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ᴹQ. hyar- v. (basic-verb) “to cleave” (Category: to Split)

ᴹQ. hyar-, v. (basic-verb) “to cleave; [ᴱQ.] to plough” (Category: to Split)
ᴺQ. !hyasta-² “to hack through”

A verb appearing as hyarin “I cleave” in The Etymologies of the 1930s as a derivative of from the root ᴹ√SYAD “shear through, cleave” (Ety/SYAD). In the Outline of Phonetic Development (OP1) from around this time, Tolkien had an (unglossed) verbal stem hyar- also derived from ᴹ√SYAD, but in that document the root seems to mean “compact, compress”. However in the Quenya Verbal System from 1948, hyare again meant “cleave” (PE22/102). See the entry on √SYAD for further vacillations on the meaning of the root.

Conceptual Development: The Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s had ᴱQ. hyanda- as the cognate of G. †hanna- “mow, cleave” (GL/48) likely based on the early root ᴱ√HYAŘA “plough through” [HYAÐA] (QL/41). Early Qenya Word-lists of the 1920s had ᴱQ. hyar- “plough”, probably form the same root (PE16/144).

Neo-Quenya: For purposes of Neo-Quenya, I would keep the sense “cleave” for the basic verb despite Tolkien’s vacillations on the meaning of the root. I think it could also retain its 1920s meaning “plough” = “*cleave the earth”.

References ✧ Ety/SYAD; PE19/45; PE22/102



hyare aorist “cleave” ✧ PE22/102
hyarin aorist 1st-sg “I cleave” ✧ Ety/SYAD
hyande past   ✧ PE22/102
hyarne past   ✧ PE22/102
ahyárie perfect   ✧ PE22/102


Phonetic Developments

ᴹ√SYAD > hyarin [sjadin] > [j̊adin] > [sjaðin] > [j̊arin] ✧ Ety/SYAD
ᴹ√SYAD > hyar- [sjad-] > [j̊ad-] > [sjað-] > [j̊ar-] ✧ PE19/45
ᴹ√SYAD > hyare [sjadi] > [sjade] > [j̊ade] > [j̊aðe] > [j̊are] ✧ PE22/102

ᴱQ. hyar- v. “to plough” (Category: Plough)

See ᴹQ. hyar- for discussion.

Reference ✧ PE16/144 ✧ “plough”


ᴱQ. hyanda- v. “to mow, cleave” (Category: to Split)

See ᴹQ. hyar- for discussion.

Reference ✧ GL/48 ✧ “mow, cleave”



Phonetic Developments

ᴱ√χ̑ṇđ > hyanda- [θʲṇða-] > [θʲanða-] > [θʲanda-] > [sjanda-] > [j̊anda-] ✧ GL/48