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N. amben adj. “uphill” (Category: Slope, Cliff)

N. amben, adj. “uphill; [ᴱN.] arduous, difficult, tiresome” (Category: Slope, Cliff)

An adjective (and adverb?) for “uphill” in The Etymologies of the 1930s, a combination of am “up” and N. penn “declivity, *slope” (Ety/PEN). It was contrasted with N. dadben “downhill, inclined, prone” (Ety/AM², PEN).

Conceptual Development: In The Etymologies it first appeared as N. amdenn, a derivative of ᴹ√DEN “hillside, slope”, but the meaning of this root was change to ᴹ√DEN “hole; gap, passage” (Ety/DEN), after which the form amben < ᴹ√PEN(ED) given above was introduced. The earliest appearance of this word was in Early Noldorin Word-lists of the 1920s as ᴱN. amvenn “uphill; arduous, difficult, tiresome” explicitly marked as both an adjective and adverb, along with a noun variant ᴱN. amvinn “slope, incline, hillside” (PE13/139, 159-160). This early Noldorin form was a combination of ᴱN. am “up” and ᴱN. benn “sloping”.

Neo-Sindarin: Given its Early Noldorin use for “arduous, difficult, tiresome”, it is possible amben can be used colloquially in Neo-Sindarin with a similar sense of something difficult.

References ✧ Ety/AM², DEN, PEN

Glosses

Variations

Elements

am “up” ✧ Ety/AM²
penn¹ “declivity” ✧ Ety/DEN (denn); Ety/PEN
ᴹ√PEN(ED) ✧ Ety/AM² (PEN)
ᴹ√AM² “up” ✧ Ety/PEN

Cognates


ᴱN. amvenn adj. and adv. “uphill; arduous, difficult, tiresome” (Category: Slope, Cliff)

See N. amben for discussion.

References ✧ PE13/139, 159-160

Glosses

Variations

Inflections

amvinn plural ✧ PE13/159

Elements

am “up”
benn “sloping, inclined, slanting, up or down hill” ✧ PE13/138; PE13/160

Element In

Cognates


G. amon² adv. “uphill, against stream” (Category: Up, Above, Over)

References ✧ GL/19; LT2A/Amon Gwareth

Glosses

Elements

am¹ “up, upwards, towards head of, above” ✧ GL/19