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root. “labour, be afflicted”

root. “labour, be afflicted”

This root first appeared as unglossed ᴹ√ in The Etymologies of the 1930s with derivatives like ᴹQ. mól/N. mûl “slave, thrall” and ᴹQ. móta-/N. muda- “labour, toil” (Ety/MŌ). The root √ was mentioned again in notes associated with 1950s Quenya prayers, where it was glossed “labour, be afflicted” along with verb Q. moia- of similar meaning and noun (Q. or primitive) mōl “slave” < mō-l; Tolkien went on to suggest √mol might be a better root, though he marked it with a “?” (VT43/31).

In notes on “large vs. small” from 1968 Tolkien had (root or verb?) mol- “labour” and (noun?) mōle, followed by MBOL/BOL with derivative Q. molda “big, large”, but this note was crossed through and √(M)BOL “*large” did not appear in the next list of the large/small roots (PE17/115). Thus I think √MO(L) reverted back to the meaning “labour”.

References ✧ PE17/115, 150, 165; VT43/31





ᴹ√BOL root.

A root in The Etymologies of the 1930s with no glosses or derivatives and no clear function (EtyAC/BOL).

Reference ✧ EtyAC/BOL

ᴹ√ root. “*labour”

See √ for discussion.

Reference ✧ Ety/MŌ