Q. Sangahyando [þ] m. “Throng-cleaver”
Conceptual Development: In the early Qenya Lexicon, ᴱQ. Sangahyando “cleaver of throngs” was given as a name for Túrin Turambar’s sword (QL/81), and the name ᴹQ. Sangahyando appeared in The Etymologies as the name of a sword (Ety/STAG, SYAN). Its use for a man of Umbar did not emerge until The Lord of the Rings appendices, where it appeared as Sangahyanda in the 1st edition of The Lord of the Rings, changed in the 2nd edition to Sangahyando (PM/215).
For the most part, Tolkien gave the meaning “throng” to the initial element and “cleaver” to the final element, but in his phonetic notes from the Tengwesta Qenderinwa and the Outline of Phonology from the 1950s, he seems to have considered assigning the meaning “throng” to the second element (PE18/101, PE19/92).
A short form Sangian “throng-hewer” appeared in linguistic notes from the early 1930s (PE21/32).
References ✧ Let/425; LotRI; PE17/116; PMI/Sangahyanda; SA/thang
|sanga||“throng, press, pressure”||✧ Let/425; PE17/116; SA/thang|
|#hyando||“cleaver”||✧ PE17/116 (#hyando)|
ᴹQ. Sangahyando [þ] pn. “Throng-cleaver”
References ✧ Ety/STAG, SYAD; PE21/32
|sanga||“crowd, throng, press, pack; crowded, packed”||✧ Ety/STAG|
|hyando||“cleaver, hewer (sword)”||✧ Ety/SYAD (#hyando)|
|ᴹ√SYAD¹||“shear through, cleave (through)”||✧ Ety/STAG|
|ᴹ✶stangā||“throng, crowd, press”||✧ PE21/32 (saŋgā)|
|ᴹ✶syandō||“cleaver, sword, hewer”||✧ PE21/32 (χı̯anđō)|
|ᴹ✶stangasyandō > sangahyando||[θaŋgasjandō] > [θaŋgasjandō] ? [θaŋgaj̊ando] > [θaŋgaj̊ando] > [saŋgaj̊ando]||✧ Ety/SYAD|
ᴱQ. Sangahyando pn. “Cleaver of Throngs”
References ✧ GL/48; LT2A/Gurtholfin; PME/81; QL/81
|sanga||“throng, tight mass, crowd”||✧ LT2A/Gurtholfin; QL/81|
|hyanda¹||“blade, share”||✧ LT2A/Gurtholfin|
|ᴱ√HYAÐA||“plough through”||✧ QL/81 (H͡YAŘA)|