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NDAK root. “hew, slay”

NDAK root. “slay; hew”

This root and similar ones were the basis for “slay” words for much of Tolkien’s life. The root first appeared in the Early Qenya Phonology of the 1920s as ᴱ√dag- with numerous etymological variants, including ᴱQ. taila/ᴱN. dail “axe (blade)” < dagla, ᴱQ. tanga-/ᴱT. danga- “to beat” < tang-, and ᴱQ. nahta-/ᴱN. dag- “to slay” (PE14/65-66); these last two words for “slay” appeared regularly in Tolkien’s writings thereafter. The root reappeared as ᴹ√NDAK “slay” in The Etymologies of the 1930s with similar Noldorin derivatives (Ety/NDAK), apparently a strengthened form of ᴹ√DAK “slay” (EtyAC/DAK).

The root was given as ᴹ√NDAG “slay” in the Quenya Verbal System of the 1940s (PE22/102, 115), but unglossed ᴹ√NDAK appeared in the same document (PE22/112), and verb ᴹQ. nak- was sometimes glossed “kill” as well (PE22/120). The root appeared as √NDAK “hew, slay” in the Outline of Phonology from the 1950s (OP2: PE19/91) and again as √NDAK “hew” in Late Notes on Verbs from 1969 (LVS: PE22/156). This introduction of the sense “hew” in the 1950s and 60s may be a partial restoration of the senses of the 1920s root ᴱ√dag-, which meant more that just “slay”. If so, √NDAK may be compared with √MAK which had a similar variety of meanings (“cleave, sword, slay, fight, forge”); see that entry for details.

References ✧ PE19/91; PE22/156; SA/dagor; VT49/24

Glosses

Related

Derivatives


ᴹ√(N)DAK root. “slay”

See √NDAK for discussion.

References ✧ Ety/NDAK, ÑGWAL; EtyAC/DAK, NAK; PE22/102, 112, 115

Glosses

Variations

Related

Inflections

NDAK strengthened “slay” ✧ Ety/NDAK

Derivatives


ᴱ√DAGA root. “*slay”

See √NDAK for discussion.

Reference ✧ PE14/65 ✧ dag-

Derivatives