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RIS root. “cut, cleave”

RIS root. “cut, cleave; [ᴹ√] slash, rip”

This root first appeared as ᴹ√RIS “slash, rip” in The Etymologies of the 1930s with the derivative N. risto “rend, rip” (Ety/RIS¹). Tolkien then created a new entry for ᴹ√RIS without deleting the prior entry, with derivatives like ᴹQ. rista/N. rhest “a cut” and ᴹQ. rista-/N. rhista- “cut” (Ety/RIS²); this seems to reflect a conceptual shift of “slash, rip” >> “cut”. Indeed, the root √RIS reappeared in Tolkien’s later writings with the gloss “cut” (PE17/87). Christopher Tolkien gave this root the gloss “cleave” in the Silmarillion Appendix (SA/ris).

References ✧ PE17/87, 182; SA/ris

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ᴹ√RIS root. “slash, rip”

See √RIS for discussion.

References ✧ Ety/KIRIS, RIS¹, RIS²; EtyAC/KIR

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?ᴱ√FAKA root. “cut”

A hypothetical early root to explain words in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s such as G. fag- “cut” and G. fanc “cut” (GL/33). It might be related to ᴱ√FḶKḶ “cleave, hew”. There are no signs of this root in Tolkien’s later writing.

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