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S. pend n. and adj. “slope, steep incline, hill side; sloping (down), steeply inclined” (Category: Slope, Cliff)

S. pend, n. and adj. “slope, steep incline, hill side, [N.] declivity; [S.] sloping (down), steeply inclined” (Category: Slope, Cliff)

A noun for “slope” (RC/525) or a “steep incline, hill side” (PE17/24), also used as an adjective for “steeply inclined, sloping down” (PE17/24) or “steeply sloping” (PE17/173). In keeping with the general conventions of this lexicon, I represent it as pend since Tolkien said -nd frequently survived “at the end of fully accented monosyllables” (LotR/1115), but in his notes Tolkien marked pend as Old Sindarin and gave penn as the modern form (PE17/24, 173).

Conceptual Development: The earliest appearance of this word was in Early Noldorin Word-lists of the 1920s as ᴱN. benn (†bend) with glosses like “inclined, sloping” (PE13/138) or “slanting, sloping, up or down hill” (PE13/160). In this period it as derived from primitive ᴱ✶bendā and was an adjective only; the noun form was ᴱN. binn.

In The Etymologies of the 1930s it first appeared as N. denn (†dend) “sloping” as a derivative of ᴹ√DEN “hillside, slope”, but the meaning of this root was change to ᴹ√DEN “hole; gap, passage” (Ety/DEN). Tolkien introduced a new root ᴹ√PEN(ED) with the derivative N. penn (†pend) “declivity” (Ety/PEN). In later writings, though, its root form was √PED instead of ᴹ√PEN, as √PEN was given the new sense “lack, be without” (PE17/173; WJ/375).

References ✧ PE17/24, 173; RC/525

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Inflections

Pinnath class-plural “Slopes” ✧ PE17/24
pennath class-plural   ✧ PE17/24
pind plural   ✧ PE17/24
pinn plural   ✧ PE17/24; RC/525

Element In

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pendā > pend > penn [pendā] > [penda] > [pend] > [penn] ✧ PE17/173

N. penn¹ n. “declivity” (Category: Slope, Cliff)

See S. pend for discussion.

References ✧ Ety/DEN, PEN

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Element In

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Phonetic Developments

ᴹ√DEN > dend > denn [ndenda] > [denda] > [dend] > [denn] ✧ Ety/DEN
ᴹ√PÉNED > pend > penn [pende] > [pend] > [penn] ✧ Ety/PEN

ᴱN. benn adj. “sloping, inclined, slanting, up or down hill” (Category: Slope, Cliff)

See S. pend for discussion.

References ✧ MC/217; PE13/138, 160

Glosses

Variations

Inflections

binn plural ✧ PE13/138; PE13/160

Element In

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Derivations