Ilk. [θ] ‹th›

Ilk. [θ] ‹th›

The voiceless dental spirant mainly developed from the primitive aspirate [tʰ] (PE19/18), but medially after vowels it was voiced to [ð] (PE19/23), and thus [θ] from primitive [tʰ] appears more often initially than medially.

Another way that [θ] could develop was from the spirantalization of [t] after liquids and voiceless stops, and thus [θ] could appear non-finally in clusters such as [rθ] or [lθ] (“rth” or “lth”). In the case of pairs of primitive voiceless stops, these often reduced to a single [θ] because double spirants became single. In addition, in the Doriathrin dialect at least, a final [ð] was again devoiced to [θ], giving another way for a [θ] to appear non-initially.

References ✧ PE18/94; PE19/18, 20-21

Element In

Phonetic Development

Ilk. initial [s] unvoiced following [l], [r], [w] r̥- < sr- ✧ PE18/94 (sr- > thr-)
Ilk. initial [s] spirantalized following voiceless stops θ- < st- ✧ PE19/20 (st- > th-)
Ilk. aspirates became voiceless spirants θ < ✧ PE19/18 (th- > th-); PE19/21 (thr- > thr-); PE19/21 (thl- > thl-)