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ᴹ√KEPER root. “ridge; knob, head, top”

⚠️ᴹ√KEPER root. “ridge; knob, head, top”

A rejected (Noldorin-only?) root in The Etymologies of the 1930s initially glossed “knob, head, top”, perhaps replacing the also rejected root ᴹ√KOPAR of the same meaning (Ety/KEPER; EtyAC/KEPER, KOPAR). Tolkien changed the gloss of ᴹ√KEPER to “ridge” before he rejected the entry. The most notable derivative of this root was N. ceber in N. Sarn Gebir, whose gloss is unclear but might be “?limestone, -rock”. Despite his rejection of this root, S. Sarn Gebir did appear in The Lord of the Rings (LotR/391) and was in one place translated as “Stone-spikes” (RC/327), so perhaps Tolkien restored the root, though what it might mean is unclear.

References ✧ Ety/KEPER




ᴹ√KOPAR root. “knob, head, tip”

See ᴹ√KEPER for discussion.

Reference ✧ EtyAC/KOPAR ✧ “knob, head, tip”