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KHAD root. “sit”

KHAD root. “sit”

The roots √KHAD and √KHAM were in competition for words having to do “sit” and “seat” for a significant portion of Tolkien’s life. Both roots have antecedants in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s, but in that early document to root for “sit” was given as ᴱ√ÐORO or ᴱ√SORO (QL/85), replacing rejected ᴱ√SOŘO [ᴱ√SOÐO] and ᴱ√SODO (QL/85). Of these, the true form was cleary ᴱ√ÐORO given Gnomish derivative G. dorn “seat”, G. doros “throne”, G. dortha- “settle” (GL/30). This root seems to have been abandoned in Tolkien’s later writing, though N. dortha- “dwell, stay” was reassigned to ᴹ√NDOR in The Etymologies of the 1930s (Ety/NDOR).

As for √KHAD and √KHAM, their clearest antecedents in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s were ᴱ√HAÐA “cleave, remain” and ᴱ√HAM (QL/39), the latter without gloss but with derivatives having to do with the ground such as ᴱQ. hamba “on the ground” and G. ham “ground” (QL/39; GL/48). Some variant of ᴱ√HAÐA seems to have drifted in the direction of “sit” based on ᴱN. haud “seat” from Early Noldorin word lists of the 1920s (PE13/147, 155).

Tolkien initially used the root ᴹ√KHAD for words having to do with “sit” and “seat” in The Etymologies of the 1930s (EtyAC/KHAM), but it was replaced by ᴹ√KHAM “sit” (Ety/KHAM) and this root seems to have survive for some time, since ᴹ√KHAM “sit down” appeared in the Quenya Verbal System from 1948 (PE22/103). However, at some point Tolkien added a new root √KHAM² “call to, summon, name by name” to The Etymologies, and in this new entry he said “KHAM sit (replacing KHAD, cancelled)” indicating ᴹ√KHAD was restored (EtyAC/KHAM²). This seems to represent an ongoing vacillation between √KHAD and √KHAM in the 1930s and 40s.

However, √KHAD “sit” appeared in the second version of Tengwesta Qenderinwa written around 1950 (PE18/95), Q. hárar “sit” (not **hámar) appears in Cirion’s Oath (UT/305), and in late notes on verbs from 1969 Tolkien had ✶khadmā “seat” as the basis for Q. hanw̃a S. haðw (PE22/148). There are no signs of √KHAM “sit” in this period, so it seems Tolkien chose √KHAD for “sit” in the 1950s and 60s.

I think √KHAD “sit” is the best choice for Neo-Eldarin, since it also lets us use ᴹ√KHAM² “call to, summon, name by name” more freely.

Reference ✧ PE18/95 ✧ “sit”

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ᴹ√KHAM¹ root. “sit (down)”

See √KHAD for discussion.

References ✧ Ety/KHAM; EtyAC/KHAM; PE22/103, 125

Glosses

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ᴹ√KHAD root.

See √KHAD for discussion.

References ✧ Ety/SYAD; EtyAC/KHAM; PE22/125

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Changes

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ᴱ√ÐORO root. “sit”

A root in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s glossed “sit” with derivatives mean “sit” or “seat” (QL/85-86). In the Qenya Lexicon Tolkien gave the root as SORO with ÐORO in parenthesis, but Gnomish cognates like G. dorn “seat” and dortha- “to settle” (GL/30) make it clear ÐORO was the true form of the root. There were a variety of different roots for “sit” in later writings such ᴹ√KHAM or √KHAD.

References ✧ QL/85-86

Glosses

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Derivatives


ᴱ√HAÐA root. “cleave, remain”

See √KHAD for discussion.

Reference ✧ QL/39 ✧ HAŘA “cleave, remain”

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Derivatives


ᴱ√HAMA root. “‽”

See √KHAD for discussion.

Reference ✧ QL/39 ✧ HAM “‽”

Derivatives