S. present grammar.

S. present grammar.

The Sindarin simple present tense seems to be based on the ancient Common Eldarin aorist tense. We have relatively few examples of its uses, so its exact function is hard to determine, but many Neo-Sindarin writers assume it functions more or less like the English simple present, but can also function like the present continuous/imperfect as well: the phrase tôl achar(n) was in different places glossed as either “vengeance comes (tôl)” (WJ/254) or “vengeance is coming” (PE17/166).

For derived verbs, the present tense is simply the unadorned verb stem: gala “grow” (gala-). For monosyllabic basic verbs, the stem vowel is lengthened as is often the case in monosyllables: câr “do, make” (car-). Unlike the past tense, the lengthened vowel does not change in quality, since this lengthening was quite late. Thus the present tense of tol- “come” is tôl (though in one place Tolkien did write tûl, WJ/301). Presumably vowel lengthening would not occur if the basic verb stem was polysyllablic, such as *echad “shape” for the verb echad-. There are no attested examples of this in Sindarin, but several such examples appear in Early Noldorin and Noldorin of the 1920s and 30s (see Conceptual Development below).

Things become more complex when pronominal suffixes are added. In the case of derived verbs, a pronominal suffix usually means the final a of the verb changes to o as in galon “I grow” (gala-), but in some cases the a is preserved: before -r and pronominal suffixes that were clusters; see verb inflections for further discussion. In the case of basic verbs, the ancient aorist suffix i is preserved, and causes internal i-affection of the base vowel: cerin “I do” (car-); see the discussion in vowel mutations for the origin of this sound change. The net result is that for many basic verbs, the vowel becomes e in an inflected present tense:

Because of the large number of collisions in the present tense, basic verbs are probably less likely to survive in Sindarin than they are in Quenya, which may explain why we sometimes see derived verbs or prefixed verbs in Sindarin (and Noldorin) where their Quenya equivalents are basic verbs:

This should not be overgeneralized, since there are numerous examples of basic verbs that are direct cognates in both Sindarin and Quenya, and even a few examples where Sindarin has a basic verb and Quenya a derived one: S. pad- “walk” vs. Q. pata- (PE17/34). However, you should be careful when crafting (Neo) Sindarin neologisms, because apparently distinct verb stems may produce unexpected homonyms in inflected forms. For example, this would be the case if Sindarin used basic verbs derived from the roots √TAK and √TEK (*tag- and *teg-), as opposed to attested Noldorin taetha- and teitha-.

Half-Strong Presents: Sindarin and Noldorin has a class of causative half-strong verbs from which the past tense suffix -ant is derived; see the discussion in the entry on verb classes for further details. The attested examples were mostly derived from ancient adjectives plus the causative suffix -tā̆, as in ✶tankatā- or ᴹ✶tankāta- “make firm” > [N.] tangad(a)-. Unlike most derived verbs they consistently have no vocalic suffix in their attested 3rd. singular present forms:

One possible explanation is that in such verbs, the final was short (or shortened very early), so that it was lost as opposed to the long of other derived verbs which survived. If this was the case, then this vowel would also have remained short before pronominal suffixes, and would not mutate ao as was usually the case with derived verbs. The inflected forms would therefore be covadan “I make meet”, tangadan “I make firm”, nimmidan “I whiten” and so forth. To indicate this, I represent these half-strong verbs with a parenthetical (a) in their verb stem: tangad(a)-.

In a couple of these verbs, we instead see ao in 3rd. singular before the final d. It seems this vowel was long in ancient forms, so that tankātă, kwantātă > tanchǭd(a), panthǭd(a) > tangod, pannod. Whether this was a general rule or applied only to a few verbs is unclear. We don’t have much information about the half-strong verb class, so all these details are necessarily speculative.

Present Continuous/Imperfect: Quenya has distinct aorist and present tenses, the latter being strictly speaking a present continuous or imperfect tense, as in Q. tulin “I come” vs. túlan “I am coming”. In some notes written in 1969, there are hints that Sindarin might be the same. There is a verb form tolen “I am coming”, part of a future construction tolen cared, roughly equivalent to English “I am going to make (car-)”, except with “coming (tol-)” instead of “going” (PE22/168). This does not seem to be the ordinary Sindarin simple present, where we would expect to see telin (see above). In her book A Fan’s Guide to Neo-Sindarin, Fiona Jallings suggests that this may represent a distinct Sindarin present continuous/imperfect formed by (a) adding e to the verb stem and (b) adding any pronominal suffixes as needed (FGNS/232-233).

One challenge with this verb form is that is hard to reconcile with what we know of the Common Eldarin present continuous, which was associated with the vowel suffix (PE22/130, 134). There is no obvious Sindarin phonological development that would produce -e from . My best guess is that for reasons unknown, the ancient present continuous suffix was shifted forward to a long vowel sound Tolkien designated as either ǣ or ę̄, perhaps long IPA [æ]. This [ę̄] became [ai] in Sindarin (PE18/96), and then usually [ai] became [ae].

However, in the final syllable of polysyllable, sometimes [ae] became [e], in much the same way that [au] become [o] in polysyllables (much more frequently). The au development is probably the result of unstressed [ǭ] shortening to [o], and the ae development is probably likewise the result of unstressed [ę̄] becoming [e]. This is the only explanation I can come up with for how might develop into -e in Sindarin; hat tip to Elaran for giving me the idea for this etymology, though the one I am proposing is not exactly what he suggested.

Absent more information, however, it is probably best to avoid this barely-attested verb tense for now.

Conceptual Development: We have a small number of attested Gnomish present tense forms, not enough to establish any clear patterns beyond the fact that the present tense of derived verbs ending in -a seemed to be the unadorned verb stem: G. en nin·ista mai “I am well aware of that” for ista- “to be aware” (GL/52), G. a·laithra nin “I forget it, *(lit.) it slips for me” for laithra- “to let slip, forget” (GL/52). Gnomish used pronominal prefixes, so vowel variation by suffix would have been less of an issue in this period.

There were extensive verbal conjugations appearing with the Early Noldorin Grammar of the 1920s, giving us a pretty clear picture of the present tense at this conceptual period. In a section labeled “Regular Verbs”, Tolkien gave both a present indicative and aorist indicative for basic verbs (PE13/131-132). The uninflected present indicative was the verb stem, with the vowel lengthened if it was monosyllabic. Inflected forms mostly added an e followed by a pronominal suffix in the singular, or i in the plural; the plural i triggered internal i-affection as appropriate:

For adag-, the masculine singular suffix was -eb rather than -eg, probably due to dissimilation. For the verb gurdh-, the difference between the stem and the present forms (gwardh-) was probably due to varying phonetic developments for syllabic from its ancient form gwṛð- (see below). It isn‘t clear why the masculine and feminine singular forms of tangad- used different vowels (-og/-as), but these alternate suffixes also appeared as (archaic?) variant forms for mad- as well: m./f. sg. madog/madas.

The aorist forms were mostly produced with suffixal -iant which becomes -ienn- when inflected; this suffix induces internal i-affection on the stem. Archaic forms seem to indicate an infixed nasal with lost final aorist -i intruding into the stem:

The aorist of gurdh- most strongly indicates the i-intrusion from ancient forms, probably from ancient *gwṛði > gwrið. The uninflected -aint vs. inflected -einn- are likely due to the differing phonetic developments for ai and nt in final syllables vs. non-final syllables.

Some of the above formations can be seen in earlier sketches of the verb system (PE13/129), where the archaic aorist form maint was apparently the normal form, along with inflected mennin (1st sg.), mennib (2nd sg.) and so forth. In these earlier sketches, the joining vowel depended on the pronominal suffix rather than singular vs. plural, with 1st. sg. and 1st. pl. exclusive -on, -um not inducing i-affection and 2nd. sg., 1st. pl. inclusive and 2nd. plural -ib, -inc, -ist inducing i-affection (in the first sketch, these were -o, -anc, -ast respectively PE13/127).

These early sketches also had present tense examples for the derived verb ᴱN. glathra- “polish” (PE13/126, 129), already more or less the same as the later Noldorin and Sindarin system of the 1930s-1960s. The Early Noldorin pronominal suffixes were added to the derived-verb stem with an o/a vowel variation depending on whether the suffix was a single consonant or a cluster: gladhron “I polish” vs. gladhrast “you (pl.) polish”. The only difference from later Noldorin and Sindarin was in the pronominal suffixes themselves.

By The Etymologies of the 1930s, the present tense of basic verbs was also revised to be consistent with the system eventually seen in Sindarin, with uninflected present forms being the bare stem if polysyllabic or the stem with a lengthened vowel if monosyllabic:

Inflected forms also had i before the pronominal suffix and showed internal i-affection, though many of the examples are in deleted drafts: gerin (gar-) “I hold, have” (Ety/ƷAR|GAR); [deleted] herin (hadh-) “[I] sit” (EtyAC/KHAM); [deleted] tegin (tog-) “*I bring” (EtyAC/TUK). It seems from this point forward, Tolkien maintained the same basic system for simple present forms in Noldorin of the 1930s up through Sindarin of the 1950s and 60s.

Neo-Sindarin: I would recommend the following conjugations for the present tense, using car- “do”, gala- “grow”, and tangad(a)- “make firm, confirm” as examples:

Basic Derived Half-Strong
1st sg. cerin “I do” galon “I grow” tangadan “I confirm”
2nd sg. cerig “you do” galog “you grow” tangadag “you confirm”
2nd sg. (polite) ceril “you do” galol “you grow” tangadal “you confirm”
(archaic polite) ceridh “you do” galodh “you grow” tangadadh “you confirm”
3rd sg. câr “he/she does” gala “he/she grows” tangod “he/she confirms”
1st pl. cerif “we do” galof “we grow” tangadaf “we confirm”
2nd pl. ceridh(ir) “y’all do” galodh(ir) “y’all grow” tangadadh(ir) “y’all confirm”
3rd. pl. cerir “they do” galar “they grow” tangadar “they confirm”

See the entries on subject suffixes and verb inflections for more details on the inflectional suffixes. For polysyllabic basic verbs, the verb stem is not lengthened, as suggested above: echad “he/she makes or fashions”. Basic verbs with inflectional suffixes undergo internal i-affection, as discussed in vowel mutations: a, oe and u (very rare) → y. It is not entirely clear if verbal prefixes are mutated, but I suspect not if they are recognizable: ortherin (orthor-) “I conquer (= over-rule)”, but they are mutated if unrecognized: ephedin (aphad-) “I follow”.

Examples (present)
aníra “desires” [← #aníra-] Ar e aníra ennas suilannad mhellyn în phain ✧ SD/129
aníra “desires” [← #aníra-] edregol e aníra tírad i Cherdir Perhael (i sennui Panthael estathar aen) Condir i Drann ✧ SD/129
caw [← caw-] ✧ PE22/152
penna [← penna-] silivren penna míriel ✧ LotR/238
penna “slanting falls” [← penna-] silivren penna míriel ✧ RGEO/63
penna “slants-down” [← penna-] silivren penna míriel ✧ RGEO/64
síla [← #síla-] menel-vîr síla díriel ✧ LB/354
Tôl “is coming” [← #tol-] Tôl achar ✧ PE17/166
Tôl “comes” [← #tol-] Tôl acharn ✧ WJ/254
Tûl [← #tol-] Tûl acharn ✧ WJ/301
cerim/cerim(m)id ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 1st-dual-exclusive ✧ PE17/132
cerim “D 1a” ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 1st-dual-exclusive ✧ VT50/22
galammid [← gala-] 1st-dual-exclusive ✧ PE17/132
galangid [← gala-] 1st-dual-exclusive ✧ PE17/132
cerinc/ceringid ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 1st-dual-inclusive ✧ PE17/132
cerich “D [1b]” ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 1st-dual-inclusive ✧ VT50/22
athof [← atha-] 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE22/167
avam “we won’t” ← avo (imperative) 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE17/143
avam “We won’t” [← #ava-] 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ WJ/371
cerim ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE17/132
cerim(ir) “P 1a” ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ VT50/22
galam [← gala-] 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE17/132
góhenam [← #gohena-] 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ VT44/22
gohenam “*forgive” [← #gohena-] 1st-pl-exclusive sui {mí ni >>} mín i gohenam di ai {garer >>} gerir úgerth ammen ✧ VT44/29
penim “we have no ...” ← pen- 1st-pl-exclusive penim vast ✧ PE17/144
athab [← atha-] 1st-pl-inclusive ✧ PE22/167
cerinc ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 1st-pl-inclusive ✧ PE17/132
cerich(ir) “P 1b” ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 1st-pl-inclusive ✧ VT50/22
galanc [← gala-] 1st-pl-inclusive ✧ PE17/132
aþon “I will” [← atha-] 1st-sg ✧ PE22/167
athon “I will” [← atha-] 1st-sg ✧ PE22/167
avon “I won’t” ← avo (imperative) 1st-sg ✧ PE17/143
avon “I won’t” [← #ava-] 1st-sg ✧ WJ/371
cerin ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 1st-sg ✧ PE17/132
cerin “S 1a” ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 1st-sg ✧ VT50/22
cewin [← caw-] 1st-sg ✧ PE22/152
dewin “I fail/miss” [← #dew-] 1st-sg ✧ PE17/151
galon [← gala-] 1st-sg ✧ PE17/131
galon [← gala-] 1st-sg ✧ PE17/132
gwaen “I go” [← #gwae-] 1st-sg ✧ PE17/148
linnon [← linna-] 1st-sg le linnon im Tinúviel ✧ LB/354
nallon [← #nalla-] 1st-sg le nallon sí di’nguruthos ✧ LotR/729
nallon “I cry” [← #nalla-] 1st-sg le nallon sí di-nguruthos ✧ RGEO/64
niðin “I will do it, I mean to do it” [← nidh-] 1st-sg niðin mened ✧ PE22/165
sevin [← #sav-] 1st-sg ✧ PE17/173
tolen [← #tol-] 1st-sg tolen cared ✧ PE22/168
cerich ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 2nd-dual ✧ PE17/132
[?cerith] “D 2a” ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 2nd-dual ✧ VT50/22
galach [← gala-] 2nd-dual ✧ PE17/132
cerið(id) ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 2nd-dual-polite ✧ PE17/132
cerist “D 2b” ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 2nd-dual-polite ✧ VT50/22
galast [← gala-] 2nd-dual-polite ✧ PE17/132
cerigir ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 2nd-pl ✧ PE17/132
cerinc/t “P 2a” ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 2nd-pl ✧ VT50/22
dihenam [← #díhena-] 2nd-pl ✧ VT44/22
galagir [← gala-] 2nd-pl ✧ PE17/132
ceriðir ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 2nd-pl-polite ✧ PE17/132
cerint “P 2b” ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 2nd-pl-polite ✧ VT50/22
cerithir “P 2b” ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 2nd-pl-polite ✧ VT50/22
galaðir [← gala-] 2nd-pl-polite ✧ PE17/132
cerig ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 2nd-sg ✧ PE17/132
cerig “S 2a” ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 2nd-sg ✧ VT50/22
galog [← gala-] 2nd-sg ✧ PE17/131
galog [← gala-] 2nd-sg ✧ PE17/132
cerið ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 2nd-sg-polite ✧ PE17/132
cerith “S 2b” ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 2nd-sg-polite ✧ VT50/22
galoð [← gala-] 2nd-sg-polite ✧ PE17/132
cerist ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 3rd-dual ✧ PE17/132
cerid “D 2b” ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 3rd-dual ✧ VT50/22
galast [← gala-] 3rd-dual ✧ PE17/132
cerir ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 3rd-pl ✧ PE17/132
cerir “P 3” ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 3rd-pl ✧ VT50/22
galar [← gala-] 3rd-pl ✧ PE17/132
câr ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 3rd-sg ✧ PE17/132
câr “S 3” [← car-] 3rd-sg ✧ VT50/22
gala [← gala-] 3rd-sg ✧ PE17/131
gala [← gala-] 3rd-sg ✧ PE17/132
penna ← penna 3rd-sg silevren penna míriel ✧ PE17/24
chuinar “Live” [← #cuina-] nasal-mutation plural c-mutation Dor Gyrth i chuinar ✧ Let/417
úchebin “I do not retain” [← #heb-] negated soft-mutation 1st-sg h-mutation ✧ PE17/62
úchebin “not keep I” [← #heb-] negated soft-mutation 1st-sg h-mutation úchebin estel anim ✧ PE17/117
úchebin “I cannot keep” [← #heb-] negated soft-mutation 1st-sg h-mutation ✧ PE22/160
úchebin “I cannot keep” [← #heb-] negated soft-mutation 1st-sg h-mutation ✧ VT42/33
úvedin “I do not eat” [← #mad-] negated soft-mutation 1st-sg m-mutation ✧ PE17/145
úgar “he does not do/make” [← car-] negated soft-mutation 3rd-sg c-mutation ✧ PE17/145
cerir [← car-] plural ✧ VT44/22
epholar “?remember” [← ephola-] plural iglind then edain agorer ach in ellath hí ed {ebholar >>} epholar eno, ach in ellath hí ero ed epholar {hí}, i glinn {th >>} hen agorer Edain mi Velerian, ach hí in Ellath {er >>} îr ed epholar ✧ VT50/16
ebholar [← ephola-] plural iglind then edain agorer ach in ellath hí ed {ebholar >>} epholar eno ✧ VT50/16
epholar “?remember” [← ephola-] plural ar in Ellath epholar eno vi {Eressea >>} Eressai ✧ VT50/19
’waen ← gwaen (present 1st-sg) soft-mutation 1st-sg gw-mutation ✧ PE17/148
chebin “I have kept” [← #heb-] soft-mutation 1st-sg h-mutation ú-chebin estel anim ✧ LotR/1061
bêd “tells” [← ped-] soft-mutation p-mutation guren bêd enni ✧ VT41/11
garer [← car-] soft-mutation plural c-mutation ✧ VT44/21
gerir “*they do” [← car-] soft-mutation plural c-mutation sui {mí ni >>} mín i gohenam di ai {garer >>} gerir úgerth ammen ✧ VT44/30
Guinar “live” [← #cuina-] soft-mutation plural c-mutation Dor Firn-i-Guinar ✧ S/188

Element In


N. present grammar.

Examples (present)
blâb ← blebi (infinitive) ✧ Ety/PALAP
cere [← #car-] ceredir ✧ Ety/DER
gar “may” [← gar-] lheben teil brann i annon ar neledh neledhi gar godrebh ✧ TAI/150
lhâf ← lhefi (infinitive) ✧ Ety/LAB
lhôd “he floats” ← lhoda ✧ EtyAC/LUT
orthor “master, conquer” [← #orthor-] ✧ Ety/TUR
osgar ← esgeri (infinitive) ✧ Ety/OS
pannod “fill” [← #pannad(a)-] ✧ Ety/KWAT
thia “it appears” ← thio (infinitive) ✧ Ety/THĒ
tôg [← tog-] ✧ Ety/TUK
tôl “he comes” [← #tol-] ✧ Ety/TUL
cerim ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 1st-dual-exclusive ✧ VT50/22
cerich ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 1st-dual-inclusive ✧ VT50/22
cerim ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ VT50/22
cerich ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 1st-pl-inclusive ✧ VT50/22
cerin ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 1st-sg ✧ VT50/22
gerin “I hold, have” ← garo- (infinitive) 1st-sg ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GAR
gerin ← garo (infinitive) 1st-sg ✧ EtyAC/GAR
heðin “sit” ← hað- 1st-sg ✧ EtyAC/KHAM
tegin [← tog-] 1st-sg ✧ EtyAC/TUK
cerith(ir) ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 2nd-dual ✧ VT50/22
cerist ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 2nd-dual-polite ✧ VT50/22
cerith(ir) ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 2nd-pl ✧ VT50/22
cerint ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 2nd-pl-polite ✧ VT50/22
cerith ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 2nd-sg ✧ VT50/22
ceris ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 2nd-sg-polite ✧ VT50/22
cerid ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 3rd-dual ✧ VT50/22
cerir ← câr (present 3rd-sg) 3rd-pl ✧ VT50/22
câr [← #car-] 3rd-sg ✧ VT50/22
pesso “it affects, concerns me” [← pessa-] 3rd-sg ✧ EtyAC/PERES
sôg ← sogo (infinitive) 3rd-sg ✧ Ety/SUK
gar [← #car-] soft-mutation c-mutation osgar ✧ Ety/OS
Guinar “live” ← cuino (infinitive) soft-mutation plural c-mutation ✧ Ety/KUY

Element In


ᴱN. present grammar.

Examples (present)
adag ← adag- ✧ PE13/132
adag ← adob (infinitive) ✧ PE13/158
amró ← amrost (infinitive) ✧ PE13/159
annar ← athra- ✧ PE13/160
craint ← crenni (infinitive) ✧ PE13/161
dadnú [← dadnuv-] ✧ PE13/164
dág “kills” ← (n)dag- ✧ PE13/141
← #nuv- ✧ PE13/151
eithar ← eithran (infinitive) ✧ PE13/158
eithlad ← eithlod (infinitive) ✧ PE13/158
elaig ← alaith (infinitive) ✧ PE13/158
gonod ← go-nod- ✧ PE13/162
gwardh ← gurdh- ✧ PE13/132
hich “vomits” ← hich- ✧ PE13/163
gist “knows” [← gist-] ✧ PE13/144
lhif “drinks” [← lhif-] ✧ PE13/148
hilf ← lhif (present) ✧ PE13/148
lhib [← lhif-] ✧ PE13/149
lhú ← †lub- ✧ PE13/132
mád ← mad- ✧ PE13/131
mad “eats” [← mad-] madren ✧ PE13/163
ped “says” ← peda (infinitive) ✧ PE13/152
ped ← ped- ✧ PE13/164
huis “coire (trans.), futuere” ← hug- ✧ PE13/163
huis ← hug- ✧ PE13/163
hist “spits” [← hist-] ✧ PE13/147
hist “spits” ← hist- ✧ PE13/163
rhoid ← rhaid- ✧ PE13/165
rhang ← rhengi (infinitive) ✧ PE13/152
rheng ← rhengi (infinitive) ✧ PE13/152
rhangod ← rhengi (infinitive) ✧ PE13/152
rhang ← rhengi (infinitive) ✧ PE13/152
rhoidia ← rhoid (infinitive) ✧ PE13/152
rhoe(i)dia ← rhoid (infinitive) ✧ PE13/152
rheidia ← rhoe(i)dia (present) ✧ PE13/152
saig ← sag- ✧ PE13/153
sóg [← #sog-] au sóg madol, madol û sog, manthil sóg odog, Manthil sóg odog en maint os eneg bhair ✧ PE13/128
tangad ← tangad- ✧ PE13/131
tha [← tha-] tha i·’lathros an i bailchir beleg {thain} ✧ PE13/128
tha ← tha- ✧ PE13/153
thaw ← tha- ✧ PE13/153
dagum [← dag-] 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE13/130
madum ← #mad- 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE13/127
madum [← mad-] 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE13/129
madu{i}m [← mad-] 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE13/129
glathrum ← glathra 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE13/126
glathrum ← glathra 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE13/126
glathrum [← glathra-] 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE13/129
degint [← dag-] 1st-pl-inclusive ✧ PE13/130
madanc ← #mad- 1st-pl-inclusive ✧ PE13/127
medinc [← mad-] 1st-pl-inclusive ✧ PE13/129
madinc [← mad-] 1st-pl-inclusive ✧ PE13/129
glathranc ← glathra 1st-pl-inclusive ✧ PE13/126
glathranc [← glathra-] 1st-pl-inclusive ✧ PE13/129
caron [← #car-] 1st-sg ✧ PE13/128
degion [← dag-] 1st-sg ✧ PE13/130
dagion “I kill” [← dag-] 1st-sg ✧ PE13/130
dagon [← dag-] 1st-sg ✧ PE13/130
madon ← #mad- 1st-sg ✧ PE13/127
madon [← mad-] 1st-sg ✧ PE13/129
glathron ← glathra 1st-sg ✧ PE13/126
glathron ← glathra 1st-sg ✧ PE13/126
glathron [← glathra-] 1st-sg ✧ PE13/129
degist [← dag-] 2nd-pl ✧ PE13/130
madast ← #mad- 2nd-pl ✧ PE13/127
medist [← mad-] 2nd-pl ✧ PE13/129
madast (ist) [← mad-] 2nd-pl ✧ PE13/129
glathrast ← glathra 2nd-pl ✧ PE13/126
glathrast [← glathra-] 2nd-pl ✧ PE13/129
degib [← dag-] 2nd-sg ✧ PE13/130
mado ← #mad- 2nd-sg ✧ PE13/127
medib [← mad-] 2nd-sg ✧ PE13/129
madib [← mad-] 2nd-sg ✧ PE13/129
glathrau ← glathra 2nd-sg ✧ PE13/126
glathro ← glathra 2nd-sg ✧ PE13/126
glathraf ← glathra 2nd-sg ✧ PE13/126
glathrob [← glathra-] 2nd-sg ✧ PE13/129
dagor [← dag-] 3rd-pl ✧ PE13/130
degir [← dag-] 3rd-pl ✧ PE13/130
mador ← #mad- 3rd-pl ✧ PE13/127
madir ← #mad- 3rd-pl ✧ PE13/127
mador [← mad-] 3rd-pl ✧ PE13/129
madir [← mad-] 3rd-pl ✧ PE13/129
glathror ← glathra 3rd-pl ✧ PE13/126
glathror [← glathra-] 3rd-pl ✧ PE13/129
glathrain [← glathra-] 3rd-pl ✧ PE13/129
madin ← #mad- 3rd-pl-neut ✧ PE13/127
glathrain ← glathra 3rd-pl-neut ✧ PE13/126
cur [← #car-] 3rd-sg ✧ PE13/128
côr [← #car-] 3rd-sg ✧ PE13/128
côr [← #car-] 3rd-sg ✧ PE13/128
curraneg ← curenni (infinitive) 3rd-sg ✧ PE13/141
cribeg ← crib- 3rd-sg ✧ PE13/141
dâg [← dag-] 3rd-sg ✧ PE13/130
genyd ← go-nod 3rd-sg ✧ PE13/145
goenyd ← go-nod 3rd-sg ✧ PE13/145
mâd ← #mad- 3rd-sg ✧ PE13/127
mada ← #mad- 3rd-sg ✧ PE13/127
mâd [← mad-] 3rd-sg ✧ PE13/129
glathra ← glathra 3rd-sg ✧ PE13/126
glathra [← glathra-] 3rd-sg ✧ PE13/129
gisteg ← gist (present) 3rd-sg masc ✧ PE13/144
adages ← adag- fem ✧ PE13/132
adages ← adob (infinitive) fem ✧ PE13/158
adabes ← adob (infinitive) fem ✧ PE13/158
eleigiais ← alaith (infinitive) fem ✧ PE13/158
amrostas ← rhosta fem ✧ PE13/159
lhufes ← †lub- fem ✧ PE13/132
lhues ← †lub- fem ✧ PE13/132
mades ← mad- fem ✧ PE13/131
madas ← mad- fem ✧ PE13/131
mades ← mad- fem ✧ PE13/131
madas ← mad (present) fem ✧ PE13/163
mades ← mad (present) fem ✧ PE13/163
tangàdas ← tangad- fem ✧ PE13/131
pedain ← peda (infinitive) fem plural ✧ PE13/152
adog ← adag- masc ✧ PE13/132
ádageb ← adag- masc ✧ PE13/132
adob ← adag- masc ✧ PE13/132
adabeg ← adob (infinitive) masc ✧ PE13/158
adog “he builds” ← adob (infinitive) masc ✧ PE13/165
adabeg “he builds” ← adob (infinitive) masc ✧ PE13/165
amroig ← amró (present) masc ✧ PE13/159
amraig ← amró (present) masc ✧ PE13/159
emraig ← amró (present) masc ✧ PE13/159
amrois ← amró (present) masc ✧ PE13/159
athrog ← athra- masc ✧ PE13/160
cranneg ← crenni (infinitive) masc ✧ PE13/161
dadnuveg ← dadnú (present) masc ✧ PE13/164
nuveg ← #nuv- masc ✧ PE13/151
eithrog ← eithran (infinitive) masc ✧ PE13/158
eleigiog ← alaith (infinitive) masc ✧ PE13/158
amrostag ← rhosta masc ✧ PE13/159
gonodog ← go-nod- masc ✧ PE13/162
gwadheg ← gurdh- masc ✧ PE13/132
hicheg ← hich- masc ✧ PE13/163
pisog ← pis masc ✧ PE13/152
lhuveg ← †lub- masc ✧ PE13/132
lhueg ← †lub- masc ✧ PE13/132
madeg ← mad- masc ✧ PE13/131
madog ← mad- masc ✧ PE13/131
madog ← mad (present) masc ✧ PE13/163
madeg ← mad (present) masc ✧ PE13/163
pedog ← peda (infinitive) masc ✧ PE13/152
pedeg ← ped- masc ✧ PE13/164
hug ← hug- masc ✧ PE13/163
histeg ← hist- masc ✧ PE13/163
rhoidiog ← rhaid- masc ✧ PE13/165
rhe(i)diog ← rhaid- masc ✧ PE13/165
rhoedog/rhodog ← rhaid- masc ✧ PE13/165
rheidiog ← rhoe(i)dia (present) masc ✧ PE13/152
tangàdog ← tangad- masc ✧ PE13/131
thaug ← tha- masc ✧ PE13/153
thog ← tha- masc ✧ PE13/153
thaweg ← tha- masc ✧ PE13/153
edegir ← adag- plural ✧ PE13/132
goenoedi ← go-nod plural ✧ PE13/145
genedi ← go-nod plural ✧ PE13/145
gwerdhir ← gurdh- plural ✧ PE13/132
lhuir ← †lub- plural ✧ PE13/132
lhyfir/lhuir ← †lub- plural ✧ PE13/132
medir ← mad- plural ✧ PE13/131
pedir ← ped- plural ✧ PE13/164
tangadar ← tangad- plural ✧ PE13/131
edegais ← adag- plural fem ✧ PE13/132
edegis ← adag- plural fem ✧ PE13/132
lhuis ← †lub- plural fem ✧ PE13/132
lhuais ← †lub- plural fem ✧ PE13/132
medais ← mad- plural fem ✧ PE13/131
medis ← mad- plural fem ✧ PE13/131
tengèdais ← tangad- plural fem ✧ PE13/131
tengèdis ← tangad- plural fem ✧ PE13/131
tengèdiais ← tangad- plural fem ✧ PE13/131
edegig ← adag- plural masc ✧ PE13/132
genedig ← go-nod- plural masc ✧ PE13/162
gwerdhig ← gurdh- plural masc ✧ PE13/132
lhuig ← †lub- plural masc ✧ PE13/132
lhyfig/lhuig ← †lub- plural masc ✧ PE13/132
medig ← mad- plural masc ✧ PE13/131
tengèdig ← tangad- plural masc ✧ PE13/131
tangèdig ← tangad- plural masc ✧ PE13/131


G. present grammar.

Examples (present)
Briga “I fear, am afraid of” [← brig-] brigol ✧ GL/24
gai ← gôtha- ✧ GL/42
gai [← gôtha-] ✧ GL/43
hasta [← hasta-] u laud u laith hasta unweg ✧ GL/53
ista “am aware of” ← ista- en nin·ista mai ✧ GL/52
ista “feel” ← ista- nin·ista feg ✧ GL/52
lemp “he beckons” ← lempa- ✧ GL/53
laithra “forget” ← laithra- a·laithra nin ✧ GL/52
na “is” [← na-] i·vrog na cuid arog ✧ GG/9
na “is” [← na-] i·weg na an fofrin ✧ GG/9
na “are” [← na-] i·winin na gwandron ✧ GG/9
riga ← rig- riga i·wint ✧ GL/65
û [← û-] û gwilthi – gwilm ’othwenion ✧ GL/45
û ← û- ✧ GL/73
glonaith “it dawns (she, i.e. Aur)” ← glóna- fem ✧ GL/40
hastath ← hasta (present) plural u laudin laithin hastath unweg ✧ GL/53
gwath [← cwas-] soft-mutation c-mutation o·gwath lemp nin ✧ GL/53