N. verbal nouns grammar.

N. verbal nouns grammar.

Examples (gerund)
bacthad ← bactha- ✧ EtyAC/MBAKH
heniad “*understanding” ← henio (infinitive) ✧ EtyAC/KHAN
#nœdiad ← nœdia ✧ Ety/NOT
#onoded ← gonod- soft-mutation g-mutation ✧ Ety/NOT

Examples (infinitive)
atlanno “to slope, slant” [← atlanna-] ✧ Ety/TALÁT
adlegi [← †#adleg-] ✧ EtyAC/LEK
Adleitho [← adleitha-] ✧ EtyAC/LEK
anno “to give” [← anna-] ✧ Ety/ANA¹
ath-rado “to cross, traverse” [← athrada-] ✧ Ety/RAT
#vedi [← *bad-] ✧ Ety/BAT
bartho “to doom” [← bartha-] ✧ Ety/MBARAT
batho “trample” [← batha-] ✧ Ety/BAT
bauglo- “to oppress” [← baugla-] ✧ Ety/MBAW
berio “to protect” [← beria-] ✧ Ety/BAR
bertho “dare” [← bertha-] ✧ Ety/BER
blebi “flap, beat (wings etc.)” [← #blab-] ✧ Ety/PALAP
breitho “break out suddenly” [← breitha-] ✧ Ety/BERÉK
brenio “endure” [← brenia-] ✧ Ety/BORÓN
brono “last, survive” [← brona-] ✧ Ety/BORÓN
buio “serve, hold allegiance to” [← buia-] ✧ Ety/BEW
critho “reap” [← critha-] ✧ Ety/KIRIK
cuino “to be alive” [← cuina-] ✧ Ety/KUY
degi “to slay” [← dag-] ✧ Ety/NDAK
dagro “to battle” [← dagra-] ✧ Ety/NDAK
deri “stop, halt” [← dar-] ✧ Ety/DAR
dæri [← dar-] ✧ EtyAC/DAR
delio “conceal” [← delia-] ✧ Ety/DUL
dilio “to stop up” [← dilia-] ✧ Ety/DIL
dilio “to stop” [← dilia-] ✧ EtyAC/DIL
dravo “to hew” [← drava-] ✧ Ety/DARÁM
dringo “to beat” [← dringa-] ✧ Ety/DRING
echedi “fashion, shape” [← echad-] ✧ Ety/KAT
egledhio “go into exile” [← egledhia-] ✧ Ety/LED
ercho “to prick” [← ercha-] ✧ Ety/ERÉK
erio “rise” [← eria-] ✧ Ety/ORO
faltho “to foam” [← faltha-] ✧ Ety/PHAL
faro “to hunt” [← fara-] ✧ Ety/SPAR
faro “hunter” [← fara-] ✧ EtyAC/PHAR²
fuio “feel disgust at, abhor” [← fuia-] ✧ Ety/PHEW
gedi “catch” ← gad- ✧ Ety/GAT
galo- “to grow” [← gala-] ✧ Ety/GALA
galo “to grow” [← gala-] ✧ EtyAC/GAL²
gannado “play a harp” [← gann(ad)a-] ✧ Ety/ÑGAN
ganno “play a harp” [← gann(ad)a-] ✧ Ety/ÑGAN
garo- “hold, have” [← gar-] ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GAR
garo ← gar- ✧ EtyAC/GAR
garo “hold, keep” [← gar-] ✧ EtyAC/GAR
gartho “defend, keep” [← gartha-] ✧ EtyAC/GAR
giri “shudder” [← gir-] ✧ Ety/GIR
glavro “to babble” [← glavra-] ✧ Ety/GLAM
lirio “sing” [← glir-] ✧ EtyAC/LIR¹
gwaedo “enfold” [← gwaeda-] ✧ EtyAC/WAY
gwanno “depart, die” [← gwanna-] ✧ Ety/WAN
gwatho “to soil, stain” [← gwatha-] ✧ Ety/WAƷ
gwedi “bind” [← #gwedh-] ✧ Ety/WED
gwerio “betray” [← gweria-] ✧ Ety/WAR
gwesto “to swear” [← gwesta-] ✧ Ety/WED
hedi “hurl” [← had-] ✧ Ety/KHAT
harno “to wound” [← harna-] ✧ Ety/SKAR
hasto “hack through” [← hasta-] ✧ Ety/SYAD
henio “understand” [← henia-] ✧ Ety/KHAN
herio “begin suddenly and vigorously” [← heria-] ✧ Ety/KHOR
chwinio “twirl, whirl, eddy” [← chwinia-] ✧ Ety/SWIN
iuitho “employ” [← iuitha-] ✧ Ety/YUK
lhathro “listen in, eavesdrop” [← lhathr(ad)a-] ✧ Ety/LAS²
lhathrado “listen in, eavesdrop” [← lhathr(ad)a-] ✧ Ety/LAS²
lhathra [← lhathr(ad)a-] ✧ EtyAC/LAS²
lhefi “to lick” [← #lhav-] ✧ Ety/LAB
lheitho “to release, set free” [← lheithia-] ✧ Ety/LEK
medi “eat” [← mad-] ✧ Ety/MAT
medi “to eat” [← mad-] ✧ PE17/44
matho “stroke, feel, handle” [← matha-] ✧ Ety/MAƷ
melo “to love” [← mela-] ✧ EtyAC/MEL
mîl “love, kindness” [← mîl] ✧ EtyAC/MEL
minno “enter” [← minna-] ✧ EtyAC/MI
misto “stray about” [← mista-] ✧ Ety/MIS
mudo “labour, toil” [← muda-] ✧ Ety/MŌ
negro “to pain” [← negra-] ✧ Ety/NÁYAK
naro “tell” [← †nara-] ✧ Ety/NAR²
nartho “kindle” [← nartha-] ✧ EtyAC/NARTA
neledhi “walk” [← #neledh-] ✧ TAI/150
nestegi “insert, stick in” [← #nestag-] ✧ Ety/STAK
nestegi “insert, thrust in” [← #nestag-] ✧ EtyAC/NĒ̆
ortho “raise” [← ortha-] ✧ Ety/ORO
ortheri ← orthor (present) ✧ Ety/TUR
esgeri “cut round, amputate” [← #osgar-] ✧ Ety/OS
ovro “to abound” [← ovra-] ✧ Ety/UB
panno “to open, enlarge” [← panna-] ✧ Ety/PAT
pathro “fill” [← pathra-] ✧ Ety/KWAT
pelio “spread” [← pelia-] ✧ Ety/PAL
penio “fix, set” [← penia-] ✧ Ety/PAN
presto “to affect, trouble, disturb” [← presta-] ✧ Ety/PERES
puio “spit” [← puia-] ✧ Ety/PIW
rado “to make a way, find a way” [← rada-] ✧ Ety/RAT
rheði “to sow” [← #rhedh-] ✧ Ety/RED
rhenio “wander” [← rhenia-¹] ✧ Ety/RAM
rhenio “to stray” [← rhenia-¹] ✧ Ety/RAN
rhenio “fly, sail” [← rhenia-²] ✧ Ety/RAM
thribi “scratch” [← thrib-] ✧ Ety/SRIP
rhimmo ← rhib- ✧ Ety/RIP
rhisto “cut” [← rhista-] ✧ Ety/RIS²
risto “rend, rip” [← rista-] ✧ Ety/RIS¹
rhitho “jerk, twitch, snatch” [← rhitha-] ✧ Ety/RIK(H)
rosto “to hollow out, excavate” [← rosta-] ✧ Ety/ROD
sirio “flow” [← siria-] ✧ Ety/SIR
sogo “drink” [← #sog-] ✧ Ety/SUK
taetho “fasten, tie” [← taetha-] ✧ Ety/TAK
tammo “to knock” [← tamma-] ✧ Ety/TAM
tangado “to make firm, confirm, establish” [← tangad(a)-] ✧ Ety/TAK
tangado “to confirm, establish” [← tangad(a)-] ✧ PE17/44
teitho “write” [← teitha-] ✧ Ety/TEK
telio “to play” [← telia-] ✧ Ety/TYAL
teilio [← telia-] ✧ Ety/TYAL
thio “to seem” [← thia-] ✧ Ety/THĒ
thilio “to glisten” [← thilia-] ✧ Ety/THIL
thosto “to stink” [← thosta-] ✧ EtyAC/THUS
thuio “breathe” [← thuia-] ✧ Ety/THŪ
tinno “it glints” [← tinna-] ✧ Ety/TIN
tiri “watch” [← tir-] ✧ Ety/TIR
tirio “watch” [← tiria-] ✧ Ety/TIR
tobo “to cover, roof over” [← toba-] ✧ Ety/TOP
tegi “to bring” ← tôg (present) ✧ Ety/TUK
teli “to come” ← tôl (present) ✧ Ety/TUL
toltho “fetch” [← toltha-] ✧ Ety/TUL
tortho “to wield, control” [← tortha-] ✧ Ety/TUR
treneri “recount, tell to the end” [← trenar-] ✧ Ety/NAR²
trevedi “traverse” [← #trevad-] ✧ Ety/BAT
tuio “to swell” [← tuia-] ✧ Ety/TIW
tuio “sprouts, springs” [← tuia-] ✧ Ety/TUY

Element In


ᴱN. verbal nouns grammar.

Examples (infinitive)
-tho ← -tha ✧ PE13/153
adog ← adag- ✧ PE13/132
adob “to build, erect” [← adag-] ✧ PE13/158
adob “build, building” [← adag-] ✧ PE13/165
amrost [← amra-] ✧ PE13/159
carach “to make oneself, become” ← cara ✧ PE13/161
curenni “to curdle (intr.)” [← #curan-] ✧ PE13/141
crenni “to finish, complete, accomplish” [← crann-] ✧ PE13/161
dangu [← dag-] ✧ PE13/130
dengwi [← dag-] ✧ PE13/130
eithran “stabbing, pricking” [← eithra-] ✧ PE13/158
eithlod “springing, welling forth” [← #eithla-] ✧ PE13/158
alaith “shielding, warding off” [← elaig-] ✧ PE13/158
glabod “babbling” [← #glaba-] ✧ PE13/162
gonoth ← go-nod ✧ PE13/145
goenoid ← go-nod- ✧ PE13/162
genaid ← go-nod- ✧ PE13/162
genedi ← go-nod- ✧ PE13/162
lhui “to wash” ← †lub- ✧ PE13/132
maded ← #mad- ✧ PE13/127
madwi [← mad-] ✧ PE13/129
medi ← mad- ✧ PE13/131
medi ← mad (present) ✧ PE13/163
medi “eat” ← mad ✧ PE13/163
medi “to eat, eating” ← mad ✧ PE13/163
medi “eat, eating” [← mad-] ✧ PE13/165
meriad “to dwell, live, stay” [← #meria-] ✧ PE13/150
peda “to say” [← ped-] ✧ PE13/152
rhengi “to slay in battle” [← rhang-] ✧ PE13/152
rheing ← rhengi (infinitive) ✧ PE13/152
rhoid “to let go” ← rhoid (infinitive) ✧ PE13/152
glathrad ← glathra ✧ PE13/126
glathrod [← glathra-] ✧ PE13/129
sagoth ← sag- ✧ PE13/153
tangod “fixing, to fix” ← tangad- ✧ PE13/131
tangod “to fix, fixing” [← tangad-] ✧ PE13/153
thau ← tha- ✧ PE13/153
thā ← tha- ✧ PE13/153
thirod “making complete, filling in the last details” [← #thirad-] ✧ PE13/165
golod “stinking, to stink” ← golwad- ✧ PE13/162
menniad [← mad-] aorist ✧ PE13/129
manthiad ← #mad- past ✧ PE13/127
mainthiad ← #mad- past ✧ PE13/127
manthiad [← mad-] past ✧ PE13/129
glathraithiad ← glathra past ✧ PE13/126
glathrathiad ← glathra past ✧ PE13/126
glathraithiad [← glathra-] past ✧ PE13/129

Examples (gerund)
madeg ← #mad- ✧ PE13/127
glathros “to polish, polishing” ← glathra ✧ PE13/126
glathros ← glathra ✧ PE13/126
glathraith ← glathra past ✧ PE13/126
lathros [← glathra-] soft-mutation g-mutation ✧ PE13/128


G. infinitive grammar.

Examples (infinitive)

Examples (gerund)