S. soft mutation grammar.

S. soft mutation grammar.

Sindarin soft mutation is pervasive in the language and serves numerous functions: marking the direct object of a verb, the modified form of a noun following an article, the modified form of an adjective following a noun, etc. This entry primarily discusses the mutational process itself. The conditions under which mutations occur is addressed in other entries.

The soft mutations of Sindarin are very similar to those of Welsh. Historically, Sindarin soft mutation (also called lenition) arose from the phonetic development of consonants after vowels. This is most noticeable in modern Sindarin with the mutations of consonants after the definite article i “the”: i beth “the word (peth), i dhraug “the wolf (draug). It involves a “softening” of the sound from voiceless stops to voiced stops, voiced stops to voiced spirants, voiceless spirants (s, h) to “softer spirants” (h, ch).

In many cases, the vowel that conditioned the soft mutation was lost, and the mutational process was generalized to cases where no soft mutation would have occurred from a purely phonological perspective. This is the case, for example, with adjectives following nouns, since most nouns originally ended with vowels that were ultimately lost. After these losses, the soft mutation generalized to those rare cases where the noun did not originally end in a vowel. The soft mutations of Welsh have a similar historical origin.

Soft mutations modify the method of articulation of the consonant (voiceless stops become voiced) but not the place of articulation (labials remain labials, dentals remain dentals, etc.). Thus, it is easiest to discuss soft mutation in terms of method of articulation.

Voiceless Stops (p, t, c): The soft mutations of voiceless stops p, t, c are the voiced stops b, d, g. This is a result of the sound change whereby voiceless stops voiced after vowels. This mutation is extremely well attested, and applies even to consonant clusters beginning with voiceless stops, as in Drann the soft mutation of Trann “Shire” (SD/129). Welsh has the same mutation, and Tolkien established the soft mutation of voiceless stops all the way back in Gnomish of the 1910s (GG/7). Some examples from Sindarin:

The second example is of particular interest because the environment where it appears (palan-díriel) would produce -thíriel (nasal mutation) as a purely phonetic phenomenon. Thus it is an example of a mutation that is exclusively grammatical, as discussed by Tolkien in a 1958 letter to Rhona Beare (footnote, Let/278-9).

Voiceless Stops (b, d, g): The soft mutations of voiced stops b, d, g are voiced spirant such as v, dh, except that g vanishes completely: i ’aladh “the tree (galadh)”. For clarity Tolkien sometimes marked the lost g with an apostrophe ’, but this is not required and has no affect on pronunciation. This mutation is a result of the sound change whereby voiced stops became spirants after vowels: v, dh, ʒ (IPA [v, ð, ɣ]); later on the voiced velar spirant ʒ (IPA [ɣ]) vanished. This mutation is extremely well attested, and applies even to consonant clusters beginning with voiced stops, as in ’laur the soft mutation of glaur “gold(en)” (UT/253). Welsh has the same mutation except [v] is spelled “f” and [ð] is spelled “dd”; Tolkien established the soft mutation of voiced stops all the way back in Gnomish of the 1910s (GG/7). Some examples from Sindarin:

The initial combination gw- is a somewhat special case. Like other initial clusters beginning with g, this sound was lost under soft mutation leaving only w-, as in i-wath “the shadow (gwath)” (PE17/41). The historical origin of this mutation is somewhat different, however. In Sindarin’s phonetic history, an initial [w] became [gw], but only at the beginning of the word, not after a vowel. Thus the clitic i- “the” didn’t cause the g in gw- to vanish, but rather prevented its development in the first place.

This is mainly a historical curiosity, however. In modern Sindarin, the soft mutation of initial gw-clusters behaves like other g-clusters: the g vanishes.

Nasals (m): The dental nasal n does not mutate, but the labial nasal m becomes v, just as it does in Welsh (except in Welsh the mutated form is spelled “f”). The net result is the same as the mutated form of b, which introduces some ambiguities into the language: “the queen (bereth)” and “the festival (mereth)” are both i vereth. The ultimate change of m to v was later than that of b to v, with m passing first through a nasalized spirant Tolkien sometimes represented as but more often as mh. This nasalized may even have survived in some dialects like North Sindarin and/or Doriathrin prior to the fall of Beleriand (PE17/131, 133).

This is another well-attested mutation for Sindarin, but unlike the soft mutation of voiceless and voiced stops, m-mutation does not appear in the mutation tables of either Gnomish of the 1910s (GG/7) or the Early Noldorin of the 1920s (PE13/120-121). It is established in the mutation charts of Noldorin of the 1930s, however (PE19/18-19).

Sibilants and Spirants (s, h): The voiceless fricatives f, th do not undergo soft mutation, but the sibilant s and the breath h do mutate, to h and ch respectively. These mutations are both well attested for Sindarin:

These mutations do not occur in Welsh, and are features unique to Sindarin. The mutation of s arises from the (Old) Sindarin sound change whereby intervocalic [s] became [h]. It seems this change occurred differently at morpheme boundaries than it did medially, since medial s > h ultimately vanished, whereas an initial h from soft mutation survived. On the other hand, h-mutation is the indirect result of the sound change whereby initial [x-] became [h-]. As with gw-mutations, the presence of a preceding vowel inhibited this phonetic development, so the soft mutation of h is the result of the prevention of an initial sound change rather than the replication of a medial sound change.

The h-mutation appeared in the mutational tables of Gnomish from the 1910s (GG/7), but s-mutation did not. Somewhat strangely, h-mutation disappears from the Early Noldorin tables of the 1920s (PE13/120-121), but both h- and s-mutation appear in the Noldorin tables of the 1930s (PE19/18-19). The h-mutation was deleted from the 1930s Noldorin chart (PE19/18, note #7), but there is solid evidence of it elsewhere, such as N. Aran Chithlum “King of Hithlum” (Ety/TĀ, PE22/33); loose genitives like this caused soft mutation in the Noldorin of the 1930s and 40s.

Voiceless Liquids (lh, rh): Voiceless initial liquids are voiced to r, l by soft mutation in Welsh, but it is not clear exactly what the mutations are for Sindarin. These sound shifts are not mentioned in the Gnomish soft mutations of the 1910s (GG/7), but this is not especially strange since initial voiceless lh, rh were not part of the phonetic inventory of Gnomish. Mutations for lh, rh likewise did not appear in the Early Noldorin mutation table from the 1920s (PE13/120-121), but these sounds did begin to appear in contemporaneous word lists, such as ᴱN. lhith “dust” (PE13/149) and rhód “course” (PE13/152), with deleted gloss “free from”. Given compounds like ᴱN. yrlhith “dustless” (PE13/156) and ᴱN. darhod “not free” (PE13/141), they may have been unchanged by mutation.

Voiceless initial liquids were well established by the Noldorin of the 1930s, however, with an origin and system of soft mutations essentially identical to that of Welsh. In particular, all ancient initial liquids l, r became unvoiced to lh, rh (PE19/19), and their soft mutations were the result of the inhibition of this phonetic development after vowels, much like gw- and h-mutations as described above. The same holds true for Welsh, except voiceless l is spelled “ll”. The clearest Noldorin example is:

While writing drafts of The Lord of the Rings in the 1940s, Tolkien gradually decided that ancient l, r were not unvoiced to lh, rh, and many Noldorin words beginning with voiceless liquids were switched back to regular liquids, as in: N. rham “wall” (Ety/RAMBĀ) >> rammas “great wall” (WR/288; RC/512) and N. lham(b) “tongue” (Ety/LAB) >> Lamben “Tongue” (TI/280) and later S. lam (PE17/46; WJ/394). This removed the basic historical foundation for voiceless liquid mutations in Sindarin.

However, unlike Gnomish, voiceless initial liquids still appeared in Sindarin as the result of other sound changes, in particular:

LH represents this sound when voiceless (usually derived from initial sl-) ... RH represents a voiceless r (usually derived from older initial sr-) (Appendix E, LotR/1114).

Indeed, Tolkien used these sound changes to devise new etymologies for Noldorin forms he wanted to retain in Sindarin, such as lhaw “ears”, rhûn “east” and Rhovanion “Wilderland”. Assuming most initial lh, rh in Sindarin were the result of ancient sl, sr, we can deduce the soft mutations of voiceless liquids from the medial developments of these sounds. In Noldorin of the 1930s medial [s] became [θ] before [l], [r], and there is evidence of this for Sindarin as well:

That would suggest that perhaps the soft-mutations of lh, rh are thl, thr, as the most probable result of their phonetic history. However, there is a note from 1957 where Tolkien sheds some light on the nasal mutation of voiceless stops:

na (< ) “to, towards” of space/time. with vocalic mutation. before vowel n’ ... S na, before vowels nan (nasal mutation), means “with” in sense of possessing, provided with, especially of characteristic feature ... na “to” and na “with” are therefore distinct before vowels and b, d, g, p, t, c, m, s but same before h, f, þ, r (rh), l (lh). Late forms as nan-h as for vowels, archaic nath-r, nath-l for nan-rh, nan-lh. nan|sr > nassr > nathr.

In this quote Tolkien is comparing the prepositions na “to” and na(n) “with”, first causing soft mutation and the second causing nasal mutation. He goes on to say that soft and nasal mutation produces the same results for a bunch of consonants, including voiceless lh, rh. He then says “archaic nath-r, nath-l for nan-rh, nan-lh”. This seems to imply that the nasal mutations thl, thr for voiceless lh, rh are archaic, and in modern Sindarin these forms are unmutated lh, rh. This in turn implies voiceless liquids are likewise not mutated in modern Sindarin, and the mutations thl, thr are archaic.

This is consistent with our only example: the adjective rhúnen “east” shows no mutation in Talath Rhúnen “East Vale” (S/124), and normally adjectives undergo soft mutation in that position. Absent more information, I think it’s safest to assume voiceless liquids do not change under soft mutation except to thl/thr in archaic/poetic speech.

Ancient Nasalized Stops ([m]b, [n]d, [n]g): In Primitive Elvish, some ancient words began with nasalized stops, such as ✶mbar(ă) “home”, ✶ndorē “land”, ✶ñgolodō “Gnome”. In Sindarin’s phonetic history, these initial nasals vanished before stops, so that the Sindarin form of such words began with simple stops: bâr, dôr, golodh. However, in the conditions leading to soft mutation, these clusters would instead undergo their historic intervocalic developments, in which [mb], [nd] became [mm], [nn] and (normally) [ŋg] survived. It seems these soft mutations were not simply identical to the intervocalic forms, however. Tolkien represented these soft mutations in various ways throughout his life.

In the Gnomish Grammar of the 1910s, the soft mutations fully restored the ancient nasalized stops: i·mbar, i·ndor, i·Ngolda from G. Golda “Gnome” (GG/7); these voiced nasal-stop clusters appeared medially in Gnomish as well. However, in the Early Noldorin Grammar of the 1920s, the intervocalic forms further reduced to simple nasals, as in i·mâr, i·nôr, i·ngoloth from ᴱN. Goloth “Gnome” (PE13/120). In phonetic tables of the 1930s, Tolkien indicated the soft mutation of ancient [m]b was long mm, so that (hypothetical) mutated form would *i·mmâr, but the mutation of ancient [n]d was nd- (PE19/20). In one of the few clear examples of Sindarin soft mutations for an ancient nasalized stop, we see mb as in: i mbas “the bread” (VT44/27).

Tolkien’s vacillations over the proper soft mutations of ancient nasalized stops were probably motivated by a need to keep them distinct from the nasal mutations. This was not an issue in Gnomish of the 1910s, which seems not to include nasal mutations, but nasal mutations were a feature of all later iterations of the language. Analysis of these mutations is further complicated by the fact that Tolkien seems to have used ng to represent both the velar nasal-stop cluster [ŋg] and the simple velar nasal [ŋ] initially. For example, in the 1920s when the labial and dental mutations were simple nasals m, n, the velar mutation was still represented as i·ngoloth. There are notes from the late 1950s or early 1960s indicating that Sindarin likewise possessed an isolated initial velar nasal:

[In Quenya] the change of initial [ŋ] to n ... With respect to pronunciation a curious situation arose. Quenya as it entered Beleriand was, as spoken, a language that did not possess the sounds þ, z, or “free” ñ (sc. not followed by k, g); but in Sindarin þ and ŋ were frequent and their distinction from s, n was essential. After their acquisition of Sindarin the Noldor were thus familiar with þ and ŋ and the more learned often reintroduced the ancient pronunciation of the Feanorian letters that represented these sounds (now pronounced s, n) (PE17/129).

Since any ancient isolated [ŋ] vanished in Sindarin (PE18/104), the most likely candidate for this “free” initial [ŋ] is a mutated form, of which soft mutation is the best candidate since it is the most common consonant mutation. Since [ŋg] survived as a cluster medially, the change [ŋg] > [ŋ] must have been a special development at the beginning of a morpheme boundary. Likewise, the normal post-vocalic development of [mb] would be [mb] > [mm] > [m], though there is a counter-example i mbas mentioned above. Although there are no attested examples, many Neo-Sindarin writers assume that the soft mutation of ancient [nd] is likewise a simple dental nasal [n], though this would again need to be a special initial development, since medially it shifted to [nn] but did not shorten.

I believe this system of (Neo) Sindarin mutations for ancient nasalized stops was first proposed by David Salo (GS/76), but it is now widely accepted. In the case of ancient [n]g, many Neo-Sindarin writers (myself included) represent the isolated velar nasal as ñ- rather than using Tolkien’s (ambiguous) representation ng-. Thus these soft mutations would be:

Summary: To summarize the above discussion, here are my recommendations for Neo-Sindarin:

The last two sets of changes are poorly attested and should be considered somewhat speculative.

Conceptual Development: There are several tables showing soft mutations at various developmental stages for Sindarin’s conceptual precursors, and these can be used to trace Tolkien’s changing thoughts on soft mutation. The earliest appears in the Gnomish Grammar of the 1910s, which followed the above system of soft mutations except (1) s and m do not mutate, (2) ancient nasalized stops are fully restored (mb, nd, ng) and (3) mutations of initial voiceless lh, rh do not appear because they are not part of Gnomish’s phonetic inventory (GG/7-8). A similar table appears in the Early Noldorin Grammar of the 1920s, identical to Gnomish except that ancient nasalized stops mutated to simple nasals m, n, ñ (represented as ng) as describe above and for some reason h does not mutate (apparently a transient idea).

The soft mutations for Noldorin of the 1930s can be found in the Comparative Tables of phonetic development, where Tolkien said “Alternatives thus c/g indicate the special initial variations or mutations in Noldorin” (PE19/18-21). In these tables Tolkien introduced the soft mutations of m, s and voiceless lh, rh, though as noted above the phonetic foundation for the mutation of voiceless liquids was different in Noldorin (more Welsh-like) than later Sindarin.

Noldorin also possessed some soft mutations not seen in Sindarin. In particular, these tables indicate ancient initial sw- became f- in Noldorin, with a mutated form chw- (PE19/21), as opposed to Sindarin where it become voiceless hw. Lack of examples makes it hard to tell what the soft mutation of hw would be (if any) in Sindarin, but David Salo suggested it would be chw- (GS/74), similar to the mutation of isolated initial h-. This is partially supported by the variant forms whinn and †chwind for “birch”.

Examples (soft-mutation p-mutation)
bo [← bo] p-mutation bo Ceven sui vi Menel ✧ VT44/26
Baran ← paran p-mutation Dol Baran ✧ PE17/86
Baran [← paran] p-mutation Dol Baran ✧ PE17/171
Baran ← Paran p-mutation Dol Baran ✧ RC/433
baur ← paur p-mutation Celebrimbor, Tegilbor ✧ PM/318
baur ← paur p-mutation Celebrimbor, Tegilbor ✧ VT47/8
#bed [← ped-] p-mutation pen-bed ✧ PE17/145
bed [← ped-] p-mutation adbed ✧ PE17/167
#bel- [← #pel-] p-mutation ⇒ #beleth ✧ LotR/1107
#beleth [← #peleth] p-mutation narbeleth ✧ LotR/1107
ben ← pen- p-mutation ✧ PE17/144
ben- ← pen- p-mutation ben-adar ✧ PE17/34
ben ← pen p-mutation ✧ PE17/144
ben [← pen¹] p-mutation ben-adar ✧ PE17/167
-ben ← pen- p-mutation morben ✧ PE17/141
ben ← pen p-mutation Calben, Morben ✧ WJ/362
ben ← pen p-mutation Calben, Morben, orodben, rochben ✧ WJ/376
beneð ← peneð p-mutation morbeneð ✧ PE17/141
Berhael [← Perhael] p-mutation Daur a Berhael, Conin en Annûn ✧ Let/448
Berhael [← Perhael] p-mutation Daur a Berhael, Conin en Annûn ✧ LotR/953
Berhael ← Perhael p-mutation ✧ PE17/102
i berian ← perian p-mutation ✧ PE17/66
beth [← peth] p-mutation Fennas nogothrim, lasto beth lammen ✧ LotR/307
beth ← peth p-mutation fennas nogothrim lasto beth lammen ✧ PE17/46
beth [← peth] p-mutation agarfant beth ✧ PE17/126
beth [← peth] p-mutation albeth ✧ PE17/146
-beth ← peth p-mutation Danbeth ✧ PM/395
beth [← peth] p-mutation ✧ SA/quen
beth [← peth] p-mutation ✧ SA/quen
beth ← peth p-mutation pedo beth mellon ✧ VT44/26
Bîn [← #pîn] p-mutation Cûl Bîn ✧ RC/536
bêd [← ped-] present p-mutation guren bêd enni ✧ VT41/11
Examples (soft-mutation t-mutation)
diriel [← tiria-] active-participle t-mutation o menel palan-diriel ✧ LotR/729
diriel [← tiria-] active-participle t-mutation o menel palan-diriel ✧ RGEO/64
-dĭriel [← tiria-] active-participle t-mutation ✧ RGEO/65
Drannail [← #Trann] adjectival t-mutation egor ben genediad Drannail erin Gwirith edwen ✧ SD/129
Dirnen [← #tir-] passive-participle t-mutation Talath Dirnen, Dirnen ✧ S/168
díriel [← tiria-] perfective-participle t-mutation menel-vîr síla díriel ✧ LB/354
díriel [← tiria-] perfective-participle t-mutation ✧ Let/279
díriel [← tiria-] perfective-participle t-mutation Na-chaered palan-díriel ✧ LotR/238
díriel [← tiria-] perfective-participle t-mutation Na-chaered palan-díriel ✧ RGEO/63
díriel [← tiria-] perfective-participle t-mutation Na-chaered palan-díriel ✧ RGEO/64
#díriel [← tiria-] perfective-participle t-mutation ✧ RGEO/65
Dínen ← tínen t-mutation Rath Dínen ✧ RC/551
#dagol [← #tagol] t-mutation glandagol ✧ VT42/8
dal ← tal t-mutation Celebrindal ✧ SA/celeb
dal ← tal t-mutation Celebrindal, Ramdal ✧ SA/tal
#dal [← tâl] t-mutation ⇒ #dalraph ✧ UT/313
dalf ← talf t-mutation Nindalf ✧ RC/779
#dalraph [← #talraph] t-mutation Udalraph ✧ UT/313
#dan [← #tân] t-mutation Círdan ✧ PE17/27
daw [← taw²] t-mutation ✧ PE19/104
do [← taw²] t-mutation ✧ PE19/104
den [← #ten] t-mutation caro den i innas lin ✧ VT44/25
dew ← tew t-mutation ✧ PE17/44
di [← #ti] t-mutation sui {mí ni >>} mín i gohenam di ai {garer >>} gerir úgerth ammen ✧ VT44/30
dil [← till] t-mutation Celeb-dil ✧ RC/775
dîn [← #tîn²] t-mutation ar Meril bess dîn, ar Elanor, Meril, Glorfinniel, ar Eirien sellath dîn ✧ SD/129
dîn [← #tîn²] t-mutation ar Meril bess dîn, ar Elanor, Meril, Glorfinniel, ar Eirien sellath dîn ✧ SD/129
dîn [← #tîn²] t-mutation ar Iorhael, Gelir, Cordof, ar Baravorn, ionnath dîn ✧ SD/129
dir [← #tir-] t-mutation Amdir ✧ MR/320
Dirnen [← #tirnen] t-mutation ✧ S/168
#doloth [← tolodh] t-mutation dolothen ✧ SD/129
Drann [← #Trann] t-mutation edregol e aníra tírad i Cherdir Perhael (i sennui Panthael estathar aen) Condir i Drann ✧ SD/129
Drann [← #trann] t-mutation ✧ SD/129
#duil [← #tuil] t-mutation th(a)randuil ✧ PE17/27
Examples (soft-mutation c-mutation)
garol [← car-] active-participle c-mutation úgarol ✧ PE17/144
garol [← car-] active-participle c-mutation rhugarol ✧ PE17/170
genol [← #cen-] active-participle c-mutation fergenol ✧ PE17/181
#gai [← cai] c-mutation Morgai ✧ PE17/101
#gail ← cail c-mutation Thangail ✧ UT/281
galad ← calad c-mutation Gil-galad ✧ PE17/50
galen ← calen c-mutation ✧ PE17/77
galen ← calen c-mutation ✧ PE17/153
galen ← calen c-mutation ✧ SA/calen
Galen ← calen c-mutation Tol Galen ✧ SA/calen
galen ← calen c-mutation ✧ SA/kal
Galen [← calen] c-mutation Eryn Galen ✧ UT/281
Gamlost [← Camlost] c-mutation ✧ WJI/Camlost
#gannas [← #cannas] c-mutation Dorgannas ✧ WJ/192
gar [← car-] c-mutation ⇒ †uin gar ✧ PE17/145
#gar [← car-] c-mutation athgar ✧ PE17/148
gared [← #cared] c-mutation athragared ✧ PE17/14
#garn [← #carn] c-mutation othgarn ✧ PE17/151
#gen [← #cen-] c-mutation athgen ✧ PE17/148
#gerthas ← certhas c-mutation Angerthas ✧ LotR/1123
#gerthas ← certhas c-mutation angerthas ✧ PE17/122
g(ī) ← ki c-mutation Mae g(ī)’ovannen ✧ PE17/17
#gol [← #coll¹] c-mutation Thingol ✧ PE17/72
goll ← coll c-mutation Bar-goll ✧ WJ/414
#goth [← #coth] c-mutation Morgoth ✧ SA/mor
#gud [← #cûd] c-mutation Thuringud ✧ WJ/256
-gund [← ^#cund] c-mutation Felagund, Felagund ✧ NM/304
garo [← car-] imperative c-mutation avo garo, avgaro ✧ WJ/371
úgar [← car-] negated present 3rd-sg c-mutation ✧ PE17/145
govannen [← cova-] passive-participle c-mutation Mae govannen ✧ Let/308
govannen [← cova-] passive-participle c-mutation Mae govannen! ✧ LotR/209
govannen ← cova- passive-participle c-mutation ✧ PE17/157
govannen ← covad passive-participle c-mutation mae-govannen ✧ PE17/158
go-vannen ← covannen (passive-participle) passive-participle c-mutation ✧ PE17/16
govannen [← covad(a)-] passive-participle c-mutation ✧ PE17/131
Gelin ← calen plural c-mutation Pinnath Gelin ✧ SA/calen
#gerth [← #carth] plural c-mutation úgerth ✧ VT44/28
garer [← car-] present plural c-mutation ✧ VT44/21
gerir [← car-] present plural c-mutation sui {mí ni >>} mín i gohenam di ai {garer >>} gerir úgerth ammen ✧ VT44/30
Guinar [← #cuina-] present plural c-mutation Dor Firn-i-Guinar ✧ S/188
Examples (soft-mutation b-mutation)
Varanduin [← Baranduin] b-mutation anglennatha i Varanduiniant erin dolothen Ethuil ✧ SD/129
vast [← #bas(t)] b-mutation penim vast ✧ PE17/144
Veleg [← beleg] b-mutation Cûl Veleg ✧ RC/536
Veleglind [← #Beleglinn] b-mutation i·Veleglind i eithro en estar iChîn Húrin ✧ VT50/12
Veleglinn [← #Beleglinn] b-mutation os i Veleglinn i edain {agoren >>} agorer {mi >>} vi Veleriann ✧ VT50/18
Velerian [← Beleriand] b-mutation i glinn {th >>} hen agorer Edain mi Velerian, ach hí in Ellath {er >>} îr ed epholar ✧ VT50/18
Veleriann [← Beleriand] b-mutation os i Veleglinn i edain {agoren >>} agorer {mi >>} vi Veleriann ✧ VT50/18
Examples (soft-mutation d-mutation)
Dhaer [← daer¹] d-mutation Lô Dhaer ✧ VT42/14
Dhaer [← daer¹] d-mutation Duin Dhaer ✧ WJ/191
Dhaer [← daer¹] d-mutation Athrad Dhaer ✧ WJ/338
ðe ← †de d-mutation ✧ PE17/26
dhîn [← dîn] d-mutation Taur-na-Chardhîn ✧ WJI/Taur-na-Chardhîn
Dhínen [← dínen] d-mutation Dor Dhínen ✧ WJ/333
-dhol ← dol d-mutation Fanuiðol ✧ PE17/36
dhol [← dol(l)] d-mutation Fanui-dhol ✧ RGEO/66
Examples (soft-mutation g-mutation)
aear [← gaear] g-mutation nef aear, sí nef aearon ✧ LotR/238
aear ← gaear g-mutation nef aear, sí nef aearon ✧ PE17/27
aear [← gaear] g-mutation nef aear, sí nef aearon ✧ RGEO/63
aear [← gaear] g-mutation nef aear sí nef aearon ✧ RGEO/64
aearon [← gaearon] g-mutation nef aear, sí nef aearon ✧ LotR/238
Aearon [← gaearon] g-mutation Seron Aearon ✧ PM/348
aearon [← gaearon] g-mutation nef aear, sí nef aearon ✧ RGEO/63
aearon [← gaearon] g-mutation nef aear sí nef aearon ✧ RGEO/64
ardh [← gardh] g-mutation Lisgardh ✧ UT/34
’Lân [← #glân¹] g-mutation Curunír ’Lân ✧ UT/390
Laur [← glaur] g-mutation Nan Laur ✧ UT/253
-lóriel [← #glóriel] g-mutation Rathlóriel ✧ S/235
#Lórin [← #glórin] g-mutation Lórindol ✧ SA/dol
Lorindol [← Glórindol] g-mutation ✧ MRI/Hador
Lórindol [← Glórindol] g-mutation ✧ SA/dol
Lórindol [← Glórindol] g-mutation ✧ SA/laurë
Lórindol [← Glórindol] g-mutation ✧ SI/Hador
Lórindol [← Glórindol] g-mutation ✧ SI/Lórindol
Lorindol [← Glórindol] g-mutation ✧ WJ/228
Lorindol [← Glórindol] g-mutation ✧ WJ/234
Lorindol [← Glórindol] g-mutation ✧ WJI/Lorindol
’ovannen ← govannen (passive-participle) g-mutation Mae g(ī)’ovannen ✧ PE17/17
#-rod ← grod g-mutation ✧ SA/groth
-rod ← grod g-mutation ⇒ †Novrod ✧ WJ/414
Laurunga [← Glaurung] old-genitive g-mutation ✧ NM/355
Examples (soft-mutation gw-mutation)
#waen [← #gwaen] gw-mutation Agarwaen ✧ S/210
#wain [← #gwain¹] gw-mutation Iarwain ✧ SA/iaur
#waith [← gwaith] gw-mutation enedwaith, Forodwaith ✧ Let/224
-waith [← gwaith] gw-mutation ✧ PE17/190
-waith [← gwaith] gw-mutation ✧ PE17/190
wath ← gwath gw-mutation ✧ PE17/41
wath [← gwath] gw-mutation Deldúwath, Dúath ✧ SA/gwath
wing [← gwing] gw-mutation Elwing ✧ SA/wing
’waen ← gwaen (present 1st-sg) present 1st-sg gw-mutation ✧ PE17/148
Examples (soft-mutation h-mutation)
i·chîr ← hîr definite h-mutation ✧ VT41/9
chaered [← haered] h-mutation Na-chaered palan-díriel ✧ LotR/238
chaered ← haered h-mutation Na-chaered palan-díriel ✧ PE17/25
chaered [← haered] h-mutation Na-chaered palan-díriel ✧ RGEO/63
chaered [← haered] h-mutation Na-chaered palan-díriel ✧ RGEO/64
Cherdir [← #herdir] h-mutation edregol e aníra tírad i Cherdir Perhael (i sennui Panthael estathar aen) Condir i Drann ✧ SD/129
#chíl [← #hîl] h-mutation Eluchíl ✧ PM/369
#chíl [← #hîl] h-mutation Eluchíl ✧ SA/khil
chollen ← Hollen h-mutation ✧ RC/550
úchebin [← #heb-] negated present 1st-sg h-mutation ✧ PE17/62
úchebin [← #heb-] negated present 1st-sg h-mutation úchebin estel anim ✧ PE17/117
úchebin [← #heb-] negated present 1st-sg h-mutation ✧ PE22/160
úchebin [← #heb-] negated present 1st-sg h-mutation ✧ VT42/33
chebin [← #heb-] present 1st-sg h-mutation ú-chebin estel anim ✧ LotR/1061
Examples (soft-mutation s-mutation)
hain [← #san] plural s-mutation Im Narvi hain echant ✧ LotR/305
hain ← han (soft-mutation) plural s-mutation Im Narvi hain echant ✧ PE17/42
hain [← #san] plural s-mutation ✧ PE17/42
hin [← sen] plural s-mutation Celebrimbor o Eregion teithant i thiw hin ✧ LotR/305
hin ← hen (soft-mutation) plural s-mutation Celebrimbor o Eregion teithant i thiw hin ✧ PE17/44
hin ← sīn (plural) plural s-mutation ✧ PE17/44
hī̆n ← hē̆n (soft-mutation) plural s-mutation ✧ VT49/34
#habar [← #sabar] s-mutation Anghabar ✧ SA/anga
had ← sad s-mutation Calenhad ✧ UTI/Calenhad
-had ← sad s-mutation Calenhad ✧ VT42/19
-hadh ← sâdh s-mutation Calenhad ✧ VT42/20
#hael [← #sael] s-mutation Perhael ✧ PE17/102
#hael [← #sael] s-mutation Panthael ✧ SD/126
han [← #san] s-mutation ✧ PE17/42
hen [← sen] s-mutation ✧ PE17/44
hē̆n [← sen] s-mutation ✧ VT49/34
hen [← sen] s-mutation i glinn {th >>} hen agorer Edain mi Velerian, ach hí in Ellath {er >>} îr ed epholar ✧ VT50/18
hir [← sîr] s-mutation Linhir ✧ RC/587
hîr [← sîr] s-mutation ⇒ †Gwathir ✧ UT/263
Examples (soft-mutation m-mutation)
vaed [← maed¹] m-mutation rovaed ✧ PE17/147
#vagor [← #magor] m-mutation Menelvagor ✧ LotR/81
vedui [← medui] m-mutation Ai na vedui Dúnadan! ✧ LotR/209
vi [← mi] m-mutation Ae Adar nín i vi Menel ✧ VT44/22
vi [← mi] m-mutation bo Ceven sui vi Menel ✧ VT44/27
vin ← min m-mutation ar díheno {ugarth} ammen i úgerth {min >>} vin ✧ VT44/24
vín ← mín m-mutation Anno ammen sír i mbas ilaurui {mín >>} vín ✧ VT44/28
vîr [← mîr] m-mutation menel-vîr síla díriel ✧ LB/354
vorn [← morn] m-mutation Hele(ð)vorn ✧ PE17/37
Vorn [← morn] m-mutation Eryn Vorn ✧ RC/lxv
úvedin [← #mad-] negated present 1st-sg m-mutation ✧ PE17/145
mhellyn [← mellon] plural m-mutation Ar e aníra ennas suilannad mhellyn în phain ✧ SD/129
vellyn ← mellyn (plural) plural m-mutation Elvellyn ✧ WJ/412
Examples (soft-mutation mb-mutation)
mbas [← #bas(t)] mb-mutation Anno ammen sír i mbas ilaurui {mín >>} vín ✧ VT44/27
Examples (soft-mutation nd-mutation)
ndae- ← dae- nd-mutation daedel(os) ✧ PE17/151
ndaedel(os) ← daedel(os) nd-mutation ✧ PE17/151
ndael ← dael nd-mutation daedel(os) ✧ PE17/151
Examples (soft-mutation ng-mutation)
’Ngorthrim [← #gorth¹] class-plural ng-mutation Fui ’Ngorthrim, Raith ’Ngorthrim ✧ RC/526
Ngolodh [← Golodh] ng-mutation ✧ WJ/383
nguruthos [← guruthos] ng-mutation le nallon sí di’nguruthos ✧ LotR/729
nguruthos [← guruthos] ng-mutation di’nguruthos ✧ PE17/87
nguruthos ← guruthos ng-mutation le nallan sí di nguruthos ✧ PE17/95
nguruthos [← guruthos] ng-mutation le nallon sí di-nguruthos ✧ RGEO/64
Examples (soft-mutation rh-mutation)
-r(h)ed ← rhaed rh-mutation ✧ PE17/185

References ✧ Let/279, 427; PE17/16, 25, 46; PE19/77; VT44/26

Element In


N. soft mutation grammar.

Examples (soft-mutation p-mutation)
b- ← p- p-mutation ✧ PE19/18
b- ← p- p-mutation ✧ PE19/18
br- ← pr- p-mutation ✧ PE19/21
bl- ← pl- p-mutation ✧ PE19/21
bad [← #pâd] p-mutation Thar-bad ✧ Ety/THAR
ban ← pann p-mutation cirban ✧ Ety/PAD
belin [← #pelin] p-mutation lhasbelin ✧ Ety/LAS¹
benn [← penn²] p-mutation Morbenn ✧ EtyAC/MOR
Beringol ← Peringol p-mutation ✧ Ety/PER
Beringol [← Peringol] p-mutation ✧ LRI/Elrond
-bor ← paur suffix p-mutation Celebrimbor ✧ Ety/KWAR
Examples (soft-mutation t-mutation)
Dirnen ← tiri (infinitive) passive-participle t-mutation Dalath Dirnen, Dirnen ✧ Ety/TIR
duir ← taur plural t-mutation neledh-duir ✧ EtyAC/LEP
dirien [← #tirion] plural t-mutation Lhúndirien ✧ Ety/LUG²
d- ← t- t-mutation ✧ PE19/18
dr- ← tr- t-mutation ✧ PE19/21
dl- ← tl- t-mutation ✧ PE19/21
dadol [← tadol] t-mutation ✧ PE22/31
deith ← teith t-mutation andeith ✧ Ety/TEK
#dan [← #tân] t-mutation cirdan ✧ Ety/KIR
dor [← taur²] t-mutation Nimdil-dor ✧ Ety/TĀ
#delu ← telu t-mutation daedelu ✧ Ety/TEL
dew ← tew t-mutation ✧ PE22/31
dilias [← *tilias] t-mutation Hithdilias ✧ TI/124
Dinnu [← tinnu] t-mutation Aran Dinnu ✧ Ety/THIN
Dirnen [← #tirnen] t-mutation ✧ Ety/TIR
dithen [← tithen] t-mutation ✧ PE22/31
dilthen [← tithen] t-mutation ✧ RS/462
dilthen [← tithen] t-mutation ✧ RSI/Caradras dilthen
dûn [← tum] t-mutation Caron-dûn ✧ RS/419
dûn ← Tûn t-mutation Eledûn ✧ LR/222
Examples (soft-mutation c-mutation)
g- ← c- c-mutation ✧ PE19/18
g- ← c- c-mutation ✧ PE19/18
gr- ← cr- c-mutation ✧ PE19/21
gl- ← cl- c-mutation ✧ PE19/21
gl- ← cl- c-mutation ✧ PE19/21
-gadw ← cadw c-mutation ✧ Ety/KAT
galad [← calad] c-mutation Cilgalad ✧ Ety/KIL
galen [← calen] c-mutation Tol-galen ✧ LR/305
Gamlost ← Camlost c-mutation ✧ LR/301
Gamlost ← Camlost c-mutation ✧ LRI/Camlost
Gamlost ← Camlost c-mutation ✧ RSI/Beren
Granthir ← Cranthir c-mutation Dor Granthir ✧ LR/265
Gelebrendal [← Celebrindal] c-mutation ✧ Ety/KYELEP
Gelebrendal [← Celebrindal] c-mutation ✧ Ety/KYELEP
gorn ← corn c-mutation basgorn, rhin-gorn ✧ Ety/KOR
#gorn [← corn] c-mutation basgorn ✧ Ety/MBAS
#guru ← curu c-mutation crumguru ✧ EtyAC/KUR
gar [← #car-] present c-mutation osgar ✧ Ety/OS
Guinar ← cuino (infinitive) present plural c-mutation ✧ Ety/KUY
Examples (soft-mutation b-mutation)
bh, v ← b- b-mutation ✧ PE19/18
bh, v ← b- b-mutation ✧ PE19/18
vr- ← br- b-mutation ✧ PE19/21
vl- ← bl- b-mutation ✧ PE19/21
Varad [← barad¹] b-mutation Tol Varad ✧ WR/326
Vedhwen [← #Bedhwen] b-mutation Ar Vedhwen ✧ Ety/LEP
feleg [← beleg] b-mutation ✧ PE22/31
Velegol [← Belegol] b-mutation Ar Velegol ✧ Ety/LEP
Veleriand [← Beleriand] b-mutation Inias Veleriand ✧ LR/202
feleriandren [← Beleriandren] b-mutation ✧ PE22/34
Vreged-úr [← bregedur] b-mutation Dagor Vreged-úr ✧ Ety/UR
welein [← Balan] plural b-mutation Nethwelein ✧ Ety/LEP
Examples (soft-mutation d-mutation)
dh, ð ← d- d-mutation ✧ PE19/18
ðr (r) ← dr- d-mutation ✧ PE19/21
i·ðór ← dór d-mutation ✧ PE22/33
Examples (soft-mutation g-mutation)
gh, - ← g- g-mutation ✧ PE19/18
gh, - ← g- g-mutation ✧ PE19/18
r- ← gr- g-mutation ✧ PE19/21
l- ← gl- g-mutation ✧ PE19/21
?lam [← glamm] g-mutation gellam ✧ Ety/GYEL
loriel [← gloriel] g-mutation Galad-loriel, Rathloriel ✧ Ety/LÁWAR
i”oloð ← golodh g-mutation ✧ PE22/34
Ond [← gonn] g-mutation Bered Ondrath ✧ WR/340
ondren [← #gondren] g-mutation Toll-ondren ✧ TI/268
orgoroth ← Gorgoroth g-mutation Ered-orgoroth ✧ LR/298
#onoded ← gonod- gerund g-mutation aronoded ✧ Ety/NOT
Examples (soft-mutation gw-mutation)
w ← gw- gw-mutation ✧ PE19/19
w ← gw- gw-mutation ✧ PE19/19
(w)ath [← gwath¹] gw-mutation Deldú(w)ath ✧ Ety/DYEL
weð ← gweð gw-mutation angweð ✧ Ety/WED
weð ← gwaeð gw-mutation ang-weð ✧ PE22/32
#west ← gwest gw-mutation gowest ✧ Ety/WED
wing [← gwing] gw-mutation nerwing ✧ EtyAC/NAR¹
Examples (soft-mutation h-mutation)
ch ← h- h-mutation ✧ PE19/20
ch ← h- h-mutation ✧ PE19/20
ch ← h- h-mutation ✧ PE19/21
Chithlum ← Hithlum h-mutation aran Chithlum ✧ Ety/TĀ
Ċhithlum ← Hithlum h-mutation aran Ċhithlum ✧ PE22/33
Examples (soft-mutation s-mutation)
#hiriath [← sîr] class-plural s-mutation Nanduhiriath ✧ RS/433
h ← s- s-mutation ✧ PE19/19
#hail [← #sail] s-mutation Perhail ✧ SD/118
harn [← sarn] s-mutation Tolharn ✧ TI/345
Hilevril ← Silevril s-mutation Pennas Hilevril ✧ LR/202
hirion ← Sirion s-mutation Eges-hirion ✧ LR/407
Examples (soft-mutation lh-mutation)
liniath [← lhîn] class-plural lh-mutation Hithliniath ✧ Ety/KHIS
l ← lh- lh-mutation ✧ PE19/19
chl/l ← lh- lh-mutation ✧ PE19/21
#lad [← lhad] lh-mutation imlad ✧ EtyAC/IMBE
land ← lhann lh-mutation camland ✧ Ety/LAD
levnar ← lhevnar lh-mutation Galadlevnar ✧ Ety/LEP
lug ← lhûg lh-mutation ✧ Ety/LOK
linn ← lhinn lh-mutation dūlinn ✧ Ety/LIN²
#lin [← lhinn] lh-mutation dúlin ✧ Ety/TIN
ledin [← lhad] plural lh-mutation Palath-ledin ✧ TI/114
luin ← lhûn plural lh-mutation Eredluin ✧ Ety/LUG²
Examples (soft-mutation rh-mutation)
r ← rh- rh-mutation ✧ PE19/19
Rain [← rhain¹] rh-mutation Duil Rain ✧ TI/268
#ram [← rham] rh-mutation Othram ✧ WR/288
#rand [← #rhand] rh-mutation anrand ✧ Ety/RAD
ras [← rhas] rh-mutation Erebras ✧ EtyAC/ERE
rog [← rhaug] rh-mutation Gothrog ✧ Ety/GOS
rog ← rhaug rh-mutation Balrog ✧ Ety/RUK
ran [← Rhân] rh-mutation cûran ✧ Ety/KUƷ
rass ← rhass rh-mutation ✧ Ety/KHARÁS
chrass ← rass (soft-mutation) rh-mutation ✧ Ety/KHARÁS
rûn ← rhûn rh-mutation El-rûn ✧ Ety/RŌ
#ruin [← rhuin] rh-mutation Orodruin ✧ TI/28
Examples (soft-mutation m-mutation)
mh, v ← m- m-mutation ✧ PE19/19
mh, v ← m- m-mutation ✧ PE19/21
i·mhalt ← malt m-mutation ✧ PE22/35
vegli [← megli] m-mutation i vegli vorn ✧ PE22/33
venwed [← #menwed] m-mutation Annon porennin diragas·venwed ✧ RS/451
Vória ← Moria m-mutation Ennyn Durin Aran Vória ✧ TI/182
vorn [← morn] m-mutation i vegli vorn ✧ PE22/33
Vanwa [← Manwe] old-genitive m-mutation Ar Vanwa ✧ Ety/LEP
vyrn [← morn] plural m-mutation Eredvyrn ✧ TI/124
Examples (soft-mutation mb-mutation)
mb, mm ← b- mb-mutation ✧ PE19/20
mb, mm ← b- mb-mutation ✧ PE19/20
#bon [← #bonn] mb-mutation annabon ✧ Ety/MBUD
Examples (soft-mutation nd-mutation)
nd ← d- nd-mutation ✧ PE19/20
Examples (soft-mutation ng-mutation)
ng ← g- ng-mutation ✧ PE19/20
ng ← g- ng-mutation ✧ PE19/20
ngorgoros [← Gorgoroth] ng-mutation di ngorgoros ✧ EtyAC/NDI

References ✧ PE19/18; PE22/29, 32-33; VT44/27

Element In


ᴱN. soft mutation grammar.

Examples (soft-mutation)
bh (v) ← b b-mutation ✧ PE13/120
vorn [← born] b-mutation i dhimvorn ✧ PE13/142
i·bhad ← bad b-mutation ✧ PE13/120
vallam ← ballam b-mutation maint orlham o vallam ✧ PE13/138
#vang [← bang] b-mutation orvang ✧ PE13/156
i·bhar [← bâr] b-mutation ✧ PE13/120
bhelon [← belon] b-mutation on gós i·bhelon ar cranthi gwaist ’worin o nomad othra ✧ PE13/128
#vlann [← bland] b-mutation orvlann ✧ PE13/156
#vaith [← baith] b-mutation orvaith ✧ PE13/155
#vab [← mab] b-mutation orvab ✧ PE13/156
#vath [← #math] b-mutation orvath ✧ PE13/155
g ← c c-mutation ✧ PE13/121
i·cha ←  c-mutation ✧ PE13/121
#geleb [← celeb] c-mutation urgeleb ✧ PE13/156
i·gorin ← corin c-mutation ✧ PE13/121
#guil [← cuil] c-mutation urguil ✧ PE13/156
gw ← cw cw-mutation ✧ PE13/121
i·gwant ← cwant cw-mutation ✧ PE13/121
i·gwent ← cwent cw-mutation ✧ PE13/121
dh (ð) ← d d-mutation ✧ PE13/120
dhim ← dim d-mutation i dhimvorn ✧ PE13/142
#dhraust [← drauth] d-mutation o(r)dhraust ✧ PE13/156
i dhimvorn [← #dimvorn] d-mutation ✧ PE13/142
i·dhail [← dail] d-mutation ✧ PE14/66
#dhrog [← drog] d-mutation u(r)dhrog ✧ PE13/156
dholch [← dolch] d-mutation i·weg dholch ✧ PE13/124
i·dhuilin ← duilin d-mutation ✧ PE13/120
i·dhuilen ← duilen d-mutation ✧ PE13/120
#dhuilin [← duilin] d-mutation urdhuilin ✧ PE13/156
i·iant ← diant dy-mutation ✧ PE13/120
i·dhiant ← diant dy-mutation ✧ PE13/120
- ← g g-mutation ✧ PE13/120
i·ail ← gail g-mutation ✧ PE13/120
#orod [← gorod¹] g-mutation urorod ✧ PE13/156
lathros [← glathra-] gerund g-mutation tha i·’lathros an i bailchir beleg {thain} ✧ PE13/128
w ← gw gw-mutation ✧ PE13/120
#weth [← gweth] gw-mutation urweth ✧ PE13/156
#wedhw [← gwedhw] gw-mutation urwedhw ✧ PE13/156
weg [← gweg] gw-mutation i weg mór, i weg mor agos, i·weg dholch, weg i muint ✧ PE13/124
’worin [← gworin] gw-mutation on gós i·bhelon ar cranthi gwaist ’worin o nomad othra ✧ PE13/128
i·wath ← gwath gw-mutation ✧ PE13/120
#wadh [← gwadh] gw-mutation orwadh ✧ PE13/156
#widhion [← gwedhion] gw-mutation yrwidhion ✧ PE13/156
ihir ← hîr h-mutation ✧ PE13/121
#honn [← lhonn] lh-mutation urhonn ✧ PE13/156
i·lam [← lham(b)] lh-mutation ✧ PE13/120
#vaith [← maith] m-mutation orvaith ✧ PE13/155
i·marth ← barth mb-mutation ✧ PE13/120
i·mâr ← bâr mb-mutation ✧ PE13/120
#ormar [← bâr] mb-mutation ormar ✧ PE13/156
#mast [← bast] mb-mutation ormast ✧ PE13/156
n ← d nd-mutation ✧ PE13/120
i·nôr ← dôr nd-mutation ✧ PE13/120
#nor [← dôr] nd-mutation urnor ✧ PE13/156
i·nnor ← dor nd-mutation ✧ PE13/161
indor ← dor nd-mutation ✧ PE13/161
i·nór ← dor nd-mutation ✧ PE13/161
ng ← g ng-mutation ✧ PE13/120
ngw ← gw ng-mutation ✧ PE13/120
i·nglam ← glam ng-mutation ✧ PE13/120
#ngolodh [← Golodh] ng-mutation o(r)ngolodh ✧ PE13/156
i·ngoloth ← goloth ng-mutation ✧ PE13/120
i·ngolt ← golt ng-mutation ✧ PE13/121
#ngúl [← #gûl] ng-mutation u(r)ngúl ✧ PE13/156
b ← p p-mutation ✧ PE13/121
i·bant ← cwant p-mutation ✧ PE13/121
bab ← pap p-mutation go-bab ✧ PE13/132
#beth [← peth] p-mutation urbeth ✧ PE13/156
i·buig ← puig p-mutation ✧ PE13/121
buig [← puig] p-mutation i·mab buig ✧ PE13/124
bhair [← bâr] plural mb-mutation Manthil sóg odog en maint os eneg bhair ✧ PE13/128
d ← t t-mutation ✧ PE13/121
i·dael [← dail] t-mutation ✧ PE14/66
#vrog [← brog] t-mutation u(r)vrog ✧ PE13/156
#danc [← tanc] t-mutation idanc ✧ PE13/156
#darn [← tarn] t-mutation ordarn ✧ PE13/156
Deloth [← #teloth] t-mutation Daideloth ✧ LB/49
i·dî ←  t-mutation ✧ PE13/121
#duf [← tuf] t-mutation urduf ✧ PE13/156

Reference ✧ PE13/120

Element In


G. soft mutation grammar.

Examples (soft-mutation)
·v ← b b-mutation ✧ GG/7
·vr ← br b-mutation ✧ GG/7
·vl ← bl b-mutation ✧ GG/7
#va ←  b-mutation haiva ✧ GL/47
Vai [← Bai] b-mutation I·chorweg a·Vai ✧ GL/49
ven [← benn²] b-mutation dorven ✧ GL/30
i·vess ← bess b-mutation ✧ GG/9
vridwen [← Bridwen] b-mutation i·bridwen a·vridwen ✧ GL/64
vrog [← brog] b-mutation i·vrog na cuid arog ✧ GG/9
·g ← c c-mutation ✧ GG/7
·gr ← cr c-mutation ✧ GG/7
·gl ← cl c-mutation ✧ GG/7
#god [← cod] c-mutation deldrogod ✧ GL/30
#gwathil [← cwathli] c-mutation fengwathil ✧ GL/34
#gwathil [← cwathli] c-mutation piligwathil ✧ GL/64
I·Guilwarthon [← Cuilwarthon] c-mutation ✧ LBI/I·Guilwarthon
i·Guilwarthon [← Cuilwarthon] c-mutation ✧ LT2/51
Guilwarthon [← Cuilwarthon] c-mutation ✧ LT2I/Guilwarthon
I·Guilwarthon [← Cuilwarthon] c-mutation ✧ LT2I/I·Cuilwarthon
I·Guilwarthon [← Cuilwarthon] c-mutation ✧ LT2I/I·Guilwarthon
i·ngoldorim [← Golda] class-plural ng-mutation ✧ GG/15
·gw ← cw cw-mutation ✧ GG/7
·dh ← d d-mutation ✧ GG/7
·dhr ← dr d-mutation ✧ GG/7
Dhair ← Dair d-mutation Bara Dhair Haithin ✧ LT2A/Mar Vanwa Tyaliéva
Dhrauthodavros [← #Drauthodavros] d-mutation ✧ LT2A/Dhrauthodavros
Dhrauthodavros [← #Drauthodavros] d-mutation ✧ LT2I/Dhrauthodavros
Dhrauthodauros [← #Drauthodavros] d-mutation ✧ LT2I/Dhrauthodavros
Dhrauthodavros [← #Drauthodavros] d-mutation ✧ LT2I/Rúsitaurion
Dhuilon ← Duilin d-mutation ✧ LT2I/Dhuilon
·’ ← g g-mutation ✧ GG/7
·’l ← gl g-mutation ✧ GG/7
·’r ← gr g-mutation ✧ GG/7
#garm [← carm] g-mutation gruigarm ✧ GL/42
gim ← †cim g-mutation thasgim ✧ GL/26
i’oth ← goth g-mutation ✧ GG/9
#grithnir ← crithos g-mutation ✧ GL/27
i·’lam ← glâm g-mutation ✧ GG/9
’len [← glen(n)] g-mutation nôbi i·mab ’len suila ontha ✧ GG/11
#lir [← glîr] g-mutation gwethlir ✧ GL/47
’loss [← gloss] g-mutation mab ’loss ✧ GG/15
’loss [← gloss] g-mutation talwi i’loss ar gwandra nan·Idril ✧ GG/15
bain [← bain] g-mutation fengvain ✧ GL/34
’lisc ← glisc g-mutation lam ’lisc ✧ GL/40
#ruith [← gruith] g-mutation hadruith ✧ GL/47
a·ngolui ← †gôl genitive dual ng-mutation ✧ PE13/117
i·ngolui ← †gôl genitive dual ng-mutation ✧ PE13/117
na·ngolui ← †gôl genitive dual ng-mutation ✧ PE13/117
dalwint [← tâl] genitive dual t-mutation i·waneth na·dalwint gloss an Idril ✧ GG/11
a·nguilan ← †gôl genitive ng-mutation ✧ PE13/117
i·nguilan ← †gôl genitive ng-mutation ✧ PE13/117
na·nguilan ← †gôl genitive ng-mutation ✧ PE13/117
Vanion [← Ban¹] genitive plural b-mutation i·walt na Vanion ✧ GL/44
gwention [← cwent] genitive plural c-mutation ✧ GG/12
’othwenion [← gothwen] genitive plural g-mutation û gwilthi – gwilm ’othwenion ✧ GL/45
#walion [← Gwala] genitive plural gw-mutation cod·walion ✧ GL/26
Ngoldathon [← Golda] genitive plural ng-mutation i·Lam na·Ngoldathon “Goldogrin” di Sacthoðrin ✧ GL/17
a·nguilt ← †gôl genitive plural ng-mutation ✧ PE13/117
i·nguilt ← †gôl genitive plural ng-mutation ✧ PE13/117
na·nguilt ← †gôl genitive plural ng-mutation i·lam na·Nguilt ✧ PE13/117
·w ← gw gw-mutation ✧ GG/7
walt ← gwalt gw-mutation i·walt na Vanion ✧ GL/44
waid ← gwaid gw-mutation hauthwaid ✧ GL/48
waneth [← gwandreth] gw-mutation i·waneth na·dalwint gloss an Idril ✧ GG/11
wais [← gwais] gw-mutation hauthwais ✧ GL/48
’Wanweg ← Gwanweg gw-mutation ✧ GL/43
’Wanweg ← Gwanweg gw-mutation ✧ LT1A/Súlimo
war [← gwar-¹] gw-mutation ⇒ †cathwar ✧ GL/25
’wareth [← gwareth] gw-mutation Amon ’wareth ✧ PE15/20
weg [← gweg] gw-mutation i·weg na an fofrin ✧ GG/9
weg [← gweg] gw-mutation i·weg fof ✧ GG/9
west [← gwest¹] gw-mutation maiwest ✧ GL/56
#wilm [← gwilm] gw-mutation gothwilm ✧ GL/42
’wirn [← gwirn] gw-mutation u ’wirn u ’wethrin ✧ GL/47
’wethrin ← gwethrin gw-mutation u ’wirn u ’wethrin ✧ GL/47
wethrin [← gwethrin] gw-mutation maiwethrin ✧ GL/56
Wilma [← gwilb] gw-mutation ✧ PE15/24
wint [← gwint] gw-mutation riga i·wint ✧ GL/65
·ch ← h h-mutation ✧ GG/7
chest [← hest] h-mutation gochest ✧ GL/40
chorweg ← horweg h-mutation I·chorweg a·Vai ✧ GL/49
Chorweg [← horweg] h-mutation ✧ LT1A/Vailimo
i·choth ← hoth h-mutation ✧ GG/9
chùn [← hûn] h-mutation lempachùn ✧ GL/53
i·Mbalrog ← Balrog mb-mutation ✧ GG/8
i’Malrog ← Balrog mb-mutation ✧ GL/21
i’Malrog ← Balrog mb-mutation ✧ LT1A/Balrog
i·Mbandoth ← Bandoth mb-mutation ✧ GG/8
i·mbar ← bar mb-mutation ✧ GG/8
i·mbasgon ← basgorn mb-mutation ✧ GG/8
i·mbast ← bast mb-mutation ✧ GG/8
i·Mbelca ← Belca mb-mutation ✧ GG/8
i·Mbeleca ← Belca mb-mutation ✧ GG/8
i·mbless ← bless mb-mutation ✧ GG/8
i Mless ← Bless mb-mutation ✧ GL/23
i·Mbridwen ← Bridwen mb-mutation ✧ GG/8
i·nDamroth [← Damroth] nd-mutation ✧ GL/29
i·’Namroth [← Damroth] nd-mutation ✧ GL/29
i·ndolm ← dolm nd-mutation ✧ GG/8
i·ndoldrin ← doldrin nd-mutation ✧ GG/8
i·ndor ← dor nd-mutation ✧ GG/8
i·ndor ← dor nd-mutation ✧ GG/9
i·ndrith ← drith nd-mutation ✧ GG/8
i·ndeldron ← deldron nd-mutation ✧ GG/8
i·Ngainu ← Gainu ng-mutation ✧ GG/8
i·Ngil [← Gil] ng-mutation ✧ GG/8
i·ngilim [← Gilim] ng-mutation ✧ GG/8
i·nglest ← glest ng-mutation ✧ GG/8
i·ngogel ← gogel ng-mutation ✧ GG/8
Ngoldothrim [← Goldothrim] ng-mutation Tur na·Ngoldothrim ✧ GG/15
i·Ngolda ← golda ng-mutation ✧ GG/8
i·ngoloth ← gôloth ng-mutation ✧ GG/8
i·ngodaithri ← godaithri ng-mutation ✧ GG/8
i·goredin ← goredin ng-mutation ✧ GG/8
i·ngwanos ← gwanos ng-mutation ✧ GG/8
·b ← p p-mutation ✧ GG/7
·br ← pr p-mutation ✧ GG/7
·bl ← pl p-mutation ✧ GG/7
band [← pand] p-mutation i·band a·gwentin laithi ✧ GG/11
band [← pand] p-mutation i band cwention laithi ✧ GG/12
bridwen ← pridwen p-mutation i·bridwen a·vridwen ✧ GL/64
go-Dhrauthodauros [← #Drauthodavros] patronymic d-mutation ✧ LT2/89
bo-Dhrauthodavros [← #Drauthodavros] patronymic d-mutation ✧ LT2/89
bo-Dhrauthodavros [← #Drauthodavros] patronymic d-mutation ✧ LT2A/Dhrauthodavros
go-Dhuilin [← Duilin] patronymic d-mutation ✧ LBI/Duilin
bo-Dhuilin [← Duilin] patronymic d-mutation ✧ LBI/Duilin
bo-Dhuilin [← Duilin] patronymic d-mutation ✧ LT2I/bo-Dhuilin
glin [← *cli] plural c-mutation i·glin grandin a·Dol Erethrin Airi ✧ PE13/93
Gwedrin ← cwedri plural c-mutation Tôn a·Gwedrin ✧ GL/28
Gwedrin ← cwedri plural c-mutation Tôn a Gwedrin ✧ LT2A/Tôn a Gwedrin
gwentin [← cwent] plural c-mutation i·band a·gwentin laithi, i gwentin bandrath ✧ GG/11
’lossi [← gloss] plural g-mutation talin i’lossi ar gwandron nan·Idril ✧ GG/15
winin [← gwin] plural gw-mutation i·winin na gwandron ✧ GG/9
i·Mbalrogin ← Balrog plural mb-mutation ✧ GL/21
i’Malraugin ← i’Malrog (soft-mutation) plural mb-mutation ✧ GL/21
i’Malrogin ← Balrog plural mb-mutation ✧ LT1A/Balrog
’Namrothon [← Damroth] plural nd-mutation Gruithodwen na ’Namrothon ✧ GL/42
i·ngoldoth [← Golda] plural ng-mutation ✧ GG/15
gwath [← cwas-] present c-mutation o·gwath lemp nin ✧ GL/53
·d ← t t-mutation ✧ GG/7
·dr ← tr t-mutation ✧ GG/7
dâr [← târ] t-mutation sogridâr ✧ GL/68
Delumaith ← Telumaith t-mutation Lúthien bo-Delumaith ✧ GL/29
dessa [← tess(il)] t-mutation gontha li dessa ✧ GL/54
Dol [← tol] t-mutation i·glin grandin a·Dol Erethrin Airi ✧ PE13/93
dorn [← torn] t-mutation amrog-dorn ✧ GL/19
durwin [← turwin] t-mutation Miril i·durwin ✧ PE13/95
dusc [← tusc] t-mutation i·fesc ar i·dusc ✧ GL/34

References ✧ GG/7-9