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Q. hamna n. “pile, (artificial) mound” (Category: Mound, Pile)

Q. hamna, n. “pile, (artificial) mound, [ᴹQ.] heap” (Category: Mound, Pile)

A noun appearing in Outline of Phonology (OP2) as part of revisions made in 1959 or later. It had the gloss “pile, (artificial) mound” and was derived from the root √KHAB “heap up, pile up” from a primitive form ✶khabnā (PE19/91). In this word, the ancient voiced stop b became nasal m before another nasal.

Conceptual Development: In the original draft of OP2, this word was given as hahta “piled mound, heap”, but this word was deleted and the section where it appeared was rejected (PE19/92). See the entry for ᴹQ. hahta for a discussion of the earlier iteration of this word.

References ✧ PE19/91-92

Glosses

Variations

Cognates

Derivations

Phonetic Developments

khabnā > hamna [kʰabnā] > [xabnā] > [xamnā] > [hamnā] > [hamna] ✧ PE19/91
khagdā > hahta [kʰagdā] > [kʰaktā] > [xaktā] > [xaxtā] > [haxtā] > [haxta] ✧ PE19/92

ᴹQ. hahta n. “heap, pile, (piled) mound” (Category: Mound, Pile)

A noun in The Etymologies of the 1930s glossed “pile, mound” derived from the root ᴹ√KHAG “pile up” (Ety/KHAG). It also appeared in the Outline of Phonetic Development (OP1) from the 1930s with the gloss “heap, piled mound” (PE19/45). In that document it illustrated how combinations of voiced stops were unvoiced so that ᴹ✶khagdā > *khakta > hahta. This derivation reappeared in Outline of Phonology (OP2) from the 1950s, but there the root was changed √KHAG >> √KHAB in revisions made in 1959 or later, and a new Quenya form Q. hamna was given (PE19/91-92).

Neo-Quenya: For purposes of Neo-Quenya, I’d use the later form Q. hamna and give Q. hahta its later meaning “fence, hedge” (PE19/91).

References ✧ Ety/KHAG; PE19/45

Glosses

Cognates

Derivations

Phonetic Developments

ᴹ✶khagda > hahta [kʰagda] > [kʰakta] > [xakta] > [xaxta] > [haxta] ✧ Ety/KHAG