AQ. medial [s] often became [z]; [Vs{Vmnrljw}] > [Vz{Vmnrljw}]

AQ. medial [s] often became [z]; [Vs{Vmnrljw}] > [Vz{Vmnrljw}]

In Ancient Quenya, an s was voiced to z between vowels and before voiced consonants, a change described in both the Outline of Phonetic Development (OP1) from the 1930s and the Outline of Phonology (OP2) from the 1950s. The sound changes in the 1930s were:

s. Initially this remained unchanged. Medially in AQ and the earliest PQ it also remained unchanged, except in certain combinations discussed below. Later, but in the classical period it became voiced to [z] between vowels. This pronunciation as [z] remained the standard TQ pronunciation, serving as it did to distinguish early classical s, th after the development of th, þ > s (but never to z) (OP1: PE19/33).
[s]. Later during the classical period, but after the fixing of spelling so that sign for medial [s] remained same as that for (always voiceless) initial [s], Q s became voiced medially between vowels, or between a vowel and a voiced sound (nasal or continuant) ... The earliest of these voicings, possibly already in CE, or at least AQ, was in sm, sn > zm, zn ... While s was still voiceless sr > > ss (similar to developments after stops); but sl appears to have remained as such, and asyllabic. Hence it later became zl > ll. Later forms have zar, z-l ... sy, sw. Before voicing of medial [s], these combinations produced (long) voiceless y, and w: [ɧ] and [ƕ]: that coalesced with the products χy, χw (< khy, khw), as they did initially (OP1: PE19/49).

As indicated above, the sound change whereby [sr] became [ss] was an ancient one. If s came into contact with r later on it was voiced; the same was true in the 1950s (OP2: PE19/102). Although not listed above, s was also voiced before voiced stops, but these sound changes occurred in Primitive Elvish whereas other voicings occurred only in child languages (PE18/39), and likewise in the 1950s (PE18/102). In the quote above, s was not voiced before y, w; however, this is not reflected in contemporaneous examples from The Etymologies of the 1930s where we see sy > ry:

Thus it seems that in the 1930s, s became z before voiced stops in Primitive Elvish, before nasals in Ancient Quenya, between vowels in Parmaquesta [PQ] and before liquids and semi-vowels (l, r, y, w) at some indeterminate point. The relative lateness of the intervocalic change is supported by the fact that [z] continued to be the normal pronunciation even into Tarquesta, and [z] > [r] only in Lindarin [precursor to Vanyarin] (OP1: PE19/33). This was not, however, reflected in the contemporaneous examples from The Etymologies of the 1930s, which consistently show r rather than z; see the discussion on how [z] became [r] for further details.

The sound changes of s > z between vowels and before nasals, liquids and semi-vowels were essentially the same in the 1950s, but the phonetic developments occurred in late AQ rather than early PQ:

s remained unchanged initially. In the earlier AQ it also remained unchanged medially between vowels. But already in both Vanyarin and Noldorin & Telerin somewhat before the classical PQ (written in Feanorian characters) it became voiced to z between vowels. A special sign for z was thus provided in the Feanorian alphabet; but (since cases in which s = z were clear) older s-spelling was often retained (OP2: PE19/73).
Later but already accomplished in AQ s became voiced medially (a) between vowels, (b) between a vowel and a voiced continuant (nasal, or r, l) ... The change of sm, sn > zm, zn was the earliest ... after the voicing of intervocalic s > z, sr > zr > rr ... sl remained as such until the voicing; then zl > ll ... Before y, w. Here before further change sy, sw > zy, zw (OP2: PE19/101-2).

As initially written in OP2, Tolkien attributed these sound changes to PQ, but this was revised to AQ (OP2: PE19/101 note #159). Tolkien may have pushed these changes backwards in time when he decided the Quenya rhotacism [z > r] was characteristic of the Ñoldorin Quenya dialect rather than Vanyarin, to allow for more time for distinct developments in the two dialects before the Exile.

Conceptual Development: In the Early Qenya of the 1910s and 1920s, s was voiced before voiced continuants and nasals:

s gave z and then r before l, r, m, n, w̑, y̑, ƀ, ʒ, giving ll, ´r, rn, rm, rw, ry, rb [or] rw, rg [or] ´r (Qenya Phonology, 1910s, PE12/19).

However, intervocalic s survived:

In fact, in Early Qenya a final [s] became [r] as opposed to later conceptual stages where it survived. Thus the Early Qenya developments (s surviving between vowels but > r finally) are nearly the opposite of the sounds changes in the 1930s and later (s surviving finally but > r between vowels). See the entry on the Quenya rhotacism for more details.

References ✧ PE19/69, 73, 101-102; VT44/20

Order (04500)

After 00300 second short vowel of same quality lost
After 00800 [sr] became [ss]
Before 04600 [z] and [ð] assimilated to following [r], [l]
Before 02300 Q. short final [a], [e], [o] lost in long compounds Eldă-kāzā > Eldă-kār(ă) > Q. Eldacar PE17/114

Phonetic Rule Elements

[VsV] > [VzV] ✧ PE17/76 (s > z); PE19/73 (s > z; medially between vowels); WJ/413 (s > z)
[sm] > [zm] ✧ PE19/101 (sm > zm)
[sn] > [zn] ✧ PE19/101 (sn > zn)
[sr] > [zr] ✧ PE19/102 (sr > zr)
[sl] > [zl] ✧ PE19/102 (sl > zl)
[sj] > [zj] ✧ PE19/102 (sy > zy)
[sw] > [zw] ✧ PE19/102 (sw > zw)

Phonetic Rule Examples

asa > aza VsV > VzV as(a) > Q. ar ✧ PE17/41
asa > aza VsV > VzV as(a) > Q. ar ✧ PE17/41
asa > aza VsV > VzV as > Q. ar ✧ VT47/31
asālie > azālie VsV > VzV SAL > Q. †azálie ✧ PE22/133
āse > āze VsV > VzV áse > áze > Q. áre ✧ PE17/18
āse > āze VsV > VzV AS > āze > Q. āre ✧ PE17/148
ase > aze VsV > VzV AS > Q. ar ✧ PE17/148
āse > āze VsV > VzV as- > Q. árë ✧ SA/arien
āse > āze VsV > VzV AS > áze > Q. áre ✧ VT43/18
asien > azien VsV > VzV as- > Q. arien ✧ SA/arien
Eldakāsā > Eldakāzā VsV > VzV Eldă-kāzā > Eldă-kār(ă) > Q. Eldacar ✧ PE17/114
karise > karize VsV > VzV karize- > Q. karis- ✧ PE17/129
-kasā > -kazā VsV > VzV kāsā > Q. -kar ✧ PE17/114
kāsa > kāza VsV > VzV kāza > Q. kára ✧ PE17/188
l̥asū > l̥azū VsV > VzV slasū > Q. hlaru ✧ PE17/77
olosi > olozi VsV > VzV olo-s > olozi > Q. olori ✧ UT/396
r̥īsa > r̥īza VsV > VzV SRIS > Q. hríza ✧ PE17/168
telesi > telezi VsV > VzV tel- > Q. Teleri ✧ SA/tel
telesi > telezi VsV > VzV ᴹ√TELES > ᴹQ. Teler ✧ Ety/TELES
tindōmiseld > tindōmizeld VsV > VzV tindōmi-sel(dĕ) > tindómizel > Q. tindómerel ✧ PE19/73
tjelesi > tjelezi VsV > VzV KYELES > Q. Teler- ✧ PE18/84
θauson > θauzon VsV > VzV ÞOWO > Þauson > Q. Sauron ✧ PE17/68
ōmasjā > ōmazjā sj > zj óma-syā > Q. ómaryo ✧ PE17/76
θosja- > θozja- sj > zj ÞOS > Q. †þorya ✧ PE17/87
θusja > θuzja sj > zj thusya > thuzya > Q. surya ✧ NM/239
wisja- > wizja- sj > zj WIS > Q. virya- ✧ PE17/189
wisja- > wizja- sj > zj WIS > Q. virya ✧ PE17/191
-sjā > -zjā sj > zj -syā > Q. -rya ✧ PE17/76
-sja > -zja sj > zj zya > Q. rya ✧ PE17/130
-sja > -zja sj > zj -sya > Q. -rya ✧ PE19/102
-sjā > -zjā sj > zj -sjā > sya > zya > Q. -rya ✧ VT49/17
nisle > nizle sl > zl nis > Q. nill- ✧ VT47/33
asma > azma sm > zm AS > Q. arma ✧ PE17/148
asmarō > azmarō sm > zm asmarō > Q. armaro ✧ VT48/20
kasma > kazma sm > zm kasma > kazma > Q. karma ✧ PE17/114
lasmo > lazmo sm > zm LAS > AQ. lammo ✧ PE19/101
asra > azra sr > zr SRA-G > asra > Q. arra ✧ PE17/172
casrea > cazrea sr > zr karrai > Q. carrea ✧ PE22/159
casrea > cazrea sr > zr cas-raya > Q. carrea ✧ VT42/12
misroanwe > mizroanwe sr > zr mi-srawanwe > Q. Mirröanwi ✧ MR/350
misroanwe > mizroanwe sr > zr mi-srawanwe > Q. Mirröanwi ✧ MR/350
w̥aswa > w̥azwa sw > zw swa-swa > Q. hwarwa ✧ NM/237

ᴹAQ. medial [s] often became [z]; [Vs{Vmnrljw}] > [Vz{Vmnrljw}]

@@@ shift to MQ

References ✧ PE19/30, 33-34, 49; PE22/13

Order (04600)

After 00300 second short vowel of same quality lost
After 00800 [sr] became [ss]
Before 04700 [z] and [ð] assimilated to following [r], [l]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[VsV] > [VzV] ✧ PE19/50 (s > z); PE19/51 (s > z)
[sm] > [zm] ✧ PE19/50 (sm > zm)
[sn] > [zn] ✧ PE19/50 (sn > zn)
[sr] > [zr]
[sl] > [zl] ✧ PE19/51 (sl > zl)
[sj] > [zj]
[sw] > [zw]

Phonetic Rule Examples

lōse > lōze VsV > VzV ᴹ√LOS > ᴹQ. lóre ✧ Ety/LOS
lōsien > lōzien VsV > VzV ᴹ√LOS > ᴹQ. Lórien ✧ Ety/LOS
misima > mizima VsV > VzV ᴹ√MIS > ᴹQ. mirima ✧ Ety/MIS
sislikk- > sizlikk- VsV > VzV ᴹ√SLIK > sizlikk- > ᴹQ. †sillikk- ✧ PE22/113
tindōmiseld > tindōmizeld VsV > VzV ᴹ✶tindōmiselde > ᴹQ. Tindómerel ✧ Ety/SEL-D
tindōmiseld > tindōmizeld VsV > VzV ᴹ✶Tindōmiselde > ᴹQ. Tindómerel ✧ Ety/TIN
tindōmiseld > tindōmizeld VsV > VzV ᴹ✶Tindōmi-seldĕ > Tindómisel > ᴹQ. Tindómirel ✧ PE19/33
θausā > θauzā VsV > VzV ᴹ✶thausā > ᴹQ. saura ✧ Ety/THUS
βesū > βezū VsV > VzV ᴹ✶besū > ᴹQ. veru ✧ Ety/BES
pisja- > pizja- sj > zj ᴹ√PIS > ᴹQ. pirya ✧ Ety/PIS
surja > suzja sj > zj ᴹ√SUS > ᴹQ. surya ✧ Ety/SUS
islīk- > izlīk- sl > zl ᴹ√SLIK > izlīk- > ᴹQ. †illīk[ie] ✧ PE22/113
lōsna > lōzna sn > zn ᴹ√LOS > ᴹQ. lorna ✧ Ety/LOS
ɸasne > ɸazne sn > zn ᴹ√PHAS > ᴹQ. farne ✧ EtyAC/PHARAN
ɸasne > ɸazne sn > zn ᴹ√PHAS > fazne > ᴹQ. farne ✧ EtyAC/PHAS
βesnō > βeznō sn > zn ᴹ✶besnō > ᴹQ. venno ✧ Ety/BES
osro- > ozro- sr > zr ᴹ√SRŌ > ᴹQ. orro ✧ PE22/127
osro > ozro sr > zr ᴹ√SRŌ > ᴹQ. orro ✧ PE22/127

ᴱQ. [s] became [z] before nasals and voiced spirants; [s{lrmnβðʲðɣɣʷ}] > [z{lrmnβðʲðɣɣʷ}]

References ✧ PE12/19

Order ()

After 01100 [θ] became [s]
Before [z] became [r]
Before voiced spirants becames stops after liquids, nasals and [z]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[sl] > [zl]
[sm] > [zm]
[sr] > [zr]

Phonetic Rule Examples

kasla > kazla sl > zl ᴱ✶kasla > ᴱQ. kalla ✧ PE13/140
eðusmāni > eðuzmāni sm > zm ᴱ✶eruᶻmāni > ᴱQ. Erumāni ✧ QL/36
xosma > xozma sm > zm ᴱ√HOSO > ᴱQ. horma ✧ QL/41
resro > rezro sr > zr ᴱ✶res-rŭ > rerro > ᴱQ. rēro ✧ QL/79