹQ. hyellë n. “glass”; see instead:
Q. calca “glass”
⚠️ᴺQ. !imirë n. “crystal”; see instead:
ᴹQ. maril “glass, crystal”
⚠️ᴺQ. !imirin adj. “of crystal”; see instead:
ᴹQ. maril “glass, crystal”
⚠️ᴱQ. lipil n. “a tiny (fay-)glass”; see instead:
Q. cilinyul “drinking-vessel (made of glass)”
ᴹQ. maril n. “glass, crystal”
Q. naltalma [ñ-] n. “heliograph”
Q. silima n. “crystal substance devised by Fëanor”
Q., ᴹQ. silma n. and adj. “crystal (white); [ᴹQ.] silver, shining white”
⚠️ᴱQ. sintl n. “crystal”; see instead:
ᴹQ. maril “glass, crystal”
Q. silma “crystal (white); [ᴹQ.] silver, shining white”
⚠️ᴱQ. talcu- v. “to glaze”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !calcata- “to glaze”
⚠️ᴱQ. talquë (talqui-) n. “glass”; see instead:
Q. calca “glass”
⚠️ᴱQ. talquëa adj. “glassy”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !calcëa “glassy, of glass”
⚠️ᴱQ. talquina adj. “made of glass”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !calcëa “glassy, of glass”
ᴺQ. !tirma n. “spyglass”
⚠️ᴱQ. vírin n. “glass substance [used to make the Moon]”

9.76 Basket

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] colca n. “box”
ᴺQ. !colcallë n. “phylactery, (lit.) little box”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] poco n. “bag”
ᴺQ. !pocollë n. “pouch”
ᴺQ. !taucolca n. “(wooden) chest”
ᴺQ. !vircolca n. “basket, (lit.) woven-box”

9.81 to Carve

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] nyas- [þ] v. “to scratch”
⚠️ᴺQ. !rimpë² n. “scratch”; see instead:
ᴺQ. nyas “scratch, score, line, mark”
ᴺQ. rimpë¹ “stripe, strip”
⚠️ᴺQ. !rip- v. “to scratch”; see instead:
ᴺQ. nyas- “to scratch”

9.82 Sculptor

Q. ondomaitar n. “sculptor in stone”
Q. ontamo n. “mason (sculptor)”

9.83 Statue

ᴺQ. !cantemma n. “shaped image, sculpture”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ondolë n. “(stone) monument; stone-cairn”

9.87 Painting, Picture

ᴺQ. !calatengwë n. “photograph, (lit.) light-writing”
⚠️ᴺQ. !calta n. “picture, photography”; see instead:
Q. emma “*picture, image”
Q. #calta- “to kindle, [ᴹQ.] (cause to) shine, light up, [ᴱQ.] set light to”
⚠️ᴺQ. !cemma n. “picture, (lit.) something seen”; see instead:
Q. emma “*picture, image”
ᴺQ. !em- v. “to depict, portray”
Q. emma n. “*picture, image”
ᴺQ. !levemma n. “movie, motion picture”
⚠️ᴺQ. !menemma n. “movie, motion picture”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !levemma “movie, motion picture”
ᴺQ. !noremma n. “map”
⚠️ᴺQ. !nórihalmë n. “map”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !noremma “map”
Q. quantemma n. “facsimile, *(lit.) full-picture”
ᴺQ. !tecemma n. “drawn image, drawing, painting”

9.90 Thing

Q. engwë n. “thing”
Q. erma n. “(physical) matter”
⚠️Q. hrón n. “matter, substance, flesh; body”; see instead:
Q. hröa “body, bodily form, ⚠️flesh; physical matter”
Q. erma “(physical) matter”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. nat n. “thing”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] natto (nattu-) n. “affair, *matter, ⚠️thing”
Q. tama n. “that matter”

9.91 Be

⚠️ᴱQ. e-² v. “to be”; see instead:
Q. ëa- “to be, exist, [ᴹQ.] have being, be found extant in the real world”
Q., ᴹQ. ëa- v. “to be, exist, [ᴹQ.] have being, be found extant in the real world”
Q. ëala n. “being, spirit (not incarnate)”
ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.] ^ëasta n. “being, existence”
⚠️ᴹQ. ëastë n. “being, essence”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^ëasta “being, existence”
Q. nassë “nature, true-being, *essence; person, individual”
ᴹQ. érë n. “existing”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. ná- v. “to be, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] exist”
Q. nassë n. “nature, true-being, *essence; person, individual”
⚠️ᴱQ. nasta n. “existence, being, creature”; see instead:
Q. nassë “nature, true-being, *essence; person, individual”
ᴺQ. ^ëasta “being, existence”
Q. návë n. “being”
⚠️ᴱQ. ó- v. “to be”; see instead:
Q. ëa- “to be, exist, [ᴹQ.] have being, be found extant in the real world”
⚠️ᴱQ. sóma n. “state, condition”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !tarmë “state, status, condition”
ᴺQ. !tarmë n. “state, status, condition”
⚠️ᴹQ. ye- v. “to be”; see instead:
Q. ëa- “to be, exist, [ᴹQ.] have being, be found extant in the real world”
⚠️ᴹQ. yestë n. “being, existence”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^ëasta “being, existence”

9.92 Become

⚠️ᴱQ. nó- v. “to be born, become”; see instead:
Q. #nóna “born”
⚠️ᴹQ. ol- v. “to become”; see instead:
Q. ola- “to become; [ᴹQ.] to grow (up)”
Q., ᴹQ. ola- v. “to become; [ᴹQ.] to grow (up)”

9.93 Need, Necessity

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] iquis (iquist-) n. “requirement”
ᴺQ. !maura- v. “to need, require”
ᴹQ. maurë n. “need”
Q. #sangië n. “necessity”
Q. turindura adj. “done necessarily”

9.943 Fitting, Suitable

⚠️ᴺQ. !camtanë n. “adaptation”; see instead:
camta- “to (make) fit, suit, accomodate, adapt”

9.95 Can, May

⚠️ᴱQ. -alca suf. “able to”; see instead:
Q. -itë “adjectival ending; capable of doing, generally (and naturally) doing”
⚠️ᴹQ. #cav- v. “to be able”; see instead:
Q. pol- “can, to be able to”
Q. #cav- “to receive, *accept”
Q. ec- v. “to have a chance of; may, can”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. -ima suf. “-able, [ᴹQ.] -ible, able to be done, [ᴱQ.] possible”
Q., ᴹQ. -itë (-iti-) suf. “adjectival ending; capable of doing, generally (and naturally) doing”
⚠️ᴱQ. lata- v. “to be able to (used of opportunity, permission)”; see instead:
Q. ec- “to have a chance of; may, can”
⚠️ᴱQ. mala-² v. “to be able to (used of capacity, ability)”; see instead:
Q. pol- “can, to be able to”
⚠️ᴱQ. málë n. “ability”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !polië “ability”
Q. málë “good health”
⚠️ᴱQ. málëa adj. “able”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !polëa “able”
ᴺQ. !málëa “healthy, healthful”
Q. pol- v. “can, to be able to”
ᴺQ. !polëa adj. “able”
ᴺQ. !polië n. “ability”
ᴺQ. !polta- v. “to (physically) enable”

9.96 Easy

Q. ancárima adj. “easy, (lit.) very doable”
Q. as(a)- [þ] pref. “easily”
Q. asalastë [þ] adj. “easily heard”
ᴺQ. !asamahtë [þ] adj. “simple, (lit.) easily handled”
⚠️Q. asanótë [þ] adj. “*easily counted”
ᴺQ. !ascarë adj. “easily done”
ᴺQ. !ascárima [þ] adj. “easy [to do]”
ᴺQ. !ascénië [þ] adv. “obviously, *(lit.) easily seen”
Q. ascénima [þ] adj. “visible, easily seen”
ᴺQ. !asquétima [þ] adj. “easy to say”
⚠️Q. hrai(a)² adj. “easy”; see instead:
Q. hrai(a)¹ “awkward, difficult, stiff”

9.97 Difficult

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] auqua adj. “awkward, clumsy (of things), difficult”
Q. empollië adv. “*harder”
Q. hrai- pref. “hard, *difficult”
Q. hrai(a)¹ adj. “awkward, difficult, stiff”
Q. hraicénima adj. “scarcely visible, hard to see”
⚠️Q. hrainotë adj. “*hard to count”
Q. hranga adj. “awkward, difficult, stiff, hard”
ᴺQ. !hrangwë n. “problem, difficulty”
ᴺQ. !taryassë n. “stiffness, toughness, difficulty”
Q. úcárima adj. “hard to do, difficult”
Q. urda adj. “hard, difficult, arduous”
Q. ur(u)- pref. “hard, difficult”
Q. urucárima adj. “hard to make / do”
Q. urucarin adj. “made with difficulty”

9.98 to Try

Q. nev- v. “to try, *experiment”
Q. #ric-¹ v. “to try, put forth effort, strive, endeavour”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] tyas- v. “to test, try [out], pick, choose”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] tyasta- v. “to (put to the) test, *verify”
ᴺQ. !tyastaima adj. “testable”
⚠️ᴺQ. !tyestima adj. “testable”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !tyastaima “testable”

9.99 Try

ᴺQ. !nevië n. “experiment”
ᴺQ. !rihta n. “effort”
⚠️ᴺQ. !riquë n. “experiment”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !nevië “experiment”

9.992 Way, Manner

Q. lé¹ n. “way, method, manner”
ᴺQ. [Q.] lenga- v. “to behave”
ᴺQ. !lengalë n. “behavior”
ᴺQ. [Q.] lengë n. “gesture, characteristic look, gesture or trait”

9.993 to Happen

ᴺQ. !ecesta n. “opportunity, chance”
⚠️ᴱQ. enget n. “a hap”; see instead:
Q. almë “good (or blessed) thing, blessing, piece of good fortune, *luck”
⚠️ᴹQ. lár- v. “to happen”
ᴹQ. tulma n. “event”

10. Motion and Transportation

10.11 to Move

⚠️ᴱQ. hatsë n. “headlong movement”; see instead:
ᴹQ. alaco “rush, rushing flight, wild wind”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] lev- v. “to move (intr.)”
ᴺQ. !levë n. “movement”
⚠️ᴺQ. !menesta² n. “motion, movement”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^menesta¹ “intention, *goal”
⚠️ᴱQ. túma adj. “moving”; see instead:
Q. rum- “to shift, move, heave (of large and heavy things)”

10.12 to Turn

⚠️ᴱQ. cere- v. “to turn”
Q. quer- v. “to turn, *revolve”
ᴺQ. !querda n. “turn (e.g. in a game)”
Q. #querna adj. “*turned”

10.13 to Turn Around

ᴺQ., Q. !nanquer- v. “to turn back, turn around”
Q., ᴹQ. nuquerna adj. “reversed, inverted, *(lit.) under-turned”
⚠️ᴺQ. !pelë n. “revolution”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !querë “revolution”
⚠️ᴹQ., ᴱQ. peltas (peltax-) n. “pivot”; see instead:
Q. peltas “fence of fixed stakes, a ‘pale’”
Q. #queren “pivot, revolving center”
⚠️ᴱQ. pipiri- v. “to twirl, twizzle”
⚠️ᴱQ. pirucë n. “swirl, twisting, pirouetting”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !quirilda “twirling, pirouetting”
⚠️ᴱQ. pirúc(end)ëa adj. “pirouetting, whirling lightly”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !quirilda “twirling, pirouetting”
ᴺQ. !querë n. “revolution”
Q. #queren (querend-) n. “pivot, revolving center”
⚠️Q. #ric-² v. “to twist”; see instead:
ᴹQ. rihta- “to jerk, give quick twist or move, twitch, *wrench”
Q. #ric-¹ “to try, put forth effort, strive, endeavour”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] rinqua adj. “revolving, returning, recurrent; ⚠️round, circular”
ᴺQ. !talmacasta adj. “upside down”

10.14 to Wind, Wrap

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] lap- v. “to wrap, swathe, wind”
⚠️ᴱQ. lingwilla n. “coil, spire”
⚠️ᴱQ. maxë n. “net”; see instead:
Q. raima “net”
⚠️ᴱQ. maxella n. “mesh”; see instead:
Q. rembë “mesh, net (for catching), hunter’s or fisher’s net”
⚠️ᴱQ. maxeta- v. “to enmesh”; see instead:
Q. remba- “to net, entrap”
ᴹQ. natsë n. “web, net”
Q. raima n. “net”
Q. raina¹ adj. “netted, enlaced, caught in a net”
Q. raita-¹ v. “to make network or lace; to catch in a net”
Q. remba- v. “to net, entrap”
Q. rembë n. “mesh, net (for catching), hunter’s or fisher’s net”
Q. rembina adj. “entangled, meshed, netted, woven”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. vaita- v. “to enfold, [ᴱQ.] wrap”
ᴹQ. vai(y)a n. “envelope”

10.15 to Roll

⚠️ᴱQ. conta- v. “to roll up, roll, pack”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^corta- “to roll up, roll, pack”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^corta- v. “to roll up, roll, pack”
ᴺQ. !pelta- v. “to roll”
⚠️ᴱQ. tolu- v. “to roll up, furl”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^corta- “to roll up, roll, pack”
ᴹQ. tolu- “to stand up, get up, leave one’s seat”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] velu- v. “to unfurl”

10.21 to Rise

⚠️ᴹQ. chus- v. “to come up, emerge”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ef- “to emerge (especially from water)”
ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.] ef- v. “to emerge (especially from water)”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. órë n. “rising, *rise; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] dawn, Sunrise, East”
ᴺQ. !orina adj. “risen”
Q. #ormo n. “riser”
⚠️ᴱQ. oro- v. “to rise”; see instead:
Q. orya-¹ “to rise”
⚠️ᴹQ. ororia- v. “to keep on rising (and falling)”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] orosta n. “ascension”
⚠️ᴹQ. orro- v. “to rise (from ground)”; see instead:
Q. orya-¹ “to rise”
⚠️Q., ᴹQ. orta-² v. “to rise”; see instead:
Q. orya-¹ “to rise”
Q., ᴹQ. orya-¹ v. “to rise”
Q. oryandë n. “arising”
ᴺQ. !ret- v. “to climb”
Q. retto n. “*climber”
⚠️ᴱQ. róna- v. “to arise, rise, ascend”; see instead:
Q. orya-¹ “to rise”
⚠️ᴱQ. rosta- v. “*to rise”; see instead:
Q. orya-¹ “to rise”
⚠️ᴺQ. !tyulya- v. “to rise”; see instead:
Q. orya-¹ “to rise”

10.22 to Lift, Raise

Q. #amorta- v. “to heave”
⚠️ᴱQ. amu- v. “to raise”; see instead:
Q. orta-¹ “to raise, cause to rise, lift (up)”
Q., ᴹQ. orta-¹ v. “to raise, cause to rise, lift (up)”
ᴹQ. ortalima adj. “able to be raised”
ᴹQ. ortarë n. “lifting up”
⚠️ᴱQ. orto- v. “to raise”; see instead:
Q. orta-¹ “to raise, cause to rise, lift (up)”
⚠️Q. orya-² v. “*to raise”; see instead:
Q. orta-¹ “to raise, cause to rise, lift (up)”
⚠️ᴱQ. qualumë² adj. “heaving”

10.225 to Hang, Dangle

⚠️ᴱQ. †cinca- v. “to hang (intr.)”
⚠️ᴱQ. cincata- v. “to hang (tr.)”
Q., ᴹQ. *linga- v. “[ᴹQ.] to hang, dangle”
⚠️ᴱQ. pipte- v. “to fall (of folds or clusters), hang, trail”; see instead:
Q. *linga- “[ᴹQ.] to hang, dangle”

10.23 to Fall

Q. atalantë n. “collapse, downfall”
Q. atalantëa adj. “ruinous, downfallen”
ᴹQ. atalta- v. “to collapse, fall in, fall down, slip down in ruin”
ᴹQ. ataltarë n. “collapse”
⚠️ᴱQ. iltanca adj. “unsteady”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. lanta n. and adj. “fall; falling, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] fallen”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. lanta- v. “to fall; [ᴱQ.] to drop”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] lantanwa adj. “fallen”
Q. #lantë n. “fall”
⚠️ᴱQ. númeta- v. “to get low (of the Sun), go down in the west”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. núta- v. “to lower; [ᴹQ.] to set, sink (of Sun or Moon); [ᴱQ.] to stoop”
Q. nútaitë (nútaiti-) adj. “?lowering (naturally), degrading”
Q. nútima adj. “*lowerable”
Q. núya- v. “to descend”
⚠️ᴱQ. suqu- v. “to fall, fail, go down, die down”; see instead:
Q. lanta- “to fall; [ᴱQ.] to drop”
Q. núya- “to descend”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. talta adj. “tottering, unsteady, [ᴱQ.] shaky, wobbling; [ᴹQ.] sloping, tilted, leaning, inclined, [ᴱQ.] slanting”
Q., ᴹQ. talta- v. “to slip, slide down, collapse, fall, [ᴹQ.] slip down, slope”
⚠️ᴹQ. unta- v. “to come down, descend”; see instead:
Q. núya- “to descend”

10.24 to Drop

ᴺQ. !lilíva- v. “to drip, drip-drop”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^lipta- v. “to drip”
⚠️ᴱQ. lipte- v. “to drip”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^lipta- “to drip”
⚠️ᴱQ. litl n. “tiny drop”; see instead:
ᴹQ. limba “drop”

10.25 to Throw

ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.], ᴱQ. hat- v. “[ᴱQ.] to hurl, fling, *throw”
ᴺQ. !hatar n. “thrower (of spears and darts)”
ᴺQ. !nanhat- v. “to cast back, reflect”
⚠️ᴹQ. #rip- v. “to hurl”; see instead:
ᴺQ. hat- “[ᴱQ.] to hurl, fling, *throw”

10.26 to Shake

⚠️ᴺQ. !alapálima adj. “unshakable”; see instead:
ᴺQ. quas- “to shake, flap, nod, ⚠️rustle”
⚠️ᴱQ. pal- v. “to shake”; see instead:
ᴺQ. quas- “to shake, flap, nod, ⚠️rustle”
PAL “wide, broad, extended; [ᴹ√] wide (open); [ᴱ√] flatness”
⚠️ᴱQ. palmë n. “a shaking”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] pampilë n. “trembling”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] pampilëa adj. “tremulous”
⚠️ᴱQ. pampinë n. “tremor, earthquake”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] pap- v. “to tremble”
⚠️ᴱQ. quap- v. “to throb, flutter”
⚠️ᴱQ. quapta-² v. “to flap”; see instead:
ᴺQ. quas- “to shake, flap, nod, ⚠️rustle”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quas- v. “to shake, flap, nod, ⚠️rustle”
ᴺQ. !quequer- v. “to wag”
Q., ᴹQ. raf- v. “to wave, brandish; [ᴹQ.] to snatch, seize”

10.31 to Boil (intr.)

⚠️ᴱQ. pumpo n. “bubble; bladder; blister”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^welvë “bubble”
⚠️ᴱQ. pumpolë n. “bubble; merboy”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^welvë “bubble”
⚠️ᴱQ. pus (pust-) n. “boil”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] wel- v. “to boil, bubble”
⚠️ᴱQ. welba adj. “boiling, bubbling”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^welva “boiling, bubbling”
⚠️ᴱQ. welbë n. “bubble”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^welvë “bubble”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^welva adj. “boiling, bubbling”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^welvë n. “bubble”

10.32 to Flow

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] celeta n. “trickle”
Q. celima adj. “fluent, *(lit.) able to flow freely”
⚠️ᴱQ. celta- v. “to draw water”; see instead:
ᴹQ. calpa- “to draw water, scoop out, bale out”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. celu- v. “to (begin to) flow, spring forth (of water)”
Q. celundë n. “welling forth”
ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.] ^celusta n. “outflow”
⚠️ᴹQ. celustë n. “outflow”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^celusta “outflow”
⚠️ᴱQ. linya- v. “to run or flow smoothly”; see instead:
Q. sirya- “to flow [smoothly]”
Q. luimë n. “flood, floodwater, flooded land; flood tide, high tide”
Q. luita- v. “to flood, inundate, drench”
⚠️ᴱQ. lúto n. “flood”; see instead:
Q. luimë “flood, floodwater, flooded land; flood tide, high tide”
Q. nanwë n. “ebb, lowtide”
Q. oloirë n. “great flood”
Q. oloiya- v. “to inundate, flood”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. sir- v. “to flow”
Q. sirëa adj. “flowing, liquid”
⚠️ᴱQ. sírima adj. “liquid, flowing”; see instead:
Q. sirëa “flowing, liquid”
Q., ᴹQ. sirya- v. “to flow [smoothly]”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] sóla n. “tide”
ᴺQ. !suhta- v. “to drain”
ᴹQ. úlëa adj. “pouring, flooding, flowing”
ᴹQ. ulundë n. “flood”

10.33 to Sink

ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.] sumba- v. “to submerge, *baptize”
⚠️ᴱQ. sunqua adj. “going down, descending; abysmal, deep, profound”; see instead:
Q. andú- “going down, setting (of sun), west”
⚠️ᴱQ. sunquë n. “going-down, descent, down-fall; abyss, depth”; see instead:
Q. andú- “going down, setting (of sun), west”
⚠️ᴱQ. sunquelaina adj. “falling, fading, setting”; see instead:
Q. andú- “going down, setting (of sun), west”
⚠️ᴱQ. sunquelë n. “sinking, falling, setting of heavenly bodies”; see instead:
Q. andú- “going down, setting (of sun), west”
⚠️ᴱQ. sunquelëa adj. “westering, setting”; see instead:
Q. andú- “going down, setting (of sun), west”
ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.] suv- v. “to sink (esp. in water)”
⚠️ᴱQ. tum- v. “to dive”; see instead:
ᴺQ. tumba- “to cast down; *to dive”
ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.] tumba- v. “to cast down; *to dive”
ᴺQ. !tumya- v. “to dip, ⚠️baptize”
Q. undulav- v. “to drown, swallow, submerge, (lit.) lick down”

10.34 to Float

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] lut- v. “to float, sail, *swim, ⚠️flow”

10.36 to Sail

ᴹQ. ciryasta- v. “to sail”
⚠️ᴱQ. salta- v. “to sail”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ciryasta- “to sail”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] veluntë n. “sail”

10.37 to Fly

ᴺQ. !amavil- v. “to fly up, soar”
⚠️ᴺQ. !ramya- v. “to fly, sail; to wander”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ranya- “to stray, *wander”
ᴹQ. wil- “to fly, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] float, sail”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. wil- v. “to fly, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] float, sail”
Q. wilwa adj. “fluttering to and fro”

10.38 to Blow

Q. hlapu- v. “to blow, fly or stream in the wind”
ᴹQ. hwesta- v. “to puff”
⚠️ᴱQ. pus- v. “to puff, snort”; see instead:
ᴹQ. hwesta- “to puff”
⚠️ᴱQ. pusë n. “puff”; see instead:
Q. föa “breath, puff of breath”
⚠️ᴱQ. pusilla n. “puff, whiff, breeze”; see instead:
ᴹQ. hwesta “breeze, breath, puff of air”
⚠️ᴱQ. #pusta- v. “to blow”; see instead:
Q. hlapu- “to blow, fly or stream in the wind”
ᴹQ. pusta- “to stop, put a stop to, cease”
⚠️ᴱQ. pusulpë n. “gas-bag, balloon”
⚠️ᴱQ. pusulta- v. “to puff out with one’s breath”; see instead:
ᴹQ. hwesta- “to puff”
⚠️ᴱQ. sur- v. “to blow”; see instead:
Q. hlapu- “to blow, fly or stream in the wind”
Q. surya- [þ] v. “to blow (intr.)”
Q. sussë [þ-] n. “puff (of air)”
Q. susta- [þ] v. “to blow (tr.)”
Q. súta- [þ] v. “to blow (tr.)”
⚠️Q. váya- v. “to blow”

10.41 to Creep, Crawl

ᴹQ. hlic- v. “to creep, *sneak”
ᴺQ. !lolóca- v. “to crawl”

10.43 to Jump, Leap

ᴹQ., ᴱQ. cap- v. “to leap, [ᴱQ.] jump”
⚠️ᴱQ. capta-² v. “to leap”; see instead:
ᴺQ. capta- “to make spring, scatter, [ᴱQ.] startle”
ᴹQ. cap- “to leap, [ᴱQ.] jump”
⚠️ᴱQ. halta- v. “to leap”; see instead:
ᴹQ. cap- “to leap, [ᴱQ.] jump”
⚠️ᴱQ. hampa- v. “to hop”
ᴺQ. !lapa- v. “to hop”
⚠️ᴱQ. tanta-¹ v. “to bounce, bound, rebound”
⚠️ᴱQ. tantila- v. “to hop”
⚠️ᴱQ. tantya- v. “to set bouncing”

10.432 Leaping

ᴺQ. !capaitë adj. “leaping, bounding”
⚠️ᴱQ. capalima adj. “bounding, leaping”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !capaitë “leaping, bounding”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] capanda n. “jump”
ᴺQ. !capië n. “leap, ⚠️deep gorge”
⚠️ᴱQ. haloitë adj. “leaping”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !capaitë “leaping, bounding”
⚠️ᴱQ. tanta(ra) adj. “bouncing, resilient”

10.44 to Dance

⚠️ᴱQ. lilt- v. “to dance”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lilta- “to dance”
⚠️ᴱQ. lilt n. “dance”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^liltë “dance”
ᴹQ. lilta- v. “to dance”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^liltë n. “dance”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] liltië n. “dancing, dance”
Q. pirucendëa adj. “on the point of her toes”
Q. ruxöalë n. “Great Bear-dance”
⚠️ᴱQ. tanta-² v. “to dance (tr.), dandle, wave”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lilta- “to dance”
⚠️ᴱQ. tantarë n. “dance”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^liltë “dance”

10.45 to Walk

ᴺQ. !etevatta- v. “to trample out”
ᴺQ. !pat n. “step”
ᴺQ. !pat- v. “to step, take a (single) step”
Q., ᴱQ. pata- v. “to walk, *stroll; [ᴱQ.] to rap, tap (of feet)”
ᴺQ. !patu- v. “to step to it, start off, start walking”
⚠️ᴱQ. ramba- v. “to walk”
Q. #telconta- v. “to stride, *(lit.) to leg it”
ᴺQ. !tervanta- v. “to traverse”
ᴹQ. vanta n. “walk, *hike, march”
ᴹQ. vanta- v. “to walk, *trudge, trek”
ᴺQ. !vatta- v. “to trample”

10.46 to Run

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] lop- v. “to gallop, *lope, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] run”
⚠️ᴱQ. lopeta- v. “to amble, lop”
⚠️ᴱQ. loquo- v. “to run (of human beings)”; see instead:
Q. nor-¹ “to run (or leap, of animals or men)”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^nonóra- v. “to run on, run smoothly and hum, *keep on running (especially of machines)”
Q. nor-¹ v. “to run (or leap, of animals or men)”
Q. norië n. “running, ⚠️race”
Q. nórima adj. “strong/swift at running, swiftly running a course”
Q. normë n. “race (running)”
⚠️ᴱQ. nornoro- v. “to run on, run smoothly and hum”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^nonóra- “to run on, run smoothly and hum, *keep on running (especially of machines)”
Q. noroitë (noroiti-) adj. “(capable of) running”
Q. norolinda adj. “*tripping lightly”
⚠️ᴱQ. norolindë adj. “tripping lightly”
⚠️ᴱQ. nyoro- v. “to run”; see instead:
Q. nor-¹ “to run (or leap, of animals or men)”
⚠️ᴱQ. pelte- v. “to run”; see instead:
Q. nor-¹ “to run (or leap, of animals or men)”
⚠️ᴹQ. rohta- v. “?to run on foot”; see instead:
Q. nor-¹ “to run (or leap, of animals or men)”
⚠️ᴺQ. !yur- v. “to run”; see instead:
Q. nor-¹ “to run (or leap, of animals or men)”
⚠️ᴱQ. yuro n. “a run, race”; see instead:
Q. normë “race (running)”
⚠️ᴱQ. yuru- v. “to run”; see instead:
Q. nor-¹ “to run (or leap, of animals or men)”

10.47 to Go

⚠️ᴱQ. ere-² v. “to go”; see instead:
Q. men- “to go, proceed, move (generally); ⚠️to come, arrive”
ᴺQ. !etelelya- v. “to go out, ⚠️go into exile”
ᴺQ. !etemen- v. “to go out, go forth”
⚠️ᴱQ. inta- v. “to go (indefinite), fare, proceed”
ᴺQ. !lelelya- v. “to travel”
Q. lelya-¹ v. “to go, proceed (in any direction), travel”
Q. lenda n. “journey, *travel, trip”
Q. lenda- v. “to go free”
⚠️ᴺQ. !lendë n. “journey”; see instead:
Q. lenda “journey, *travel, trip”
ᴺQ. !lendië n. “tourism, *traveling”
⚠️ᴹQ. lesto (lestu-) n. “journey”; see instead:
Q. lenda “journey, *travel, trip”
Q. lomentië n. “?journey away”
Q. men- v. “to go, proceed, move (generally); ⚠️to come, arrive”
ᴹQ. mena- v. “to be making for, be on way to”
Q. mentië n. “passage, journey, direction of travel”
⚠️ᴺQ. !rata- v. “to make a way, find a way”; see instead:
Q. ráta- “to excel, surpass”
⚠️ᴱQ. tie- v. “to go”; see instead:
Q. men- “to go, proceed, move (generally); ⚠️to come, arrive”
⚠️Q. tinga- v. “to go (for a long while)”; see instead:
Q. men- “to go, proceed, move (generally); ⚠️to come, arrive”
ᴹQ. tinga- “to twang”

10.48 to Come

⚠️ᴱQ. #antulu- v. “to return”; see instead:
Q. #entul- “to come again, *return”
⚠️ᴹQ. attul- v. “to come back, return”; see instead:
Q. #entul- “to come again, *return”
Q. #entul- v. “to come again, *return”
Q. entulessë n. “return”
ᴹQ. #ettul- v. “*to come forth, come out, issue”
Q. hótul- v. “to come away”
⚠️ᴱQ. *lé- v. “to come, be sent, approach”; see instead:
Q. tul- “to come, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] move (intr.); to bring, carry, fetch; to produce, bear fruit”
Q. tulta- “to send (from point of view of receiver), [ᴹQ.] to send for, send hither, fetch, summon, (lit.) cause to come”
⚠️Q., ᴹQ. #lenna- v. “to come; [ᴹQ.] to go, depart”; see instead:
Q. tul- “to come, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] move (intr.); to bring, carry, fetch; to produce, bear fruit”
Q. lelya-¹ “to go, proceed (in any direction), travel”
ᴹQ. #nan-² v. “to go back”
Q. nanwen- v. “to return, go/come back”
Q. ral- v. “to return (intransitive)”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. tul- v. “to come, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] move (intr.); to bring, carry, fetch; to produce, bear fruit”
Q. tutulla- v. “to keep on coming (and going)”
ᴹQ. tutulla- v. “to keep on coming (and going)”

10.49 to Depart, Go Away

⚠️ᴹQ. apsa- v. “to away, go away”; see instead:
Q. apta- “to refuse, deny, say nay”
Q. auta-¹ “to go (away), depart, leave; to disappear, be lost, pass away”
Q., ᴹQ. auta-¹ v. “to go (away), depart, leave; to disappear, be lost, pass away”
ᴺQ. !autaila adj. “going, passing, nearly gone”
⚠️ᴱQ. #ava- v. “to depart”; see instead:
Q. auta-¹ “to go (away), depart, leave; to disappear, be lost, pass away”
⚠️ᴱQ. avandë interj. “get hence!”; see instead:
Q. heca “be gone!, stand aside!”
⚠️ᴱQ. avanwa adj. “going, passing, nearly gone”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !autaila “going, passing, nearly gone”
Q. avanwa “refused, forbidden, banned”
Q. etsurya- [þ] v. “to go out”
Q. heca v. “be gone!, stand aside!”
Q. lenwë n. “leaving, departure”
Q. lenweta- v. “to go away, migrate, leave one’s abode”
⚠️ᴹQ. lesta- v. “to leave”; see instead:
Q. auta-¹ “to go (away), depart, leave; to disappear, be lost, pass away”
⚠️ᴱQ. vana- v. “to pass, depart, vanish, go away”; see instead:
Q. auta-¹ “to go (away), depart, leave; to disappear, be lost, pass away”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. vanwa adj. “gone, lost, departed, vanished, past, over, no longer to be had, passed away, dead, [ᴹQ.] gone for good; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] on the road”
⚠️Q., ᴹQ. vanya- v. “to pass, [ᴹQ.] go, depart, disappear”; see instead:
Q. auta-¹ “to go (away), depart, leave; to disappear, be lost, pass away”
⚠️Q. var adv. “*from, away to”

10.50 to Fade

Q. fifíru- v. “to slowly fade away”
⚠️ᴱQ. #hista- v. “to fade”; see instead:
ᴹQ. sinta- “to fade, *(lit.) become grey”
⚠️ᴱQ. minda- v. “to diminish, fade, lessen, vanish”; see instead:
Q. pic- “to lessen, dwindle, wane”
⚠️ᴱQ. minga adj. “waning”; see instead:
Q. pic- “to lessen, dwindle, wane”
Q. pic- v. “to lessen, dwindle, wane”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. #quel- v. “to fade; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] †to fail; [ᴱQ.] to perish”
⚠️ᴹQ. quelesta n. “dying, fading”; see instead:
Q. #quelië “*fading”
Q., ᴹQ. #quelië n. “*fading”
ᴹQ. sinta- [þ] v. “to fade, *(lit.) become grey”
⚠️ᴹQ. vinda- v. “to fade”; see instead:
ᴹQ. sinta- “to fade, *(lit.) become grey”

10.51 to Flee

ᴺQ. !lerca- v. “to flee”
ᴺQ. !lercië n. “flight”

10.52 to Follow

ᴺQ. !hilië n. “following (act of)”
⚠️ᴺQ. !hilmë² n. “following (act of)”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !hilië “following (act of)”
ᴹQ. hilya- v. “to follow”
ᴹQ. neuro n. “follower, successor”

10.53 to Pursue

ᴹQ. alfárima adj. “impossible to pursue”
⚠️ᴱQ. rawa- v. “to run, chase”; see instead:
Q. nor-¹ “to run (or leap, of animals or men)”
ᴹQ. roita- “to pursue, *chase”
ᴹQ. roita- v. “to pursue, *chase”

10.54 to Overtake

ᴺQ. !at- v. “to catch, capture”
⚠️ᴱQ. lac (laqu-) n. “snare”; see instead:
Q. remma “snare”
ᴹQ. neuma “snare, *noose”
⚠️ᴱQ. laqua- v. “to catch, seize, snare”; see instead:
Q. raf- “to wave, brandish; [ᴹQ.] to snatch, seize”
Q. #rem- “to snare”
ᴹQ. mapa- “to grasp, seize, [ᴱQ.] take; ⚠️to ravish, seize and carry off forcibly”
ᴹQ. neuma n. “snare, *noose”
Q. #rem- v. “to snare”
Q. remma n. “snare”

10.55 to Reach, Arrive

Q. anya- v. “to reach, go to, arrive at”
ᴺQ. !anyaitië n. “range, reach, distance of capability”
ᴺQ. !eterahta- v. “to reach out”
⚠️Q. ten- v. “to arrive, come to”; see instead:
Q. anya- “to reach, go to, arrive at”
⚠️Q. †tenya- v. “to arrive, end (not at speaker’s[?] place)”; see instead:
Q. anya- “to reach, go to, arrive at”
Q. tulusta n. “advent, arrival”
⚠️ᴹQ. tulustë n. “arrival”; see instead:
Q. tulusta “advent, arrival”

10.56 to Approach

ᴺQ. !analelya- v. “to approach”
Q. úva- v. “to impend, be imminent, draw near”

10.57 to Enter

⚠️ᴱQ. elte- v. “to thrust in”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ter- “to pierce”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. mitta- v. “to insert; [ᴹQ.] to come in, [ᴱQ.] enter”
Q. #mittar(ë) n. “*entering”
⚠️ᴱQ. pen prep. “through”; see instead:
Q. ter “through”
⚠️ᴱQ. perma n. “passage; pass, aperture”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. ter prep. “through”

10.61 to Bear, Carry

Q. #col- v. “to bear, carry, wear”
Q. #colindo n. “bearer”
Q. colla adj. and n. “borne, worn; vestment, cloak”
Q. coloitë (coloiti-) adj. “capable of bearing, tolerant (of), enduring”
Q. coloitië n. “endurance, staunchness, fortitude”
⚠️ᴱQ. tala- v. “to carry, bring; to weigh (intr.)”; see instead:
Q. #col- “to bear, carry, wear”
Q. tulya- “*to lead; [ᴱQ.] to bring, ⚠️send”
⚠️ᴱQ. yulu- v. “to carry”; see instead:
Q. #col- “to bear, carry, wear”
Q. yul- “to drink”

10.62 to Bring

ᴺQ. !autulya- v. “to deport, (lit.) bring away”
ᴺQ. !autulyalë n. “deportation”
⚠️ᴱQ. tulalca adj. “able to bring”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !tulyaitë “able to bring”
ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.], ᴱQ. túlima adj. “[ᴱQ.] bringable, worth bringing, able to be brought”
⚠️ᴱQ. tulinya adj. “(bringable) worth bringing”; see instead:
ᴺQ. túlima “[ᴱQ.] bringable, worth bringing, able to be brought”
Q., ᴱQ. tulya- v. “*to lead; [ᴱQ.] to bring, ⚠️send”
ᴺQ. !tulyaitë adj. “able to bring”
Q. tulyandë n. “fetching”

10.63 to Send

ᴺQ. !atamenta- v. “to transmit”
ᴺQ. !atamentië n. “transmission”
⚠️ᴱQ. esta- v. “to send”; see instead:
Q. menta-¹ “to send, cause to go (in a desired direction)”
ᴹQ. esta-¹ “to name”
⚠️ᴺQ. !etementa- v. “to banish, send out, (lit.) out-send”; see instead:
Q. #etya “exiled”
Q. #lelta- v. “to send, *(lit.) cause to go”
Q. #menta n. “sending, message”
Q. menta-¹ v. “to send, cause to go (in a desired direction)”
⚠️Q. menta-² v. “have as object[ive], (in)tend, proceed, make for, go towards”; see instead:
Q. men- “to go, proceed, move (generally); ⚠️to come, arrive”
Q., ᴹQ. tulta- v. “to send (from point of view of receiver), [ᴹQ.] to send for, send hither, fetch, summon, (lit.) cause to come”
Q. tultaima adj. “*fetchable, summonable”

10.64 to Lead

Q. mittanya- v. “*to lead (into)”
ᴺQ. !nópata- v. “to precede, (lit.) to walk before”
ᴺQ. !tulyando n. “leader”

10.645 to Wander, Stray

ᴹQ. mista- v. “to stray about”
ᴺQ. !mistana adj. “stray”
⚠️ᴱQ. palava- v. “to stray, wander”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ranya- “to stray, *wander”
⚠️ᴱQ. paláva adj. “wandering”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !ranyaila “wandering”
⚠️ᴱQ. palwa- v. “to make wander”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ranya- “to stray, *wander”
ᴹQ. ránë n. “straying, wandering”
ᴹQ. ránen adj. “errant”
Q., ᴹQ. ranya n. “erratic wandering; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] free”
ᴹQ. ranya- v. “to stray, *wander”
ᴺQ. !ranyaila adj. “wandering”
ᴺQ. !ranyar n. “wanderer”

10.65 to Drive

⚠️ᴱQ. #ele- v. “to drive; to come”; see instead:
Q. nir- “to press, thrust, force (in a given direction)”
Q. tul- “to come, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] move (intr.); to bring, carry, fetch; to produce, bear fruit”
⚠️ᴹQ. #lhit- v. “to speed”; see instead:
ᴹQ. horta- “to send flying, speed, urge”

10.66 to Ride

⚠️ᴱQ. lehesta n. “ride, riding, raid”
⚠️ᴱQ. lehta- v. “to ride, move (tr.)”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lehta- “to loose, slacken”
Q. norta- “to make run (specially used of riding horses or other animals), ride”
Q. norta- v. “to make run (specially used of riding horses or other animals), ride”
Q. roquen n. “knight, horseman, rider”

10.67 to Push, Shove

⚠️ᴱQ. elta n. “a thrust”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !nista “thrust, push, shove”
⚠️ᴱQ. ilt- v. “to thrust home, come in”
Q. nir- v. “to press, thrust, force (in a given direction)”
Q. nírë n. “force”
Q. nírítë adj. “forceful, exerting great thrust or pressure, driving”
ᴺQ. !nista n. “thrust, push, shove”
Q. rum- v. “to shift, move, heave (of large and heavy things)”

10.71 Road

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] aldeon (aldeond-) n. “avenue (of trees)”
ᴺQ. !ómen n. “crossroads”
ᴹQ. tëa n. “straight line, road”
⚠️ᴱQ. vasta n. “road”; see instead:
ᴹQ. mallë “street, (made or stone) road”

10.72 Path

Q., ᴹQ. men n. “way; [ᴹQ.] place, spot”
ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.] ranta n. “course”
⚠️ᴺQ. !rata n. “path, track”; see instead:
Q. tië “path, road, way, line, [ᴹQ.] course, direction, [ᴱQ.] route”
Q. ráta- “to excel, surpass”
⚠️ᴺQ. !ratta n. “street, course, river-bed”; see instead:
Q. ratta “track”
ᴹQ. mallë “street, (made or stone) road”
Q. ratta n. “track”
⚠️ᴱQ. raumë n. “running, course”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ranta “course”
Q. norië “running, ⚠️race”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. tië n. “path, road, way, line, [ᴹQ.] course, direction, [ᴱQ.] route”
⚠️ᴱQ. #van (vand-) n. “way, path”; see instead:
Q. tië “path, road, way, line, [ᴹQ.] course, direction, [ᴱQ.] route”
ᴹQ. ván “goose”
ᴺQ. !vata n. “beaten track, pathway”

10.73 Street

ᴺQ. !aramallë n. “side-street”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. mallë n. “street, (made or stone) road”

10.74 Bridge

⚠️ᴱQ. penda¹ n. “bridge”; see instead:
Q. yanta “bridge”
⚠️ᴱQ. ranta¹ n. “arch, bridge”; see instead:
ᴺQ. cúnë “crescent, arch, ⚠️bow”
Q. yanta “bridge”
⚠️ᴱQ. sarapenda n. “wood-bridge”; see instead:
Q. yanta “bridge”
Q., ᴹQ. yanta n. “bridge”

10.75 Cart, Wagon, Carriage

ᴺQ. !angaraxa n. “train”
ᴺQ. !angatië n. “railway line, railroad track, (lit.) iron-road”
ᴺQ. !ataquer n. “bike, bicycle”
ᴺQ. !immenwa n. “automobile”
ᴺQ. !lieraxa n. “a bus, coach, (lit.) people wagon”
Q. lunca n. “heavy transport wain”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] norollë n. “cart”
Q. ondolunca n. “stonewain”
Q. raxa n. “wain, *wagon”

10.76 Wheel

Q. querma n. “spinning wheel, turn-table, *wheel”
⚠️ᴱQ. quirin n. “wheel”; see instead:
Q. querma “spinning wheel, turn-table, *wheel”

10.78 Yoke

ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.], ᴱQ. yalta n. “yoke”
⚠️ᴹQ. yanta² n. “yoke”; see instead:
Q. yanta “bridge”
ᴺQ. yalta “yoke”
⚠️ᴱQ. yarta n. “yoke”; see instead:
ᴺQ. yalta “yoke”

10.81 Ship

Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. cirya¹ n. “(sharp-prowed) ship, [ᴹQ.] boat; [Q.] swift gliding”
⚠️ᴹQ. ciryahto n. “shipwright”; see instead:
Q. ciryatan “shipbuilder, shipwright”
⚠️ᴱQ. ciryassëa adj. “what is on board ship”
ᴺQ. !ciryasta n. “fleet (of ships)”
Q. ciryatan n. “shipbuilder, shipwright”
⚠️ᴱQ. vëacirya n. “sea-ship”

10.82 Sailor

Q. ciryamo n. “mariner”
Q. ciryando n. “sailor”
Q. ciryaquen n. “shipman, sailor”
Q. eärendur n. “(professional) mariner, *(lit.) servant of the sea”
⚠️ᴹQ. vainar n. “sailor”; see instead:
Q. ciryando “sailor”
⚠️ᴹQ. vëaner² (vëanér-) n. “sailor”; see instead:
Q. ciryando “sailor”
⚠️ᴱQ. veniel n. “mariner”; see instead:
Q. ciryamo “mariner”
Q. eärendur “(professional) mariner, *(lit.) servant of the sea”
⚠️ᴱQ. yarendila adj. “like a sailor”; see instead:
Q. ciryando “sailor”
⚠️ᴱQ. yarendilyon n. “sailor”; see instead:
Q. ciryando “sailor”

10.83 Boat

ᴺQ. !angulóceluntë n. “dragon boat”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. luntë n. “boat, [ᴱQ.] ship”
⚠️ᴱQ. marcirya n. “ark”

10.85 Oar

ᴺQ. !palma¹ n. “flat tool, flat plank, oar”

10.86 Rudder

ᴺQ. !tulla n. “rudder”

10.87 Mast

ᴹQ. ferna n. “mast, beechnuts”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. tyulma n. “mast”

10.88 Sail

⚠️ᴱQ. tala² n. “sail”

10.89 Anchor

ᴺQ. !ciryampa n. “anchor, (lit.) boat-hook”

10.90 Port, Harbor

⚠️ᴺQ. !ciryapanda n. “haven, (lit.) ship-enclosure”; see instead:
Q. londë “(land-locked) haven; [ᴹQ.] road (in sea), fairway, entrance to harbour; gulf”
ᴹQ. hopassë n. “harbourage”
Q., ᴹQ. londë n. “(land-locked) haven; [ᴹQ.] road (in sea), fairway, entrance to harbour; gulf”
Q. #londië n. “harbourage”

11. Possession and Trade

11.11 to Have

Q., ᴹQ. #harya- v. “to have, [ᴹQ.] possess”
⚠️ᴺQ. !inyenna adv. “have, (lit.) added to me”; see instead:
Q. #sam- “to have”
⚠️Q. mai-² v. “to have, possess”; see instead:
Q. #sam- “to have”
Q. #harya- “to have, [ᴹQ.] possess”
Q. #sam- v. “to have”

11.12 to Own, Possess

ᴹQ. arwa adj. and suf. “possessing, having, in control of”
Q. auvië n. “possession (abstract), *the act of possessing”
ᴺQ. !harno n. “possessor”
⚠️ᴱQ. mactë² (maxi-) n. “hold, grip, power, possession”; see instead:
ᴺQ. mahtë “hold, grip, *grasp; ⚠️power, possession”
⚠️ᴱQ. milc(i)- v. “to possess, have, keep”; see instead:
Q. #harya- “to have, [ᴹQ.] possess”
Q. #sam- “to have”
Q. öa- v. “to possess, own, keep”
ᴺQ. !öamo n. “owner”
⚠️ᴱQ. #yaim- v. “to possess”; see instead:
Q. #harya- “to have, [ᴹQ.] possess”

11.13 to Take

ᴺQ. !aucol- v. “to remove, (lit.) bear away”
ᴺQ. !haita- v. “to remove, (lit.) make distant”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] lep- v. “to take [with fingers], *pick, pluck”
ᴺQ. !nap- v. “to take (hold), pick up, grasp (with fingers)”
Q. nehta- v. “to deprive”
⚠️ᴹQ. ruc- v. “to pluck”; see instead:
Q. #ruc- “to feel fear or horror; *to flee (to)”
ᴺQ. lep- “to take [with fingers], *pick, pluck”

11.14 to Grasp, Seize, Take Hold of

⚠️ᴱQ. #aqua- v. “to seize”; see instead:
Q. raf- “to wave, brandish; [ᴹQ.] to snatch, seize”
ᴹQ. mapa- “to grasp, seize, [ᴱQ.] take; ⚠️to ravish, seize and carry off forcibly”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] mahtë n. “hold, grip, *grasp; ⚠️power, possession”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. mapa- v. “to grasp, seize, [ᴱQ.] take; ⚠️to ravish, seize and carry off forcibly”
⚠️ᴺQ. !rapa- v. “to snatch”; see instead:
Q. raf- “to wave, brandish; [ᴹQ.] to snatch, seize”

11.15 to Hold

ᴺQ. !camya- v. “to contain, hold”
⚠️ᴱQ. culp- v. “to contain”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] vainë n. “sheath, pod”
⚠️ᴱQ. yava-² v. “to hold”

11.16 to Get, Obtain

⚠️Q. #cam- v. “to receive”; see instead:
Q. #cav- “to receive, *accept”
Q. #cav- v. “to receive, *accept”
ᴺQ. !cávima adj. “acceptable”
⚠️ᴺQ. !maicámima adj. “acceptable, (lit.) well-receivable”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cávima “acceptable”
ᴺQ. !maicarindo n. “benefactor”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] net- [ñ-] v. “to get”
⚠️ᴱQ. túvima adj. “acceptable”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cávima “acceptable”
Q. túvima “discoverable”
⚠️ᴱQ. tuvu- v. “to receive, accept, take, require, cost”; see instead:
Q. #cav- “to receive, *accept”
Q. #tuv- “to find, discover”

11.17 to Keep, Retain

ᴺQ. !ambahep- v. “to maintain, (lit.) upkeep”
ᴺQ. !camma n. “receptacle”
ᴺQ. !fillannë n. “sack-cloth”
Q. hampa adj. “restrained, delayed, kept”
⚠️ᴺQ. !hap-² v. “to retain, keep, detain”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !hep- “to keep”
ᴺQ. !hapya- “to delay, retain, keep (temporarily)”
ᴺQ. !hep- v. “to keep”

11.21 to Give

⚠️ᴱQ. an (and-) n. “gift”; see instead:
Q. anna “gift, (orig.) thing handed, brought or sent to a person, *present”
⚠️ᴱQ. anar (anard-) n. “giver”; see instead:
ᴹQ. anto² “giver (m.)”
Q., ᴹQ. anna n. “gift, (orig.) thing handed, brought or sent to a person, *present”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. anta- v. “to give, present; †to add to”
ᴹQ. antë n. “giver (f.)”
ᴹQ. anto² n. “giver (m.)”
ᴺQ. !aranta- v. “to turn over, (lit.) give by”

11.22 to Return, Give Back

⚠️ᴺQ. !atanta- v. “to give back”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !nananta- “to give back, *return [something]”
ᴺQ. !minomë adv. “instead, in place of, in exchange of”
ᴺQ. !nampaitya- v. “to pay back”
ᴺQ. !nampaityalë n. “paying back, *restitution”
ᴺQ. !nananta- v. “to give back, *return [something]”
⚠️ᴺQ. !nancam- v. “to receive back”; see instead:
Q. #cav- “to receive, *accept”
ᴺQ. !nanwenta- v. “to send back”
ᴺQ. !ralya- v. “to return (intransitive)”

11.23 to Restore

ᴺQ. !apterya- v. “to repair, fix”
Q. ceulë n. “*renewal”
Q. ceurë adj. “renewed”
Q. ceuta- v. “to renew, refresh”
⚠️ᴱQ. loista- v. “to refresh”; see instead:
Q. ceuta- “to renew, refresh”

11.24 to Save, Preserve, Keep Safe

⚠️ᴱQ. alantya adj. “*shielded, protected”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] alatya- v. “to shield, ward off, ⚠️protect”
Q. cauma n. “protection, shelter, shield”
⚠️ᴱQ. moina adj. “safe, secure”; see instead:
ᴹQ. varna “safe, protected, secure”
ᴹQ. moina “familiar, dear”
⚠️ᴱQ. quára n. “watch, ward”; see instead:
ᴺQ. tiris “watch, vigil, ward”
ᴺQ. !sótë n. “refuge”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] tarqua- v. “to dry, preserve; to pickle”
⚠️ᴹQ. varilë n. “protection”; see instead:
ᴹQ. varnassë “security”
Q. cauma “protection, shelter, shield”
ᴹQ. varna adj. “safe, protected, secure”
ᴹQ. varnassë n. “security”
ᴺQ. !varno n. “protector, guard”
ᴹQ. varya- v. “to protect”
ᴺQ. !varyando n. “protector”
ᴺQ. !vorta- v. “to preserve, make lasting”

11.25 to Save, Rescue

Q. etelehta- v. “*to deliver”
ᴺQ. !etelehto n. “deliverer”
Q. eterúna- v. “*to deliver”
Q. #rehta- v. “to rescue, save”
Q. rehtië n. “rescue, saving”
ᴺQ. !rehto n. “savior”
⚠️ᴱQ. resta- v. “to aid, come to aid of, rescue, save”; see instead:
Q. #rehta- “to rescue, save”
Q. runando n. “*redeemer”
ᴺQ. !sámë [þ] n. “salvation, saving, help”
ᴹQ. #sáro [þ] n. “saviour”

11.27 to Destroy

ᴺQ. !alanancárima adj. “indestructible”
⚠️ᴱQ. faicar n. “destroyer, slayer; bane”; see instead:
Q. #nehtar “slayer”
Q. #nancar- v. “to undo, *destroy”
ᴺQ. !nancárima adj. “destructible”
ᴺQ. !nancarindo n. “destroyer”
ᴺQ. !nancáro n. “destroyer”
Q., ᴹQ. #nwar- [ñ-] v. “to fret, wear away, [ᴹQ.] erode; to gnaw”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] queletya- v. “to perish”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quelmë n. “ruin, utter end, perdition, ⚠️end, death”

11.28 to Harm, Injure, Damage

Q. alahasta adj. “unmarred”
Q. †χarina adj. “marred”
ᴺQ. !harnalë n. “harm, damage”
Q. #hasta- v. “to mar”
Q. hastaina adj. “marred”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] hyan- v. “to injure”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] hyanda n. “harm, damage”
⚠️ᴱQ. mala-¹ v. “to hurt, pain”
ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.] sac- v. “to be hurt”
Q. sahta adj. “marred”
Q. †úχarin adj. “unmarred”
Q. úvana adj. “marred”

11.29 to Spoil

⚠️ᴱQ. avalta- v. “to strip, despoil, denude”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !helta- “to strip, bar, peel; *to despoil, denude”
ᴺQ. !hastalë n. “corruption”
ᴺQ. !hastima adj. “corruptible”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] hessa adj. “withered, ⚠️dead”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] hesta- v. “to wither”
⚠️ᴱQ. il(l)oitë adj. “withered, dead”; see instead:
ᴺQ. hessa “withered, ⚠️dead”
⚠️ᴱQ. minu- v. “to make less, decrease, spoil, alter for worse”; see instead:
Q. pic- “to lessen, dwindle, wane”
⚠️ᴱQ. narqua adj. “faded, shrivelled”; see instead:
ᴺQ. hessa “withered, ⚠️dead”
⚠️ᴱQ. narqua- v. “to wither”; see instead:
ᴺQ. hesta- “to wither”
⚠️ᴱQ. narquelë n. “fading, withering”; see instead:
Q. #quelië “*fading”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^quelehtië n. “rot, corruption”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^quelehtima adj. “corrupt, rotten”
⚠️ᴱQ. quelexië n. “rot, corruption”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^quelehtië “rot, corruption”
⚠️ᴱQ. quelexima adj. “corrupt, rotten”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^quelehtima “corrupt, rotten”
Q. rúcina adj. “confused, shattered, disordered, ruined”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] tyur- v. “to ‘turn’ milk, curdle (blood etc.)”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] tyurda adj. “curdled”

11.31 to Seek

ᴺQ. !alacestaima adj. “unsearchable”
⚠️ᴺQ. !alacestima adj. “unsearchable”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !alacestaima “unsearchable”
Q. ces- [þ] v. “to search, examine (in order to find something)”
ᴺQ. !cesië [þ] n. “search”
⚠️Q. cesta-¹ v. “to seek, search for”; see instead:
Q. cesta-² “to ask”
Q. *sur- “*to seek”
⚠️ᴱQ. saca- v. “to pursue, look for, search”; see instead:
Q. ces- “to search, examine (in order to find something)”
⚠️ᴱQ. satl n. “search, enquiry”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cesië “search”
Q. minasurië “enquiry, *research”
Q. *sur- v. “*to seek”
Q. *surië n. “*(an act of) seeking”
⚠️ᴱQ. tuctalla n. “*search”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cesië “search”
⚠️ᴱQ. tucu- v. “to go in search of, look for, fetch”; see instead:
Q. cesta-¹ “to seek, search for”

11.32 to Find

ᴺQ. !alahírima adj. “unfindable, impossible to find”
⚠️ᴹQ. cim- v. “to find; [ᴱQ.] to heed”; see instead:
Q. hir- “to find”
Q. tir- “to watch (over), guard, heed; to look (at), gaze, observe; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] to keep, preserve”
Q. ecces- [þ] v. “to find out, bring out by examining or eyeing[?]”
Q., ᴹQ. hir- v. “to find”
Q., ᴹQ. #tuv- v. “to find, discover”
Q. túvima adj. “discoverable”

11.33 to Lose

ᴺQ. !penta- v. “to lose”
⚠️ᴺQ. !úhep- v. “to lose, (lit.) to un-keep”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !penta- “to lose”
⚠️ᴺQ. !úhepië n. “loss”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !penta- “to lose”
⚠️ᴺQ. !únet- v. “to lose, (lit.) to un-get”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !penta- “to lose”
ᴺQ. !vanwë n. “loss (abstract/general)”

11.34 to Release

⚠️ᴱQ. erefainu n. “release”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !leryalë “release”
⚠️ᴱQ. fainu- v. “to release”; see instead:
Q. lerya- “to release, set free, let go”
⚠️ᴱQ. lapta- v. “?to relax, loosen”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lehta- “to loose, slacken”
ᴹQ. lehta- v. “to loose, slacken”
Q. lerya- v. “to release, set free, let go”
ᴺQ. !leryalë n. “release”
Q. rúna- v. “to free”
Q. sen- v. “to let loose, free, let go”
ᴺQ. !únut- v. “to untie”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] us- [þ] v. “to escape, get out”
⚠️ᴱQ. #úsiéra adj. “*escaped”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] uswë [þ] n. “escape, issue, outlet”

11.41 Property

Q. aura n. “possession, thing owned”
⚠️ᴱQ. autë¹ n. “goods, property, wealth, money”; see instead:
ᴹQ. armar “goods”
ᴺQ. ^aurië “wealth [in possessions], property”
Q. telpë “silver; [ᴱQ.] money”
Q. satya adj. “private, separate, not common, excluded”
Q. véra adj. “personal, private, own”

11.42 Wealth, Riches

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^aurië n. “wealth [in possessions], property”
⚠️ᴱQ. ausië n. “wealth”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^aurië “wealth [in possessions], property”
ᴹQ. heren n. “fortune, (lit.) governance”
⚠️ᴱQ. milcin n. “wealth”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^aurië “wealth [in possessions], property”

11.43 Money

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] telpilin n. “silver piece, *silver coin”

11.46 Treasure

⚠️ᴱQ. föa n. “hoard, treasure”; see instead:
Q. haura² “hoard, store”
Q. föa “breath, puff of breath”
Q., ᴹQ. harma n. “treasure, [ᴹQ.] treasured thing”
ᴹQ. harwë¹ n. “treasure, treasury”
Q. maina n. “thing of excellence, treasure”

11.47 Bank

Q. haura² n. “hoard, store”
ᴺQ. !sarnomo n. “banker”

11.48 Heir

ᴹQ. aryon n. “heir”
ᴺQ. !aryonië n. “inheritance”
Q. atamir n. “heirloom”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. #hildë (hildi-) n. “heir, follower; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] child”

11.51 Rich

⚠️ᴱQ. autë² (ausi-) adj. “rich”; see instead:
Q. alya “[ᴹQ.] rich, prosperous, abundant, blessed; ⚠️[Q.] fair, good”
ᴹQ. herenya “fortunate, wealthy, blessed, rich”
⚠️ᴱQ. avarna adj. “very rich”; see instead:
Q. alya “[ᴹQ.] rich, prosperous, abundant, blessed; ⚠️[Q.] fair, good”
ᴹQ. herenya adj. “fortunate, wealthy, blessed, rich”
⚠️ᴱQ. malcë (malci-) adj. “rich”; see instead:
Q. alya “[ᴹQ.] rich, prosperous, abundant, blessed; ⚠️[Q.] fair, good”

11.52 Poor

⚠️ᴱQ. mangë² n. “lack, want, shortage”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !penië “lack, want, shortage”
⚠️ᴱQ. oica adj. “poor”; see instead:
Q. penya “lacking, inadequate; *poor”
⚠️ᴱQ. oisë n. “poverty”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !penyalë “poverty, deprivation”
⚠️ᴱQ. oiswa adj. “poor”; see instead:
Q. penya “lacking, inadequate; *poor”
ᴺQ. !penië n. “lack, want, shortage”
Q. penna adj. and n. “lacking; vowel”
ᴺQ. !penno n. “poor man”
Q. penya adj. “lacking, inadequate; *poor”
ᴺQ. !penyalë n. “poverty, deprivation”
Q. #racina adj. “stripped, deprived”

11.53 Beggar

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] iqu- v. “to beg, ‘pray’”
ᴺQ. !iquindo n. “beggar”

11.56 to Steal

⚠️ᴱQ. naqua- v. “to steal”; see instead:
ᴺQ. pil- “to steal”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] pil- v. “to steal”

11.57 Thief

Q. arpo n. “seizer, thief”
ᴺQ. !aumapando n. “abductor, (lit.) away-seizer”
⚠️ᴱQ. naquar n. “thief”; see instead:
ᴺQ. pilu “thief, robber”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] pilu n. “thief, robber”

11.61 to Lend

ᴺQ. !yutya- v. “to lend, loan”

11.64 Debt

Q. #lucassë n. “*debt, trespass”
Q. #lucië n. “*debt, trespass”
Q. #lucindo n. “*debtor, one who trespasses”
Q. #luhta n. “*debt, trespass”
ᴹQ. nauta adj. “bound, obliged”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] paitya- v. “to repay, requite”
Q. #rocindë n. “*debtor, one who trespasses”
Q. #rohta n. “*debt, trespass”

11.65 to Pay

ᴺQ. !paityalë n. “reward, payment”

11.66 Account, Reckoning

Q., ᴹQ. #onot- v. “[ᴹQ.] to count up, *reckon”
Q. #onótië n. “*reckoning”
Q. onótimo n. “*reckoner”

11.67 Surety, Security

ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.] ovesta n. “contract, compact, treaty”
⚠️ᴹQ. vesta² n. “contract”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ovesta “contract, compact, treaty”

11.69 Tax

⚠️ᴺQ. !hótocië n. “tax”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !tungwë “tax”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] toc- v. “to appraise, tax, assess, assay; ⚠️to try, test, essay, endeavour; to feel with the hand, handle”
ᴺQ. !tungwë n. “tax”
ᴺQ. !tungwemen n. “tax-office”
ᴺQ. !tungwemo n. “tax-collector”
⚠️ᴺQ. !túrëautocië n. “tax”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !tungwë “tax”

11.72 Cost, Expense

⚠️ᴱQ. vil(dë) n. “matter, business, affair, thing”; see instead:
Q. caraitië “activity, business”
⚠️ᴱQ. #vildi- v. “to matter; to be of significance, worth, moment”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^valda- “to matter; to be of significance, worth, moment”
⚠️ᴱQ. vildima adj. “essential, imperative”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^valdima “essential, imperative”

11.73 Gain, Profit

ᴺQ. !cambië n. “profit, gain, intake, income”

11.79 to Earn

ᴺQ. !namoia- v. “to work (hard) for; to earn”

11.81 to Buy

ᴺQ. !homanca- v. “to buy”

11.82 to Sell

ᴺQ. !aumanca- v. “to sell, (lit.) trade away”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^maxë n. “sale”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quampa n. “peddlar-goods”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quampa- v. “to hawk goods”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quampalë n. “chaffering, *haggling, bargaining”
⚠️ᴱQ. vaxë n. “sale”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^maxë “sale”
ᴹQ. vaxë “stain”

11.83 to Trade

ᴺQ. !eccol- v. “to export”
ᴹQ. manca- v. “to trade”
ᴹQ. mancalë n. “commerce, *trade [as an activity]”
ᴺQ. !micol- v. “to import”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quap- v. “to chaffer, bargain, swap, barter”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quapta n. “deal, bargain”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quapta- v. “to exchange”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quaptalë n. “exchange”
ᴺQ. !quaptando n. “money-changer, (lit.) exchanger”
ᴺQ. !sundoharmar n. “capital [funds], (lit.) base treasures”
ᴺQ. !telpevistando n. “money-changer”
⚠️ᴱQ. vactelë n. “trade”; see instead:
ᴹQ. mancalë “commerce, *trade [as an activity]”

11.84 Merchant, Tradesman

ᴹQ. macar n. “tradesman, *trader, merchant”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quampo n. “pedlar, huckster”
⚠️ᴱQ. vactelëar n. “merchant”; see instead:
ᴹQ. macar “tradesman, *trader, merchant”

11.85 Market (place)

ᴹQ. armar coll. “goods”
ᴺQ. !macca n. “article (for exchange), ware, thing”
⚠️ᴺQ. !mancamen n. “market, (lit.) trade-place”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !mancanómë “market, market-place”
ᴺQ. !mancanómë n. “market, market-place”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^manco n. “wares”
⚠️ᴺQ. !mangwa n. “article for trading, goods”; see instead:
ᴹQ. armar “goods”
⚠️ᴱQ. vanco n. “wares”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^manco “wares”
⚠️ᴱQ. #vat (vact-) n. “wares”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^manco “wares”

11.87 Price

ᴺQ. !mirma n. “value, *price”

11.88 Dear, Expensive

Q. mírima adj. “very valuable, very precious, very lovely”
Q. mirwa adj. “precious, valuable”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] valda n. and adj. “worth; worthy, dear”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^valda- v. “to matter; to be of significance, worth, moment”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] valdëa adj. “of moment, important”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^valdima adj. “essential, imperative”

11.89 Cheap

ᴺQ. !alamirwa adj. “cheap, not precious, not expensive”

12. Spatial Relations

12.11 Place

ᴺQ. !ainomë adv. “anyplace, anywhere”
⚠️ᴹQ. essë³ n. “place”; see instead:
Q. #nómë “place”
⚠️ᴹQ. essëa² adj. “in place, local”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !nómëa “local”
⚠️ᴱQ. larma n. “area, space, room”; see instead:
ᴹQ. sambë “room, chamber”
ᴺQ. !latsë “area, space, room”
Q. #larma “raiment”
ᴹQ. larma “(?pig-)fat, flesh”
⚠️ᴱQ. larmavoitë adj. “roomy, spacious”; see instead:
Q. yonda² “wide, roomy, extensive”
ᴺQ. !latsë n. “area, space, room”
⚠️ᴺQ. !menessë adv. “instead, (lit.) in place”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !minomë “instead, in place of, in exchange of”
ᴺQ. !nairë [ñ-] n. “space (as a physical dimension)”
ᴺQ. !nanomë adv. “someplace, somewhere”
Q. #nómë n. “place”
ᴺQ. !nómëa adj. “local”
Q. #nómessë n. “place-name”
⚠️ᴺQ. !nómessëa adj. “local”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !nómëa “local”
ᴺQ. !osquetië n. “context”
⚠️ᴱQ. #panyara adj. “?setting”

12.12 to Put, Place, Set, Lay

ᴺQ. !antac- v. “to apply”
Q., ᴱQ. caita-² v. “*to lay (transitive); [ᴱQ.] to place, ⚠️lie down”
⚠️ᴱQ. casóro- v. “to make sit, set”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !sesta- “to set, (lit.) to make rest (on)”
⚠️ᴹQ. esta-² v. “to place, set, plant”; see instead:
Q. caita-² “*to lay (transitive); [ᴱQ.] to place, ⚠️lie down”
⚠️ᴺQ. !etepanya- v. “to put out”; see instead:
Q. caita-² “*to lay (transitive); [ᴱQ.] to place, ⚠️lie down”
Q. #pan- v. “*to arrange, set in order”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] panna n. “arrangement, grouping; *plan, course; ⚠️book”
⚠️ᴱQ. pano n. “series, course, plan, arrangement”; see instead:
ᴺQ. panna “arrangement, grouping; *plan, course; ⚠️book”
ᴹQ. pano “piece of shaped wood, *board, plank”
ᴺQ. !panwë n. “arrangement, plan; structure, ordering; (musical) theme”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. panya- v. “to fix, set; [ᴱQ.] to plan, arrange, ⚠️intend, mean”
⚠️ᴺQ. !sasta- v. “to put, place”; see instead:
Q. caita-² “*to lay (transitive); [ᴱQ.] to place, ⚠️lie down”
ᴺQ. !sesta- v. “to set, (lit.) to make rest (on)”
⚠️ᴱQ. sorto- v. “to set, settle”; see instead:
Q. mar- “to abide, be settled or fixed, [ᴱQ.] dwell, live”
ᴹQ. seru- “to settle on, sit or lie down, come to rest on”

12.13 to Sit

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] hac- v. “to squat”
⚠️ᴹQ. ham- v. “to sit (down), be situated in ”; see instead:
Q. har- “to sit, stay, [ᴱQ.] remain; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] to dwell, abide, reside”
⚠️ᴹQ. hamu- v. “to sit down, take a seat”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^haru- “to sit down, take a seat”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. har- v. “to sit, stay, [ᴱQ.] remain; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] to dwell, abide, reside”
ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.] ^haru- v. “to sit down, take a seat”
ᴹQ. seru- v. “to settle on, sit or lie down, come to rest on”
⚠️ᴱQ. soro- v. “to sit”; see instead:
Q. har- “to sit, stay, [ᴱQ.] remain; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] to dwell, abide, reside”
⚠️ᴱQ. sorta- v. “to sit down”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^haru- “to sit down, take a seat”

12.14 to Lie, Recline

⚠️ᴱQ. caima- v. “to lie quiet”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ser- “to rest, repose; to stay, tarry, stop, be for a while, at the moment”
ᴺQ. ^quilda- “to stay quiet, be quiet, ⚠️rest”
ᴺQ. !cainu- v. “to lie down, *bend down; [with locative] to endure, suffer (from)”
Q., ᴹQ. caita-¹ v. “to lie”
⚠️ᴱQ. caitoilë n. “rest”; see instead:
ᴺQ. sérë “peace; [ᴹQ.] rest, repose”
⚠️ᴱQ. cama- v. “to lie down; (c. loc.) to endure, suffer”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cainu- “to lie down, *bend down; [with locative] to endure, suffer (from)”
⚠️ᴱQ. camu- v. “to lay down, bend down, reduce”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cainu- “to lie down, *bend down; [with locative] to endure, suffer (from)”
⚠️ᴱQ. caya- v. “to lie”; see instead:
Q. caita-¹ “to lie”
⚠️ᴹQ. erdë² n. “repose”; see instead:
ᴺQ. sérë “peace; [ᴹQ.] rest, repose”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. lat- v. “to be extended, stretch, [ᴱQ.] spread, extend; [ᴹQ.] to be situated (of an area), lie (of lands or regions)”
ᴺQ. !nirya- v. “to lean against”

12.15 to Stand

⚠️ᴱQ. hyá- v. “to stand”; see instead:
Q. #tar-² “to stand”
ᴺQ. !nantar- v. “to stand back”
⚠️ᴱQ. nohto- v. “to stick out”; see instead:
Q. #ras- “to stick out”
Q. #ras- v. “to stick out”
Q. #tar-² v. “to stand”
⚠️ᴹQ. #thar-² v. “to stand”; see instead:
Q. #tar-² “to stand”
⚠️ᴹQ. #tol- v. “to stand”; see instead:
Q. #tar-² “to stand”
ᴹQ. tolu- v. “to stand up, get up, leave one’s seat”
⚠️ᴺQ. !tyul- v. “to stand”; see instead:
Q. #tar-² “to stand”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] tyulta- v. “to rear up, stick up”

12.16 to Stay, Wait, Remain

ᴹQ. hora- v. “to wait for”
⚠️ᴺQ. !larta- v. “to wait, stay, remain, last, endure”; see instead:
Q. har- “to sit, stay, [ᴱQ.] remain; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] to dwell, abide, reside”
Q. termar- “to stand, *endure, last, (lit.) through-abide”
ᴹQ. lemya- v. “to remain, tarry”
⚠️ᴹQ. lenda- v. “to linger”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lemya- “to remain, tarry”
Q. lenda- “to go free”
⚠️ᴱQ. masta- v. “to tarry, linger”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lemya- “to remain, tarry”
ᴹQ. masta- “to bake”
⚠️ᴺQ. !norta- v. “to stay”; see instead:
Q. har- “to sit, stay, [ᴱQ.] remain; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] to dwell, abide, reside”

12.17 to Remain, be Left Over

⚠️ᴱQ. #er- v. “to remain”; see instead:
ᴹQ. lemya- “to remain, tarry”
ᴹQ. lemba adj. “left behind”
⚠️ᴱQ. sal- v. “?to remain or remove”

12.18 to Leave, Relinquish

ᴺQ. !avarta- v. “to abandon”
ᴺQ. !etehat- v. “to throw out”
Q. hehta- v. “to put aside, leave out, exclude, abandon, forsake”
Q. hequa prep. and adv. “leaving aside, not counting, excluding, except”

12.19 Quiet

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] calaina adj. “serene”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] calainë n. “serenity, ⚠️serene”
⚠️ᴱQ. quië adj. “calm at sea”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quilda adj. “quiet, hushed, still”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^quilda- v. “to stay quiet, be quiet, ⚠️rest”
ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.], ᴱQ. quildë n. “quiet, rest, hush”
⚠️ᴱQ. quildi- v. “to rest, stay quiet, be quiet”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^quilda- “to stay quiet, be quiet, ⚠️rest”
⚠️ᴹQ. quilir n. “quiet”; see instead:
ᴺQ. quildë “quiet, rest, hush”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] rua adj. “steady, still, tranquil”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ruë n. “stillness, *steadiness, tranquility, ⚠️rest, remaining, steadfastness”

12.195 Whisper

⚠️ᴹQ. escë n. “rustle, noise of leaves”
ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.] ^hlussa- v. “to whisper”
ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.] ^hlussë n. “whispering sound, *whisper”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] hyassë n. “rushing noise, *rustling”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] hyasta- v. “to rush, rustle”
⚠️ᴹQ. lussa- v. “to whisper”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hlussa- “to whisper”
⚠️ᴹQ. lussë n. “whispering sound”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hlussë “whispering sound, *whisper”
ᴺQ. !nurrulë n. “murmuring”
⚠️ᴱQ. quiri-² v. “to murmur”; see instead:
Q. nurru- “to murmur, grumble, mumble”
⚠️ᴱQ. quirquirinda adj. “murmuring”
⚠️ᴱQ. quirquirindë n. “murmuring”
⚠️ᴱQ. quisi- v. “to whisper”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hlussa- “to whisper”
⚠️ᴱQ. quisquiri- v. “to rustle, murmur”; see instead:
ᴺQ. hyasta- “to rush, rustle”
Q. nurru- “to murmur, grumble, mumble”
⚠️ᴱQ. ulmula adj. “mumbling”
⚠️ᴱQ. vassalë n. “rustling”; see instead:
ᴺQ. hyassë “rushing noise, *rustling”

12.21 to Gather, Collect

⚠️ᴱQ. arm- v. “to gather, collect”; see instead:
Q. hosta- “to gather (hastily together), collect, assemble, pile up”
⚠️ᴱQ. cilc- v. “to gather, reap”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !cirihta- “to reap, harvest”
Q. comya- v. “to collect”
⚠️Q. conta- v. “[unglossed]”
⚠️ᴱQ. #cum- v. “to pile up”; see instead:
Q. hosta- “to gather (hastily together), collect, assemble, pile up”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. hosta- v. “to gather (hastily together), collect, assemble, pile up”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^hostaitë adj. “able to gather”
⚠️ᴱQ. hostalca adj. “able to gather”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^hostaitë “able to gather”
⚠️ᴱQ. lese- v. “to come together, gather (intr.)”; see instead:
Q. ócom- “to gather, assemble”
⚠️ᴱQ. lesta- v. “to collect (tr.)”; see instead:
Q. hosta- “to gather (hastily together), collect, assemble, pile up”
Q. ócom- v. “to gather, assemble”
⚠️ᴱQ. racta-² v. “to pile, hoard, amass, collect”; see instead:
Q. hosta- “to gather (hastily together), collect, assemble, pile up”
⚠️ᴺQ. !yocar- v. “to assemble, compose, construct”; see instead:
Q. carasta- “to build, construct”
Q. maita- “to make with art, design, compose”

12.22 to Join, Unite

ᴺQ. !erta- v. “to unite”
ᴺQ. !ertië n. “union”
ᴺQ. !himyalë n. “connection”
⚠️ᴱQ. lecte- v. “to join together, dovetail, fit in, splice”
⚠️ᴱQ. lequet (lequett-) n. “joint”
Q. #limë (limi-) n. “link, *joint”
ᴺQ. !limya- v. “to link, join”
⚠️ᴱQ. oxa n. “joint”; see instead:
Q. #limë “link, *joint”
⚠️ᴱQ. pac- v. “to apply, attach”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] quitin adj. “knitted, joined tight”
Q., ᴹQ. #sampanë n. “combination”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. tac- v. “to fasten, [ᴱQ.] fix”
ᴺQ. !yanta-¹ v. “to join”
⚠️ᴱQ. yanta² adj. “joined”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !yantaina “joined”
ᴺQ. !yantaina adj. “joined”
Q., ᴹQ. yanwë n. “joining, [ᴹQ.] isthmus, ⚠️bridge”

12.221 Together

Q. #as prep. “with”
⚠️Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. lé² prep. “with, [ᴹQ.] by, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] with (accompaniment)”; see instead:
Q. #ó “with”
⚠️ᴱQ. ma- pref. “together, in one”; see instead:
Q. o- “together”
⚠️ᴱQ. -ngwë suf. “*together”
Q., ᴹQ. o- pref. “together”
Q. #ó prep. “with”
⚠️ᴱQ. so- pref. “grouped, together”; see instead:
Q. #yo- “together (used in words describing the union of three or more things)”
ᴺQ. [Q.] uo adv. “together”
⚠️ᴱQ. va- pref. “together”; see instead:
Q. o- “together”
Q. #yo- pref. “together (used in words describing the union of three or more things)”
Q. yó(m) prep. “[together] with”

12.222 And

Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. ar conj. “and; ⚠️[ᴱQ., ᴹQ.] but”
⚠️ᴱQ. ya(n) conj. “and”; see instead:
Q. yo “both ... and”
Q. -yë suf. “and (pairs)”
Q., ᴹQ. yo conj. “both ... and”

12.223 Also

⚠️ᴱQ. aru adv. “in addition, as well, besides”; see instead:
Q. ar(a) “beside, next [to], *near, by; ⚠️out, [ᴹQ.] outside”
Q. epetai conj. “consequently, thereupon, thence, whereupon, (lit.) following which (fact)”
Q. etta conj. “*therefore, (lit.) out of that”
Q. potai conj. “*therefore, (lit.) before which”
Q. sië adv. “thus”
Q. sin¹ adv. “*thus”
⚠️ᴱQ. yando adv. “also”; see instead:
Q. ta³ “so, like that, also; and also, then”
ᴹQ. adv. “too, *also”

12.23 to Separate

ᴺQ. !ausatië adv. “especially, (lit.) setting aside”
ᴺQ. !cilta- v. “to divide, separate”
ᴺQ. !ciltië n. “division, separation”
ᴺQ. !etsatië adv. “especially”
⚠️ᴺQ. !salta- v. “to strain, winnow”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^silta- “to sift, sort out, winnow”
⚠️ᴺQ. !saltama n. “winnowing-fork”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^silta- “to sift, sort out, winnow”
Q. sat- v. “to set aside, appropriate to a special purpose or owner”
⚠️ᴱQ. silt- v. “to sift, sort out, winnow”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^silta- “to sift, sort out, winnow”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] silta n. “sieve”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] ^silta- v. “to sift, sort out, winnow”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] siltina adj. “winnowed”

12.232 to Divide

Q. estat- v. “to distribute (in even portions), *partition”
ᴺQ. !estatië n. “portion, share”
ᴺQ. !estatina adj. “divided, shared, distributed”
ᴺQ. !ósat- v. “to share”
ᴹQ. perya- v. “to divide in middle, halve”
⚠️ᴱQ. #ranta² n. “part”; see instead:
Q. asta “month; division, part (esp. one of other equal parts)”
⚠️ᴱQ. tirt (tirty-) n. “part, portion, share, section”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !estatië “portion, share”
Q. asta “month; division, part (esp. one of other equal parts)”
⚠️ᴱQ. tirtina adj. “divided, shared, distributed”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !estatina “divided, shared, distributed”
⚠️ᴱQ. tirty- v. “to partition, divide, part, distribute”; see instead:
Q. estat- “to distribute (in even portions), *partition”
ᴺQ. !úperima adj. “indivisible”

12.24 to Open

⚠️ᴱQ. apta- v. “to open”; see instead:
ᴹQ. panta- “to unfurl, spread out, open”
Q. apta- “to refuse, deny, say nay”
⚠️ᴱQ. aptë (*apti-) adj. “open”; see instead:
ᴹQ. panta “open, [ᴱQ.] wide, spreading”
Q. láta adj. “open (not closed)”
Q. látië n. “openness”
Q. latya n. “opening”
Q. latya- v. “to open anything (so as to allow entry)”
ᴹQ. palya- v. “to open wide, spread, expand, extend”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. panta adj. “open, [ᴱQ.] wide, spreading”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. panta- v. “to unfurl, spread out, open”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] pantië n. “unfolding, opening, ⚠️revealing”
⚠️ᴱQ. patsima adj. “wide open”; see instead:
ᴹQ. panta “open, [ᴱQ.] wide, spreading”

12.25 to Shut, Close

⚠️Q. avalatya- v. “to close, shut”; see instead:
Q. holya- “to shut, close”
Q. holla adj. “?shut”
Q. holya- v. “to shut, close”
Q. pahta¹ adj. “closed, shut, private”
Q. sac- [þ] v. “to close”

12.26 to Cover

⚠️ᴱQ. talda adj. “covered”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !tupina “covered”
Q. tal(da) “to the bottom”
ᴹQ. telmë n. “hood, covering”
ᴹQ. telta- v. “to canopy, overshadow, screen”
⚠️ᴱQ. #tildi- v. “to cover”; see instead:
Q. tup- “to cover, [ᴱQ.] put a lid on, put hat on, ⚠️roof”
⚠️ᴹQ. top- v. “to cover”; see instead:
Q. tup- “to cover, [ᴱQ.] put a lid on, put hat on, ⚠️roof”
⚠️ᴱQ. tump-² v. “to cover”; see instead:
Q. tup- “to cover, [ᴱQ.] put a lid on, put hat on, ⚠️roof”
Q., ᴱQ. tup- v. “to cover, [ᴱQ.] put a lid on, put hat on, ⚠️roof”
ᴺQ. !tupina adj. “covered”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] túpo n. “cover, lid, ⚠️roof”
Q. #untup- v. “to cover (over or up), (lit.) to cover down”

12.27 to Hide, Conceal

Q. #cuv- v. “to conceal, *hide”
Q. fanta- v. “to veil, cloak, mantle”
Q. fanwa n. “veil, screen”
ᴹQ. halya- v. “to veil, conceal, screen from light”
ᴹQ. *lihlicca- v. “to sneak about”
⚠️ᴱQ. lom- v. “to hide, lurk”; see instead:
Q. #nurta- “*to hide”
⚠️ᴱQ. moru- v. “to hide, conceal, lurk”; see instead:
Q. #cuv- “to conceal, *hide”
ᴺQ. !nannem- v. “to disappear”
Q. #nurta- v. “*to hide”
Q. vasar [þ] n. “veil”
Q. vasarya- [þ] v. “to veil”

12.272 Hidden, Concealed

Q. cúvima adj. “concealable”
Q. #cuvo n. “hider”
Q. cuvoitë (cuvoiti-) adj. “hiding, secretive; treacherous”
⚠️ᴱQ. foina adj. “hidden, secret”; see instead:
ᴹQ. muina “hidden, secret”
ᴹQ. nulla “dark, dusky, obscure; hidden, secret”
⚠️ᴱQ. furin adj. “hidden, concealed”; see instead:
ᴹQ. muina “hidden, secret”
⚠️Q. henfanwa n. “eye-screen, veil upon eyes”
Q. nurtalë n. “hiding”
ᴺQ. !úcénima adj. “invisible”
Q. úfantima adj. “not concealable”
Q. úfanwëa adj. “not veiled, unveiled”

12.31 High

⚠️ᴱQ. aiquië n. “highness, height”; see instead:
Q. #tárië “height”
⚠️ᴱQ. alva adj. “?lofty”; see instead:
ᴹQ. alwa “well-grown”
⚠️ᴱQ. ancasse(a) adj. “lofty, tall, (lit.) up-headed, high-headed”; see instead:
Q. tára¹ “lofty, tall, high”
⚠️ᴱQ. anwa adj. “high up, place high”; see instead:
ᴹQ. anwa “true, real, actual”
⚠️ᴱQ. ordië n. “height, loftiness”; see instead:
Q. #tárië “height”
Q. oromar (oromard-) n. “lofty hall, high-mansion, high (lofty) dwelling”
⚠️ᴹQ. orro² adv. “up in the air, on high”
Q., ᴱQ. orwa adj. “high, lofty”
⚠️ᴱQ. tá¹ adj. and adv. “high; high above, high up”; see instead:
Q. tára¹ “lofty, tall, high”
⚠️ᴱQ. tahóra adj. “lofty”; see instead:
Q. tára¹ “lofty, tall, high”
Q., ᴹQ. tar-¹ affix. “high; [ᴹQ.] king or queen (in compounds)”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. tára¹ adj. “lofty, tall, high”
Q., ᴱQ. #tárië n. “height”

12.32 Low

⚠️ᴱQ. hunda adj. “low, lowly”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tumna “lowlying, low; deep, [ᴱQ.] profound; ⚠️dark, hidden”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. tumna adj. “lowlying, low; deep, [ᴱQ.] profound; ⚠️dark, hidden”

12.33 Top

⚠️ᴱQ. ána n. “crown of head, top”
Q., ᴹQ. cas(ta) adv. “to(wards) the top, upwards”
ᴺQ. !castëa adj. “top (with added sense of prominent, chief)”
Q., ᴹQ. inga n. “top, highest point, ⚠️[ᴹQ.] first”
ᴺQ. !ingëa adj. “top”
⚠️ᴱQ. ormin n. “top”; see instead:
Q. cas “head, [ᴱQ.] top, ⚠️summit”

12.34 Bottom

⚠️ᴹQ. numbë n. “root, foundation”; see instead:
Q. #talma¹ “basis, [ᴹQ.] foundation, base, ⚠️root; [ᴱQ.] end”
Q. sundo “base, root, [ᴹQ.] root-word”
⚠️ᴱQ. sulmin n. “base of a pillar, base of column”; see instead:
Q. #talma¹ “basis, [ᴹQ.] foundation, base, ⚠️root; [ᴱQ.] end”
Q., ᴹQ. sundo [þ] n. “base, root, [ᴹQ.] root-word”
Q. tal(da) adv. “to the bottom”
ᴺQ. !taldëa adj. “bottom”
⚠️ᴱQ. talpa n. “support, prop, base, basis, pediment (column)”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tulco “support, prop”
Q. sundo “base, root, [ᴹQ.] root-word”
⚠️ᴱQ. tauma n. “basis, foundation, ground floor”; see instead:
Q. #talma¹ “basis, [ᴹQ.] foundation, base, ⚠️root; [ᴱQ.] end”
Q. talan “flat space, platform; [ᴹQ.] floor, ⚠️ground”
ᴹQ. tulco (*tulcu-) n. “support, prop”
⚠️ᴱQ. tulpo n. “buttress, prop”; see instead:
ᴹQ. tulco “support, prop”

12.35 End

ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] lappa n. “loose-end, end of rope, hem of robe”
ᴺQ. [ᴹQ.] ^tel (teld-) n. “end”
Q. telma n. “conclusion, anything used to finish off a work or affair; [ᴹQ.] ending”
⚠️ᴹQ. tyel (tyeld-) n. “end”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^tel “end”
⚠️ᴹQ. tyelma n. “ending”; see instead:
Q. telma “conclusion, anything used to finish off a work or affair; [ᴹQ.] ending”

12.352 Point

⚠️Q. cendë n. “point”; see instead:
Q. tillë “tip, point; [within compounds] finger, toe; [ᴱQ.] eyelash”
⚠️ᴱQ. cent n. “a sharp point”; see instead:
Q. tildë “fine sharp point, [ᴹQ.] spike; (mountain) horn, [ᴱQ.] tip, ️peak”
⚠️ᴱQ. colmë n. “point, tip”; see instead:
Q. tillë “tip, point; [within compounds] finger, toe; [ᴱQ.] eyelash”
⚠️ᴱQ. colmecta adj. “pointed”; see instead:
Q. *mixa “sharp-pointed”
⚠️ᴱQ. colosildë n. “long thin point”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ecco “spine, point, thorn”
ᴹQ., ᴱQ. mentë n. “point, end; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] peak, tip”
ᴺQ. !nassëa¹ adj. “spiked, pointed, barbed”
Q. ortil n. “up-point”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. tildë n. “fine sharp point, [ᴹQ.] spike; (mountain) horn, [ᴱQ.] tip, ️peak”
Q., ᴱQ. tillë n. “tip, point; [within compounds] finger, toe; [ᴱQ.] eyelash”
⚠️ᴱQ. tinda n. “spike”; see instead:
ᴹQ. nassë “thorn, spike”
ᴹQ. tinda “glinting (silver)”
⚠️ᴱQ. tindë (tindi-) adj. “spiked, pointed, barbed”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !nassëa¹ “spiked, pointed, barbed”
ᴹQ. tindë “glint”

12.353 Edge

⚠️ᴱQ. cantë n. “edge”; see instead:
Q. címa “edge of a cutting weapon/tool”
⚠️ᴱQ. cíla n. “edge, rim”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ríma “edge, hem, border”
⚠️ᴺQ. !cílëa adj. “edged”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !címëa “edged”
Q. címa n. “edge of a cutting weapon/tool”
Q. cimba n. “edge, brink”
ᴺQ. !címëa adj. “edged”
⚠️ᴹQ., ᴱQ. fas (fass-) n. “fringe, border; ⚠️[ᴱQ.] tassel”; see instead:
Q. pelma “border, fringe, edge, limiting device; [ᴱQ.] pen”
ᴹQ. atsa² “tassel, fryse, fringe”
Q. lanca n. “sharp edge (not of tools), sudden end”
Q. lanë (lani-) n. “hem”
⚠️ᴺQ. !maicëa adj. “edged”; see instead:
ᴺQ. !címëa “edged”
Q., ᴱQ. pelma n. “border, fringe, edge, limiting device; [ᴱQ.] pen”
ᴹQ. réna n. “edge, border, margin”
ᴹQ. ríma n. “edge, hem, border”
⚠️ᴱQ. rimbë n. “edge, lip, brim”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ríma “edge, hem, border”
Q. rimbë “host, great number, [ᴹQ.] crowd”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] tastë n. “fringe”
ᴺQ. [ᴱQ.] telustë n. “extremity”

12.37 Middle

Q. #endëa adj. “middle”
ᴺQ. [Q.] ^endya adj. “central, ⚠️middle”
⚠️Q. entya adj. “central, middle”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^endya “central, ⚠️middle”
⚠️ᴹQ. enya adj. “middle”; see instead:
Q. #endëa “middle”
Q. holmo adv. “sincerely, heartily; (lit.) from the middle”
ᴹQ. holmo adv. “from the middle”
ᴹQ. †humpë adv. “in the middle”
⚠️ᴱQ. mecilwa adj. “central”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^endya “central, ⚠️middle”
⚠️ᴱQ. mequa adj. “middle”; see instead:
Q. #endëa “middle”

12.371 Between

Q. enel prep. “in the middle, between”
Q., ᴹQ. imbë¹ prep. and adv. “between, among; ⚠️[ᴹQ.] in(wards)”
Q. imíca prep. “among”
Q., ᴹQ., ᴱQ. mitta prep. and adv. “[ᴹQ.] inwards, into, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] in; [Q.] between”

12.38 Center

Q. enda n. “heart; center, *interior”
Q., ᴹQ. endë n. “centre, middle; [ᴹQ.] core”
⚠️ᴱQ. mecta adj. “centre”; see instead:
Q. endë “centre, middle; [ᴹQ.] core”
⚠️ᴱQ. mectë n. “heart; center”; see instead:
Q. enda “heart; center, *interior”
⚠️ᴱQ. metl (mecil-) n. “centre”; see instead:
Q. endë “centre, middle; [ᴹQ.] core”
⚠️ᴱQ. tólë¹ n. “centre”; see instead:
Q. endë “centre, middle; [ᴹQ.] core”
⚠️ᴱQ. tólëa adj. “central, middle”; see instead:
Q. #endëa “middle”

12.391 In, Inside

⚠️ᴱQ. hir (hird-) n. “inwards, interior, inside, heart”; see instead:
Q. enda “heart; center, *interior”
ᴹQ. hont adv. “inwards”
⚠️ᴱQ. int adv. “inwards”; see instead:
Q. mitta “[ᴹQ.] inwards, into, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] in; [Q.] between”
⚠️ᴱQ. ir (ird-) n. “interior, centre, inwards, inner parts”; see instead:
Q. enda “heart; center, *interior”
Q., ᴹQ. mi prep. “in, [ᴹQ.] within”
Q. mina prep. and adv. “into, in, [ᴹQ.] to the inside”
⚠️ᴹQ. minna prep. and adv. “into, to the inside”; see instead:
Q. mina “into, in, [ᴹQ.] to the inside”
ᴹQ. mir prep. and adv. “to the inside, into”
ᴺQ. !mitië n. “interior”
ᴹQ. mitya adj. “interior”
ᴹQ. to prep. “in”

12.392 Out, Outside

Q., ᴹQ. #ava¹ adv. and adj. “[ᴹQ.] outside, beyond; outer, exterior”
⚠️ᴱQ. ere-¹ pref. “out”; see instead:
Q. #et(e)- “[ᴹQ.] forth, out”
⚠️ᴱQ. eru¹ adv. “outward”; see instead:
ᴺQ. ^esta “outwards”
⚠️ᴱQ. erúmëa adj. “outer, outermost”; see instead:
Q. #ava¹ “[ᴹQ.] outside, beyond; outer, exterior”
⚠️ᴱQ. erus(ta) adj. and n. “outside”; see instead:
ᴹQ. ettë¹ “outside”
⚠️ᴱQ. es- pref. “*out”; see instead:
Q. #