Q. pendë n. “steep incline, hill side” (Category: Slope, Cliff)
A noun meaning “steep incline, hill side” (PE17/24) or “(down) slope, declivity” (Ety/PEN). It has the general implication of a downward slope; an upward slope would be ampendë.
Conceptual Development: In The Etymologies of the 1930s it first appeared as ᴹQ. nende “slope, hillside” derived from ᴹ√DEN “hillside, slope”, but the meaning of this root was change to ᴹ√DEN “hole; gap, passage” (Ety/DEN). Tolkien introduced a new root ᴹ√PEN(ED) with the derivative ᴹQ. pende “slope, downslope, declivity” (Ety/PEN). In later writings, though, its root form was √PED instead of ᴹ√PEN, as √PEN was given the new sense “lack, be without” (PE17/171; WJ/375).
References ✧ PE17/24, 171
|√PED > pende-||[pende]||✧ PE17/171|
References ✧ Ety/DEN, PEN; EtyAC/DEN
|ᴹ√DEN > nende||[dende] > [nende]||✧ Ety/DEN|
|ᴹ√PÉNED > pende||[pende]||✧ Ety/PEN|