√HOR root. “urge, impel, move; warn, counsel”
Tolkien defined this root in a 1968 discussion of the origins of the Quenya word órë “heart, inner mind” (VT41/11-15). He first gave the root as √ƷOR “warn, counsel” (VT41/11), and in this form it may be a later iteration of (unglossed) ᴹ√ƷOR appearing in The Etymologies of the 1930s as a variant of ᴹ√GOR “violence, impetus, haste” (EtyAC/ƷOR). In the 1968 document, however, he altered the form to √HOR in rough notes following the main document, with the glosses “urge, impel, move” specifically limited to “mental impulses” (VT41/13); this other form might be a later iteration of ᴹ√KHOR “set going, put in motion, urge on” from The Etymologies (Ety/KHOR) as suggested by Carl Hostetter (VT41/17 note #9).
When Tolkien gave the root as √ƷOR, he listed the Quenya, Telerin and Sindarin forms as Q. óre, T. ōre and S. gûr (VT41/11), but after the change to √HOR he only gave its Quenya form as (h)óre (VT41/13). It seems likely that this muddle of forms was connected to Tolkien’s later vacillations on the phonetic development of ancient velar spirants in the Elvish languages, discussed in more detail in the entry on how initial [ɣ] became [h], which was how Tolkien commonly presented this development in Ancient Quenya.
Neo-Eldarin: This root is problematic for purposes of Neo-Eldarin, in that it is hard to reconcile either primitive root √ƷOR or √HOR with both Q. óre and S. gûr as well as the phonetic developments as Tolkien usually presented them: typically ʒ/h became h- in Quenya but vanished in Sindarin. The only option I see for preserving both Quenya and Sindarin forms is to assume this root was influenced by ᴹ√GOR “impetus” (or was itself *√GOR).
References ✧ VT41/11, 13, 15