S. plural nouns grammar.

S. plural nouns grammar.

Sindarin plural forms are a distinctive feature of the language. Sindarin plurals are (for the most part) formed using vowel mutations rather than a suffix like English’s plural suffix “-(e)s”. This makes Sindarin plurals more like German which often changes vowel sounds in the plural, or like “irregular” English plurals like “man” vs. “men” or “mouse” vs. “mice”. This mutation in Sindarin plurals is called i-affection, and is the result of an ancient plural suffix ī which has been lost in modern Sindarin plurals. Tolkien discussed Sindarin plural formation on numerous occasions:

The plural element in nouns is [i] as a suffix [ī] ... In Sindarin the old ī plurals causing “affection” (PE17/62).
Sindarin ... had no declensions, but formed its plurals by the addition of which had vanished b[ut] affected the preceding vowels (as in Welsh and English, “angel”, pl. “engyl”, “man”, pl. “men”, S adan, pl. edain, orch, pl. yrch) (PE17/127).
In Sindarin plurals were mostly made with vowel-changes: Adan, Edain; orch, yrch; etc. (RGEO/66).
Sindarin plurals were made usually by vowel change due to [?influence] of the primitive plural ending . silivren, pl. silivrin. el(en), [pl.] elin. craban, [pl.] crebain. ae no change. ū [>] ui. au, o [>] oe. au ... (draft of the above, PE17/25).

Vowel Mutation in Plurals: The historical origins of i-affection are discussed in the entry on vowel mutations, but the results are summarized here for purposes of discussion. I divide i-affection up into three “flavors”: internal i-affection, final i-affection, and final i-intrusion. The common plural mutations, along with examples, are:

Sindarin words with short u are rare; there are no attested examples of Sindarin plurals with uy, so the best example is Noldorin tulustylys, but this word is still consistent with Sindarin phonology. Likewise, there are no attested Sindarin nouns showing i-intrusion for long û in monosyllables so the example given is an adjective; Tolkien also specifically mention this plural mutation in the quote from PE17/25 above, with “ū [>] ui”. Finally, the lack of mutation of long ú in non-final syllables is most clearly demonstrated by the (Noldorin) adjective: N. dúven “*western” → dúvin (Ety/NDŪ; EtyAC/NDŪ).

In a few examples, the mutation of short o in non-final syllables was to œ rather than e, which in some documents is ambiguously written as oe (and thus easily confused with diphthongal oe). This œ is archaic, a rounded e in much the same way that y is a rounded i. In modern Sindarin, [œ] became [e]. For a discussion of the lack of mutation for long ó in non-final syllables, see the entry on unusual plurals.

Words with short a in final syllables are a special case, since their plural form depends on whether or not they end in a single consonant (adanedain) vs. a consonant cluster (narnnern). Consonant clusters inhibit i-intrusion, so ordinary final i-affection (ae) is the result. The inhibition of i-intrusion applies to some words that used to end in consonants clusters, but don’t any longer:

The second example superficially resembles a consonant cluster, but its final consonant is actually pronounced like single velar spirant (LotR/1114). Both final m and final ng [ŋ] can only arise from more ancient clusters, because a single ancient m became v and a single [ŋ] vanished. Thus the final ae in words ending in m or ng have no i-intrusion analogs derived from other combinations, and which allows them to retain their simpler (non-intrusion) plural forms.

Conversely, some “clusters” behave like single consonants in that they fail to inhibit i-intrusion. The most notable example is lass “leaf” → lais “leaves” (PE17/62, 97). The same might be true for other ancient clusters as well, such as with the plural Periain of Perian “Halfling”, whose class-plural Periannath indicates it might once have ended with long nn. It may well be that double-consonant clusters ss, ll, nn, all of which were shortened at the end of polysyllables, were particularly “weak” and unable to inhibit i-intrusion. However, in the case of -ll and -nn the ai-plurals might instead have been borrowed by analogy from words that originally had only a single l or n.

Also remember that the digraphs ph, th, ch, dh represent single consonants at the end of words and would likewise have i-intrusion plurals, as in rath “street” → raith (RC/526) or galadh “tree” → gelaidh (PE17/60). Finally, there are a few Sindarin examples of i-intrusion plurals for words ending in clusters, notably morchant “dark shape” → morchaint (VT42/9) and alph “swan” → eilph (UT/265); compare the second of these to [N.] alf “swan” → elf (Ety/ÁLAK; KHOP). It is unclear whether these represent conceptual vacillations or are additional exceptions to clusters resisting i-intrusion.

Nasal Mutation in Definite Plurals: The definite article i has a plural form in. This form is retained before plurals beginning with vowels, as in in Edhil “the Elves” (RGEO/62), but before consonants it generally vanishes and causes nasal mutation. Examples include:

See the entry on nasal mutation for a more lengthy discussion of the rules for this consonant mutation. One of the biggest challenges with Sindarin is recognizing that all the various mutations represent different forms of the same word: i dâl “the foot”, tail “feet”, and i thail “the feet” are all different forms of tâl “foot”.

Plurals of Compounds: Normally the plural mutation applies to the entire word, but in compounds it frequently applies only to the final element of the word. As Tolkien described it:

As a pronoun, usually enclitic, the form pen, mutated ben, survived. A few compounds survived, such as rochben “rider” (m. or f.), orodben “a mountaineer” or “one living in the mountains”, arphen “a noble”. Their plurals were made by i-affection, originally carried through the word: as roechbin, oerydbin, erphin, but the normal form of the first element was often restored when the nature of the composition remained evident: as rochbin, but always erphin (WJ/376).

As indicated by this quote, the compound must still be recognized for the plural to be limited to the final element. The compound rochben is formed with the still active soft mutation making it easy to recognize. However, arphen is formed with older and no longer active sound change rp > rph, making it seem more like a single word. Furthermore, Tolkien was rather inconsistent on whether he applied the rule that only the final element of a compound is pluralized:

Compare the above to:

Whether these variations represent some specialized rule or are simply vacillations on Tolkien’s part is unclear, but it might be notable that all of the exceptions involve the mutation of ae, which may have been more prone to mutation than other vowels in non-final syllables. Perhaps this vowel still mutates in compounds unless (a) it is a loose compound like tad-dal or (b) a non-mutating vowel intervenes as in galadhremmin.

Conceptual Development: The Gnomish Grammar and Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s did not use i-affection for plurals, and instead had various plural suffixes like -in and -th (GG/12-13). Plurals with i-affection began to appear in the Gnomish Lexicon Slips, addendums to the Gnomish Lexicon, such as: ailf plural of G. alf “swan” (PE13/109), emyn plural of G. amon “hill” (PE13/110). In the slips these i-affection plurals supplemented but did not entirely replace plural suffixes, though the suffix -in itself sometimes caused i-affection: elmin plural of G. alm “back” (PE13/109).

This remained the case in the Early Noldorin Grammar, with pure i-affection plurals being mixed with suffixal plurals, where some suffixes also caused i-affection (PE13/121-123). The use of i-affection alone became the norm in Noldorin plurals appearing in The Etymologies of the 1930s, though suffixal plurals never completely vanished, for example: conin plural of S. caun “prince” (LotR/953; PE17/102); see the entry on unusual plurals for further discussion.

A complete discussion of the earlier forms of i-affection is beyond the scope of this entry, but it is worth highlighting some of the major differences between Noldorin plurals of the 1930s and Sindarin plurals of the 1950s and 60s.

The variation between e and ei in the final syllables of Noldorin plurals is a bit tricky; it seems that in Noldorin [ei] sometimes became [e] in unstressed final syllables (PE22/39), as with: ᴹ✶talrunya > tellein > tellen (Ety/TAL), so the appearance of e vs ei in final syllables was sporadic. In any case, the Noldorin plural mutations oei/e seems to have been abandoned by the 1950s.

For reasons unclear, Tolkien chose to retain the Noldorin-style plural ered for orod in The Lord of the Rings itself; this is the only remnant of Noldorin plural mutation oe in final syllables appearing in Tolkien’s later writing. This forced Tolkien to contrive a new explanation for this plural, and he decided y > e was a late (possibly Gondorian only) sound change in limited circumstances (Let/224; PE17/33). Indeed, Tolkien fully intended to use eryd when he got around to publishing the Silmarillion (PE17/33). However, Christopher Tolkien chose to leave this plural as ered when he posthumously edited his father’s work, most likely because Christopher did not want to confront readers with a new Sindarin plural form that they would (incorrectly) assume was mistaken.

Neo-Sindarin: The plural system proposed above has mostly been long-established in Neo-Sindarin, appearing in courses and books from the early 2000s. However, many Neo-Sindarin writers suggest that the plural of monosyllabic words with ô should be ŷ based on attested Noldorin plurals and what is known about Sindarin phonology. I instead propose ôui in monosyllables.

In researching Sindarin phonology I (re)discovered that there were a number of Sindarin words with o/ôui in monosyllabic plurals in the 1940s and 50s:

The last example is a bit peculiar, in that it gives two plurals. The first plural thely is probably the “historical” plural derived from eroded ancient forms, probably *tholosī (compare Q. solos < *tholos). The second is probably a “reformed” plural converted to fit more modern plural patterns. This only makes sense if o/ôui is the normal plural mutation in monosyllables.

Conversely, the last attested Noldorin plurals showing ôŷ date back to the 1930s or (at the latest) early 1940s:

Therefore, there is very strong evidence that, starting with the 1940s, monosyllables with ô have plurals with ui. The main problem with this plural pattern is that it is hard to explain phonologically. We know that long ô in monosyllables only arises from ancient short ŏ (ancient long ō became ū), which should have undergone i-raising to y. Such a y resisted i-mutation in other circumstances, such as polysyllabic amonemyn, or mŷl plural of mŷl “gull” (probably < *miulē). My best explanation is that the monosyllabic y from raised o was somehow of slightly different character and broken into the diphthong ui under i-intrusion.

See the phonetic entry on how the final [i] intruded into preceding syllable for further discussion. In any case, I recommend the plural mutation of o/ôui in monosyllables instead of the more commonly recommended ôŷ: *ruich plural of roch “horse”, *duir plural of dôr “land”. For polysyllables, however, oy is the correct plural mutation for Sindarin.

Examples (plural)
Edain “fathers of men” ← Adan ✧ Let/282
Edain [← Adan] ✧ LotR/1034
Edain “[to the] Dúnedain” [← Adan] ✧ LotR/1061
Edain “Fathers of Men” [← Adan] ✧ LotR/1128
Edain [← Adan] ✧ LotRI/Atani
Edain [← Adan] ✧ LotRI/Edain
Edain [← Adan] ✧ LRI/Atani
Edain [← Adan] ✧ LRI/Edain
Edain [← Adan] ✧ LT1I/Edain
Edain [← Adan] ✧ LT2I/Edain
Edain [← Adan] ✧ MRI/Edain
Edain “the Second (kindred); men” [← Adan] ✧ PE17/89
Edain “to Men” [← Adan] ✧ PE17/117
edain ← adan ✧ PE17/127
Edain [← Adan] ✧ PMI/Edain
Edain ← Adan ✧ RGEO/66
Edain ← adan ✧ SA/adan
Edain “The Second People, Men” ← Adan ✧ SI/Atani
Edain [← Adan] ✧ SI/Edain
Edain [← Adan] ✧ SMI/Edain
Edain [← Adan] ✧ UTI/Atani
Edain ← Adan ✧ UTI/Edain
edain “*men” [← Adan] ✧ VT50/14
edain “*men” [← Adan] ✧ VT50/18
Edain “Men” [← Adan] ✧ WJ/219
Edain ← Adan ✧ WJ/387
Edain ← Adan ✧ WJI/Adan
Edain [← Adan] ✧ WJI/Atani
Edain ← Adan ✧ WJI/Edain
Edain [← Adan] ✧ WRI/Edain
aelin “lake, pool” [← #ael] ✧ SA/aelin
eilph “swan” ← alph ✧ UT/265
Emyn “hills” [← amon] ✧ LotR/1097
emyn ← amon ✧ LotR/1115
Emyn “hills” [← amon] ✧ LotRI/Emyn Uial
Emyn ← Amon ✧ PE17/33
emyn ← amon ✧ PE17/61
emyn ← amon ✧ PE17/121
Emyn [← amon] ✧ PM/186
Emyn “hills” ← amon ✧ RC/334
Emyn “mountains” [← amon] ✧ UT/280
Emyn “mountains” [← amon] ✧ UTI/Emyn-nu-Fuin
Emyn ← Amon ✧ VT42/17
Ennyn “Doors” [← annon] ✧ LotR/305
Ennyn ← annon ✧ PE17/40
Ennyn “Gates” ← annon ✧ PE17/40
ennyn ← annon ✧ SA/annon
Ephedyn “Followers” ← Aphadon ✧ WJ/387
erain ← aran ✧ PE17/40
erain ← aran ✧ PE17/111
Erain “kings” ← aran ✧ SA/ar(a)
erphin ← arphen ✧ WJ/376
Ethraid “Fords” [← athrad] ✧ UT/264
**Belain [← Balan] ✧ Let/427
Belain ← Balan ✧ PE17/48
Belain “Valar” ← Balan ✧ SA/val
bair ← bar ✧ PE17/164
Beraid “tower[s]” [← barad] ✧ LotR/1097
Beraid ← barad ✧ SA/barad
ceðaid ← cađad ✧ PE17/45
cîr [← cair] ✧ PE17/147
celerdain ← calardan ✧ PE17/96
Celerdain ← calardan ✧ RC/523
cem “?hands” [← cam] ✧ VT50/22
Conin “princes” [← caun¹] ✧ Let/448
Conin [← caun¹] ✧ LotR/953
Cōnin ← caun ✧ PE17/102
cebir ← ceber ✧ RC/327
cebir “stakes” ← ceber ✧ SA/sarn
Cirth [← certh] ✧ LotR/1117
cirth ← certh ✧ LotR/1123
Cirth [← certh] ✧ LotRI/Certar
Cirth “Runes” [← certh] ✧ LotRI/Cirth
Cirth [← certh] ✧ PE17/122
cirth [← certh] ✧ PE22/150
Cirth “Runes” [← certh] ✧ PMI/Cirth
Cirth [← certh] ✧ SA/kir
Cirth “Runes” [← certh] ✧ SI/Cirth
Cirth “Runes” [← certh] ✧ WJ/14
cirth ← certh ✧ WJ/396
Cirth ← Certh ✧ WJI/Cirth
crebain [← craban] ✧ LotR/285
Crebain [← craban] ✧ LotRI/Crebain
crebain ← craban ✧ PE17/25
crebain ← craban ✧ PE17/37
Crebain [← craban] ✧ TII/Crebain
Echil “followers” [← #echil] ✧ WJ/219
Edhil [← Edhel] ✧ LRI/Edhil
eðil ← eðel ✧ PE17/139
eðil ← eðel ✧ PE17/152
Edhil [← Edhel] ✧ RGEO/62
Edhil ← edhel ✧ SA/edhel
Edhil ← Edhel ✧ SA/êl
Edhil ← Edhel ✧ SI/Sindar
Edhil ← Edhel ✧ WJ/364
Edhil “Elves” ← Edhel ✧ WJ/377
edhil “elves” [← Edhel] ✧ WJ/378
Edhil “Elves” ← Edhel ✧ WJI/Edhel
elidh ← †eledh ✧ Let/281
Elin “Elves” ← Elen ✧ WJ/363
Elin ← †Elen ✧ WJ/377
Elin “Elves” ← Elen ✧ WJI/Elen
eglir ← eglon ✧ PE17/141
elin ← êl ✧ Let/281
elin ← elen ✧ PE17/24
elin ← el(en) ✧ PE17/25
elin ← êl ✧ PE17/67
elin ← êl ✧ PE17/127
elin ← êl ✧ PE17/139
elin ← êl ✧ PE17/151
elin [← êl] ✧ PE22/150
elin ← êl ✧ RGEO/65
elin ← êl ✧ RGEO/67
elin ← †êl ✧ WJ/363
Ethir “spies” [← #ethir²] ✧ S/217
Fîr ← Feir ✧ WJ/387
Fîr “Mortals” ← Feir ✧ WJI/Feir
Fírib ← Fíreb ✧ WJ/387
Fírib “Mortals” ← Fíreb ✧ WJI/Fíreb
Fui “paths” [← ?] ✧ RC/526
gîl “silver spark” ← gail ✧ PE17/152
Glam “a body of orcs” [← glamog] ✧ WJ/391
Glam [← glamog] ✧ WJI/Glamhoth
glim “voices” [← #glim] ✧ PE17/97
glîm [← #glim] ✧ PE17/97
Gelydh ← golodh ✧ SA/golodh
Goelydh ← Golodh ✧ WJ/364
Goelydh ← Golodh ✧ WJ/379
Goelydh ← Golodh ✧ WJI/Golodh
gœlyð ← goloð ✧ PE17/139
Gyrth “the Dead” [← #gorth¹] ✧ Let/417
Goerthaid [← gorthad] ✧ PMI/Tyrn Goerthaid
Gwenyn “twins” [← gwanunig] ✧ PM/365
Gwenyn [← gwanunig] ✧ PMI/Ambarussa
Hîn “Children” [← hên] ✧ S/198
Hîn “children” [← hên] ✧ SA/híni
Hîn “Children” [← hên] ✧ UT/57
Hîn “Children” [← hên] ✧ UT/140
hîn ← hên ✧ WJ/403
Ithryn “Wizards” [← ithron] ✧ Let/448
Ithryn “Wizards” ← ithron ✧ UT/390
ithryn ← ithron ✧ UT/392
Ithryn [← ithron] ✧ UTI/Istari
lais ← las ✧ PE17/62
lais “leaves” [← lass] ✧ PE17/97
Levain [← lavan] ✧ WJ/388
levain ← lavan ✧ WJ/416
lebir ← leber ✧ VT47/10
lebid ← lebed ✧ VT47/23
lebir ← leber ✧ VT47/24
lebir ← leber ✧ VT48/5
mellyrn [← mallorn] ✧ LotR/342
mellyrn ← Mallorn ✧ LotRI/Mallorn
mellyrn ← mallorn ✧ PE17/50
mellyrn ← mallorn ✧ PE17/51
mellyrn [← mallorn] ✧ PE17/80
mellyrn ← mallorn ✧ SA/orn
mellyn [← mellon] ✧ PE17/97
mellyn “lovers, friends” [← mellon] ✧ WJ/412
Mírdain “Jewel Smiths” [← #mírdan] ✧ UTI/Gwaith-i-Mírdain
Mírdain [← #mírdan] ✧ UTI/Mírdain
morchaint “dark shapes, shadows cast by light” [← #morchant] ✧ SA/gwath
morchaint “dark-shapes” [← #morchant] ✧ VT42/9
Mŷl “gulls” [← #mŷl] ✧ WJ/379
Nern “Legendarium” ← Narn ✧ MR/373
nern ← narn ✧ MR/471
noeg [← naug] ✧ UT/100
Neweg “Dwarves” [← Nawag] ✧ WJI/Neweg
Nimrais “White-peaks; pale-horns” [← nimras] ✧ PE17/33
Nimrais “White-peaks” [← nimras] ✧ PE17/49
nimrais “pale horns” ← nimras ✧ PE17/89
nimrais “white horns” [← nimras] ✧ SI/Ered Nimrais
nogoth “dwarves” ← nogon ✧ PE17/45
negyth ← nogoth ✧ PE17/45
noegyth ← nogoth ✧ SA/naug
Negyth “Dwarves” ← Nogoth ✧ WJ/338
Noegyth ← Nogoth ✧ WJ/388
Noegyth ← Nogoth ✧ WJI/Nogoth
enyd ← onod ✧ Let/224
ened ← onod ✧ Let/224
Enyd “Ents” [← Onod] ✧ LotR/1130
Enyd “Ents” [← Onod] ✧ LotRI/Ents
enyd ← onod ✧ PE17/83
Enyd “Ents” ← Onod ✧ UTI/Enyd
yrch ← orch ✧ Let/178
Yrch “Orcs” [← orch] ✧ LotR/345
yrch “Orcs” [← orch] ✧ LotRI/Orcs
yrch “Orcs” ← orch ✧ MR/195
yrch “Orcs” ← orch ✧ MRI/Orcs
yrch “orc” ← orch ✧ PE17/47
yrch “orcs” [← orch] ✧ PE17/52
yrch ← orch ✧ PE17/54
yrch ← orch ✧ PE17/127
yrch ← orch ✧ RC/762
yrch ← orch ✧ RGEO/66
Yrch ← Orch ✧ WJ/390
Yrch ← Orch ✧ WJI/Orc(s)
yrn “trees” [← orn] ✧ WJI/Taur-i-Melegyrn
ered ← orod ✧ PE17/33
eryd ← orod ✧ PE17/33
eryd/ered ← orod ✧ PE17/64
ered [← orod] ✧ PE17/89
eryd [← orod] ✧ PE17/89
Eryd “mountains” [← orod] ✧ RC/621
eryd/ered “mountains” ← orod ✧ RC/765
Ered “mountains” [← orod] ✧ S/118
ered ← orod ✧ SA/orod
ered “mountains” [← orod] ✧ UT/40
ered “mountains” [← orod] ✧ UT/54
Eryd [← orod] ✧ WJ/192
oerydbin ← orodben ✧ WJ/376
Periain “Hobbits” [← Perian] ✧ Let/427
Periain “Halflings” [← Perian] ✧ LotR/966
Periain “Hobbits” ← Perian ✧ LotRI/Hobbit
Periain “Hobbits” [← Perian] ✧ LotRI/Periain
periain “the Hobbits (as a race)” ← perian ✧ RGEO/67
Periain “Halflings” [← Perian] ✧ SDI1/Periain
resg “wain” ← rasg ✧ PE17/28
#raich “wain” [← rasg] ✧ UTI/Stonewain Valley
rais ← ras (suffix) ✧ SA/ras
Raith “paths” [← rath] ✧ RC/526
roechbin ← rochben ✧ WJ/376
rochbin ← rochben ✧ WJ/376
Rodyn [← Rodon] ✧ MR/200
Rodyn ← Rodon ✧ PE17/33
Rodyn ← Rodon ✧ PE17/118
Rodyn ← Rodon ✧ PE17/186
sedair ← sadar ✧ PE17/183
sedryn ← sadron ✧ PE17/183
telain ← talan ✧ PE17/52
telain ← talan ✧ PE17/52
telain “flets” ← talan ✧ UT/245
telain ← talan ✧ UT/246
telain ← talan ✧ UTI/talan
Tîw “letters” [← têw] ✧ LotR/1117
tīw ← tēw ✧ PE17/43
tiw ← tew ✧ PE17/44
tiw “letters” ← tēw ✧ PE17/44
tîw ← tēw ✧ PE17/44
tîw ← tēw ✧ PE17/122
tîw ← têw ✧ WJ/396
thely ← thôl ✧ PE17/188
thuil ← thôl ✧ PE17/188
thoen ← thaun ✧ PE17/81
thuin ← Thôn ✧ PE17/81
úgerth “*trespasses” ← ugarth ✧ VT44/28
i·Wenyn “the twins” ← Gwenyn (plural) definite nasal-mutation gw-mutation ✧ PM/353
i·Wenyn “the twins” ← Gwenyn (plural) definite nasal-mutation gw-mutation ✧ PMI/Ambarussa
chem “?hands” ← cem (plural) liquid-mutation c-mutation ✧ VT50/22
#chaint “shapes” [← #cant] liquid-mutation c-mutation ✧ VT42/9
chîr ← cîr (plural) nasal-mutation c-mutation ✧ PE17/147
Ngelaið ← galað nasal-mutation g-mutation ✧ PE17/60
Chîn [← hên] nasal-mutation h-mutation ✧ LR/322
Chîn [← hên] nasal-mutation h-mutation ✧ MR/373
Chîn “*children” [← hên] nasal-mutation h-mutation ✧ VT50/12
chîn “*children” [← hên] nasal-mutation h-mutation ✧ VT50/18
Chîn [← hên] nasal-mutation h-mutation ✧ WJ/160
m(b)air “houses” [← bâr] nasal-mutation mb-mutation ✧ PE17/97
Mbair “lands” [← bâr] nasal-mutation mb-mutation ✧ SD/129
Gelydh “Noldor” [← Golodh] nasal-mutation ng-mutation ✧ S/238
Pheriain “Halflings” [← Perian] nasal-mutation p-mutation ✧ Let/448
Pheriain [← Perian] nasal-mutation p-mutation ✧ LotR/953
i pheriain “the halflings” ← perian nasal-mutation p-mutation ✧ PE17/66
pheriain [← Perian] nasal-mutation p-mutation ✧ PE17/96
Pheriain “Halflings” [← Perian] nasal-mutation p-mutation ✧ PE17/102
Sedryn [← sadron] nasal-mutation s-mutation ✧ UT/153
thîw [← têw] nasal-mutation t-mutation ✧ Let/427
thiw “signs” [← têw] nasal-mutation t-mutation ✧ LotR/305
thiw “letters” ← tiw (plural) nasal-mutation t-mutation ✧ PE17/44
thiw ← tiw (plural) nasal-mutation t-mutation ✧ PE17/44
Edhellion [← Edhel] old-genitive ✧ PE17/97
Edhellon [← Edhel] old-genitive ✧ PE17/97
geledhion/galaðon “of trees” [← galadh] old-genitive ✧ PE17/97
maewion “of the gulls” [← #maew] old-genitive ✧ PE17/97
maewia “of the gulls” [← #maew] old-genitive ✧ PE17/97
aiwon [← #maew] old-genitive ✧ PE17/97
aewon [← #maew] old-genitive ✧ PE17/97
aewion [← #maew] old-genitive ✧ PE17/97
#gerth [← #carth] soft-mutation c-mutation ✧ VT44/28
mhellyn “friends” [← mellon] soft-mutation m-mutation ✧ SD/129
vellyn “lovers” ← mellyn (plural) soft-mutation m-mutation ✧ WJ/412
-il ← -el (suffix) suffix ✧ WJ/363
-il ← ell- suffix ✧ WJ/364
-il ← -el (suffix) suffix ✧ WJ/377

References ✧ PE17/25, 62, 127; RGEO/66

Variations

Related

Element In


N. plural nouns grammar.

Examples (plural)
edeb ← adab ✧ Ety/TAK
Edeb “houses” [← adab] ✧ WR/380
Edain “Western Men, Fathers of Men” [← Adan] ✧ MR/7
eder ← adar ✧ Ety/ATA
Oeges “Peaks” ← oegas ✧ Ety/AYAK
oelin ← oel ✧ Ety/AY
lelf ← lalf ✧ Ety/ÁLAM
Elf [← alf] ✧ Ety/KHOP
emyn ← amon ✧ Ety/AM²
Emyn “hills” [← amon] ✧ TI/313
ennyn ← annon ✧ Ety/AD
Ennyn “doors” [← annon] ✧ TI/182
Ennyn “gates” [← annon] ✧ WR/113
erain ← aran ✧ Ety/ƷAR
erain ← aran ✧ EtyAC/ƷARA
Erain [← aran] ✧ WR/98
ernin [← arnen] ✧ WR/370
Belen ← Balan ✧ Ety/BAL
bĕı̯r ← †băr ✧ PE22/36
be͡ır ← bār ✧ PE22/36
Bair “houses” [← bár] ✧ WR/380
Bered [← barad¹] ✧ WR/340
brethil ← brethel ✧ Ety/NEL
cebir ← ceber ✧ Ety/KEPER
cebir ← ceber ✧ EtyAC/KEPER
ceif ← cef ✧ Ety/KEM
cyry ← curu ✧ EtyAC/KUR
Dein ← Dân ✧ Ety/NDAN
Duil “hills” [← dôl] ✧ SM/225
Duil “hills” [← dôl] ✧ TI/268
dylt ← dolt ✧ Ety/NDOL
dȳr “lands” [← dôr] ✧ PE22/38
dy̆r “lands” [← dôr] ✧ PE22/38
dúvin ← dúven ✧ EtyAC/NDŪ
Elidh ← Eledh ✧ Ety/ELED
elidh [← Eledh] ✧ Ety/LÁYAK
emelin ← amalen ✧ EtyAC/SMAL
erig ← ereg ✧ Ety/ERÉK
eregdes ← eregdos ✧ EtyAC/ERÉK
feles ← falas ✧ Ety/PHAL
fîr “mortal men” [← feir¹] ✧ Ety/KHIL
fîr “mortals” ← feir ✧ Ety/PHIR
fili ← fela ✧ Ety/PHÉLEG
ferin ← †fêr ✧ Ety/BERÉTH
filig ← fileg ✧ Ety/PHILIK
gíl ← geil ✧ Ety/GIL
gil “stars” [← geil] ✧ Ety/OT
geleidh ← golodh ✧ Ety/ÑGOLOD
geleidh [← Golodh] ✧ PE21/57
Geleidh “Gnomes” [← Golodh] ✧ PE21/57
Gelydh “Gnomes” [← Golodh] ✧ PE21/57
gwedeir ← gwador ✧ Ety/TOR
gwethil ← gwathel ✧ Ety/THEL
guin ← gwaun ✧ Ety/WA-N
gwîn ← gwein ✧ Ety/WIN
hebeid ← habad ✧ Ety/SKYAP
herfin ← harfen ✧ EtyAC/KHYAR
hervin ← harven ✧ EtyAC/KHYAR
heleth ← ?halath ✧ EtyAC/SKEL
hint/hinn ← henn ✧ Ety/KHEN-D-E
hîn ← hên ✧ Ety/KHEN-D-E
iui ← iau ✧ EtyAC/YAB
lelvin ← lalven ✧ Ety/ÁLAM
lelwin “elm-tree” ← lhalwen ✧ Ety/LÁLAM
meil ← mâl ✧ Ety/SMAL
mely ← mâl ✧ Ety/SMAL
mellyrn ← mallorn ✧ TI/233
mellyrn ← mallorn ✧ TII/mallorn
Meldir “friends” [← meldir] ✧ RS/452
Mellyn “friends” [← mellon] ✧ RS/452
Mellyn “friends” [← mellon] ✧ RSI/Mellyn
Mellyn ← Mellon ✧ TI/181
muindyr ← muindor ✧ Ety/TOR
muinthil ← muinthel ✧ Ety/THEL
?natsai ← naith ✧ Ety/SNAS
nuig ← naug ✧ EtyAC/NAUK
Nauglin ← naugol ✧ Ety/NAUK
nui ← naw ✧ Ety/NOWO
neweg ← nawag ✧ Ety/NAUK
neweig ← nawag ✧ EtyAC/NAUK
newaig ← nawag ✧ EtyAC/NAUK
neweg ← nawag ✧ EtyAC/NAUK
Neweg “The Stunted” [← Nawag] ✧ LR/274
Neweg “The Stunted” [← Nawag] ✧ LRI/Neweg
Nelig “teeth” [← neleg] ✧ WR/113
nîn ← nen ✧ Ety/NEN
dœrœin/deren ← doron ✧ Ety/DÓRON
hnyf “noose, snare” ← hniof/hnuif ✧ Ety/SNEW
elei “dream” ← ôl ✧ Ety/ÓLOS
yrch ← orch ✧ Ety/ÓROK
yrchy [← orch] ✧ EtyAC/ÓROK
erch [← orch] ✧ EtyAC/ÓROK
eirch/erch “goblins” ← orch ✧ LR/406
yrch “Orcs” [← orch] ✧ TI/229
yrch “Orcs” ← orch ✧ TII/Orcs
yrn ← orn ✧ Ety/ÓR-NI
ern [← orn] ✧ EtyAC/ORO
yrn ← orn ✧ SD/302
Ered “mountains” [← orod] ✧ Ety/LUG²
ered ← orod ✧ Ety/ÓROT
Ered [← orod] ✧ LR/298
ered [← orod] ✧ PE22/41
œrœid [← orod] ✧ PE22/41
ered “mountains” [← orod] ✧ TI/124
Ered “mountains” [← orod] ✧ TI/124
pein ← pân ✧ Ety/PAN
perf ← parf ✧ Ety/PAR
perf [← parf] ✧ EtyAC/PAR
peli ← pêl ✧ Ety/PEL(ES)
pinn ← penn ✧ PE22/67
penidh ← penedh ✧ Ety/KWEN(ED)
pŷd ← pôd ✧ Ety/POTŌ
rhengy ← rhanc ✧ Ety/RAK
rhenc ← rhanc ✧ Ety/RAK
rhui ← rhaw ✧ Ety/RAW
rhofel ← rhofal ✧ Ety/RAM
seleb ← salab ✧ Ety/SALÁK-(WĒ)
sui ← saw ✧ Ety/SAB
teil ← tâl ✧ Ety/TAL
teil “foot” [← tâl] ✧ TAI/150
teleif ← talaf ✧ Ety/TAL
tilch ← telch ✧ Ety/TÉLEK
telei ← tele ✧ Ety/TELES
thelyn ← thalion ✧ Ety/STÁLAG
thelei ← thêl ✧ Ety/THEL
thuin ← thaun ✧ Ety/THŌN
#Thuin [← thaun] ✧ TI/420
therein ← thoron ✧ Ety/THOR
tyll ← toll ✧ Ety/TOL²
terein ← †tôr ✧ Ety/TOR
tylys ← tulus ✧ Ety/TYUL
Rewinion “of the hunters” [← rewinion] genitive ✧ SM/225
Mbelain “Gods” [← Balan] nasal-mutation b-mutation ✧ Ety/KIRIK
Chelerdain [← #calardan] nasal-mutation c-mutation ✧ WR/388
i·nnýr “the lands” ← dór nasal-mutation d-mutation ✧ PE22/33
i·nnýr “the lands” ← dór nasal-mutation d-mutation ✧ PE22/36
i·Ngœlœiđ [← Golodh] nasal-mutation g-mutation ✧ PE22/41
i·Ngeleð [← Golodh] nasal-mutation g-mutation ✧ PE22/41
i ngweið “the bonds” ← gwaeð nasal-mutation gw-mutation ✧ PE22/32
i·mmeir ← bár nasal-mutation mb-mutation ✧ PE22/35
ndíw [← tew] nasal-mutation nd-mutation ✧ TI/182
nGeleidh “Gnomes” [← Golodh] nasal-mutation ng-mutation ✧ LR/201
Ngoelaidh “Noldoli” [← Golodh] nasal-mutation ng-mutation ✧ SM/77
i-phinn “the Elves” ← penn nasal-mutation p-mutation ✧ PE22/67
ithail “the feet” [← tâl] nasal-mutation t-mutation ✧ PE22/67
thíw “signs” [← tew] nasal-mutation t-mutation ✧ TI/182
kambaio [← cam] old-genitive ✧ PE21/60
derio [← †dîr] old-genitive ✧ PE21/60
derion [← †dîr] old-genitive ✧ PE21/60
lais [← lhass] soft-mutation ✧ PM/135
welein [← Balan] soft-mutation b-mutation ✧ Ety/LEP
ledin “field[s]” [← lhad] soft-mutation lh-mutation ✧ TI/114
duir “kings” ← taur soft-mutation t-mutation ✧ EtyAC/LEP
dirien “towers” [← #tirion] soft-mutation t-mutation ✧ Ety/LUG²

Element In


ᴱN. plural nouns grammar.

@@@ extract phonetic info

Examples (plural)
ailiniath ← ailin ✧ PE13/158
aiwyn ← aiw ✧ PE13/136
aiwin ← aiw ✧ PE13/158
aiwiath ← aiw ✧ PE13/158
eglennin ← aglann ✧ PE13/136
eglainn ← aglann ✧ PE13/136
eglennin ← aglann ✧ PE13/158
eglainn ← aglann ✧ PE13/158
eglair ← aglar ✧ PE13/136
eglair ← aglar ✧ PE13/158
eglerib ← aglareb ✧ PE13/136
eglerib ← aglareb ✧ PE13/158
ith ← aith ✧ PE13/136
eithin ← aith ✧ PE13/136
ith ← aith ✧ PE13/158
eithir ← aith ✧ PE13/158
eithin ← aith ✧ PE13/158
îth ← aith ✧ PE13/163
engin ← anc ✧ PE13/137
engin ← anc ✧ PE13/159
óliniath ← ólin ✧ PE13/151
alchir ← alch ✧ PE13/136
elchir ← alch ✧ PE13/158
alfuininiath ← alfuilin ✧ PE13/136
alfuiliniath ← alfuilin ✧ PE13/159
elfin ← alf ✧ PE13/136
elfin ← alf ✧ PE13/159
ailt ← alt ✧ PE13/159
eilt ← alt ✧ PE13/159
emerth ← amarth ✧ PE13/137
emeirth ← amarth ✧ PE13/137
ame(i)rth ← ambarth ✧ PE13/137
amairth ← ambarth ✧ PE13/137
emeirth ← amarth ✧ PE13/159
emerth ← amarth ✧ PE13/159
emyn ← amon ✧ PE13/137
emyn ← amon ✧ PE13/159
emyth ← amoth ✧ PE13/159
amrinniath ← amrint ✧ PE13/137
emrint ← amrent ✧ PE13/159
emryst ← amrost ✧ PE13/137
emryst ← amrost ✧ PE13/159
bornath ← born ✧ PE13/139
angath ← ang ✧ PE13/159
ennyn ← ann ✧ PE13/137
ennyn ← ann ✧ PE13/160
ern ← arn ✧ PE13/137
ernir ← arn ✧ PE13/137
airn ← arn ✧ PE13/137
eirn ← arn ✧ PE13/160
ern ← arn ✧ PE13/160
ernir ← arn ✧ PE13/160
asgath ← asg ✧ PE13/137
asgath ← asg ✧ PE13/160
uith ← oith ✧ PE13/151
uith ← oith ✧ PE13/164
baid ← bad ✧ PE13/137
baid ← bad ✧ PE13/160
belwidhyn ← †belwidhion ✧ PE13/138
bangath ← bang ✧ PE13/138
bair ← bar ✧ PE13/122
barchath ← barch ✧ PE13/138
besgyrn ← basgorn ✧ PE13/138
bastath “loaves” ← bast ✧ PE13/138
gwethir ← gweth ✧ PE13/146
Blainn ← bland ✧ PE13/139
blithin ← blith ✧ PE13/139
gerchir “bears” ← gorch ✧ PE13/145
gyrch ← gorch ✧ PE13/145
caifrin ← caifr ✧ PE13/140
cerbh ← carbh ✧ PE13/140
gweriniath ← gwerin ✧ PE13/146
crync ← crunc ✧ PE13/141
cryngir ← crunc ✧ PE13/141
cyrn ← corn ✧ PE13/140
cyth ← coth ✧ PE13/140
crith ← craith ✧ PE13/140
cyrn ← corn ✧ PE13/140
dadvinniath ← dadvinn ✧ PE13/161
rhainc ← rhanc ✧ PE13/152
darothain ← daroth ✧ PE13/142
deryth ← daroth ✧ PE13/142
duir ← dor ✧ PE13/161
Uidhil ← Uidhel ✧ PE13/155
Ilith “Elves” ← Ileth ✧ PE15/61
Idhil ← Idhel ✧ PE15/61
Idhil “Elves” [← Uidhel] ✧ PE15/62
Uidhil [← Uidhel] ✧ PE15/62
eithlir ← aithl ✧ PE13/158
eithir ← †aithr ✧ PE13/136
eithair ← †aithr ✧ PE13/136
eithriant ← †aithr ✧ PE13/136
eithriant ← †aithr ✧ PE13/158
eithair ← †aithr ✧ PE13/158
engyn ← engion ✧ PE13/143
eithryn ← eithron ✧ PE13/143
eithryn ← eithron ✧ PE13/158
elvin ← elven ✧ PE13/143
elvin ← elven ✧ PE13/161
failch ← falch ✧ PE13/143
fionnir ← fion ✧ PE13/143
fionin “men” ← fion ✧ PE15/62
gairyn ← gairion ✧ PE13/143
ge(i)rth ← garth ✧ PE13/161
garionnath ← garion ✧ PE13/144
gerthaid ← Garthad ✧ PE13/161
garwain ← garw ✧ PE13/144
gailiath ← gail ✧ PE13/123
gailir ← gail ✧ PE13/123
gailir ← gail ✧ PE13/143
glevith ← glavaith ✧ PE13/162
glaveithin ← glavaith ✧ PE13/162
gleveithin ← glavaith ✧ PE13/162
glerw ← glarw ✧ PE13/144
gladwenin ← gladwen ✧ PE13/123
gladwiniath ← gladwen ✧ PE13/123
gladweniath ← gladwen ✧ PE13/124
gelydh ← golodh ✧ PE13/145
golydh ← (n)golodh ✧ PE13/145
Gelydh ← Golodh ✧ PE13/145
goelydh ← Golodh ✧ PE13/162
gelydh ← Golodh ✧ PE13/162
i·nguailt “the (particular) gnomes (recently mentioned)” ← golt ✧ PE13/123
i·nguilt ← golt ✧ PE13/123
guilt [← Goloth] ✧ PE15/62
guinn “stones” ← gonn ✧ PE13/123
guainn ← gonn ✧ PE13/123
gorodant ← gorod ✧ PE13/123
gorodant ← gorod ✧ PE13/145
geryd ← gorod ✧ PE13/145
gorwant ← gorw ✧ PE13/145
gynn ← gunn ✧ PE13/162
gynd ← gunn ✧ PE13/162
bailiath ← bail ✧ PE13/138
gwain ← gwá ✧ PE13/146
nathrim ← nath ✧ PE13/150
nyth ← noth ✧ PE13/151
gwenwin ← gwanwen ✧ PE13/146
gwair ← gwár ✧ PE13/146
gwiaig “men” ← gweg ✧ PE13/122
gwaith [← gweg] ✧ PE13/124
gwí “men” ← gweg ✧ PE13/146
gwî ← gweg ✧ PE13/162
gwaith ← gweg ✧ PE13/162
gwaig “men or male beings” [← gweg] ✧ PE15/62
uint ← uin ✧ PE13/123
uinir ← uin ✧ PE13/123
uinir ← uin ✧ PE13/155
gwibi ← gwib ✧ PE13/146
gwaib ← gwab ✧ PE13/146
hery ← harw ✧ PE13/147
herw ← harw ✧ PE13/147
dailin ← dail ✧ PE13/141
gwaidh ← gwadh ✧ PE13/146
hinn ← hen(n) ✧ PE13/122
hinn ← henn ✧ PE13/147
hynt ← hont ✧ PE13/163
hontath ← hont ✧ PE13/163
hyth ← hoth ✧ PE13/147
hyriaithin ← huiriaith ✧ PE13/163
lhynn ← lhonn ✧ PE13/149
Inwir ← Im ✧ PE13/148
guin ←  ✧ PE13/144
gui ←  ✧ PE13/144
ewaist ← awest ✧ PE13/160
gery ← gara ✧ PE13/144
geirg ← †garg ✧ PE13/144
echir ← ach ✧ PE13/158
leifn [← lafn] ✧ PE14/70
lhaith ← lhê ✧ PE13/148
limin ← lim ✧ PE13/123
luing ← lung ✧ PE13/122
lhyng ← lung ✧ PE13/163
luithar ← luith ✧ PE13/163
maib [← mab] ✧ PE13/124
mailthir ← mailt ✧ PE13/122
methail “footsteps” [← #mathal] ✧ MC/217
medionnin ← medion ✧ PE13/164
megiliath ← megil ✧ PE13/150
naid ← nad ✧ PE13/150
nerw ← narw ✧ PE13/150
nerionnin ← ne(i)rion ✧ PE13/150
neirionnin ← ne(i)rion ✧ PE13/164
deiliain ← delian ✧ PE13/142
nith ← neth ✧ PE13/151
nin ← nen ✧ PE13/123
nenin ← nen ✧ PE13/123
ninith ← nen ✧ PE13/123
ninn ← nenn ✧ PE13/164
ennir ← ant ✧ PE13/137
ennir ← ant ✧ PE13/160
nuiar ← nui ✧ PE13/151
oifir ← oif ✧ PE13/151
uif ← oif ✧ PE13/164
oifar ← oif ✧ PE13/164
gyly ← golw ✧ PE13/145
gyly ← golw ✧ PE13/162
Yrch “orcs” [← orch] ✧ MC/217
yrn ← orn ✧ PE13/151
yrn ← orn ✧ PE13/164
eryd “mountains” [← #orod] ✧ MC/217
haith ←  ✧ PE13/147
pauin ← pau ✧ PE13/152
comath ← côm ✧ PE13/123
gwinn ← Gwenn ✧ PE13/146
pith ← peth ✧ PE13/152
pethas ← peth ✧ PE13/152
petha ← peth ✧ PE13/164
pith ← peth ✧ PE13/164
peith/paith ← peth ✧ PE13/164
amvinniath ← amvinn ✧ PE13/159
binniath ← binn ✧ PE13/160
hych ← huch ✧ PE13/147
poiennin ← poiant ✧ PE13/152
huith ← hoith ✧ PE13/163
lhaint ← lhant ✧ PE13/148
graugir ← graug ✧ PE13/145
mindib ← mindeb ✧ PE13/150
gwais ← gwas ✧ PE13/146
bogath ← brog ✧ PE13/139
gorodrim “vaults” ← gorod ✧ PE13/123
grynn ← grond ✧ PE13/145
grynn ← gronn ✧ PE13/162
grynd ← gronn ✧ PE13/162
nebwaith ← nebweb ✧ PE13/164
deinir ← dain ✧ PE13/141
deinir ← dain ✧ PE13/161
tailt “feet” ← tail ✧ PE13/123
toil ← taul ✧ PE13/153
tlaid ← tlad ✧ PE13/165
teglyn ← taglon ✧ PE13/153
ternin ← tarn ✧ PE13/153
tirin ← tír ✧ PE13/154
tiriant ← tír ✧ PE13/154
t(i)air ← teiar ✧ PE13/153
delingailir ← gailir (plural) ✧ PE13/123
edebionnin ← edebion ✧ PE13/165
ennais ← annas ✧ PE13/137
ennais ← annas ✧ PE13/160
aigis ← aigos ✧ PE13/136
aigosyn ← aigos ✧ PE13/136
aigys ← aigos ✧ PE13/158
aigesir ← aigos ✧ PE13/158
thyrn ← thorn ✧ PE13/154
tiath ←  ✧ PE13/154
tui ←  ✧ PE13/154
tui ←  ✧ PE13/165
tunnin ← tonn ✧ PE13/122
tynn ← tonn ✧ PE13/154
tynn ← tonn ✧ PE13/165
tyf ← tuf ✧ PE13/154
duilinnin ← duilin ✧ PE13/142
duilinniath ← duilin ✧ PE13/142
lylyth ← loloth ✧ PE13/149
lolothyn ← loloth ✧ PE13/149
bely ← bala ✧ PE13/138
túnain ← tún ✧ PE13/154
tudath ← túd ✧ PE13/154
i·maid ← bad nasal-mutation b-mutation ✧ PE13/120
i·chain ←  nasal-mutation c-mutation ✧ PE13/121
i·choriniath ← corin nasal-mutation c-mutation ✧ PE13/121
i·chwaint ← cwant nasal-mutation cw-mutation ✧ PE13/121
i·chwaint ← cwent nasal-mutation cw-mutation ✧ PE13/121
i·nuiliniath ← duilin nasal-mutation d-mutation ✧ PE13/120
i·nuilenin ← duilen nasal-mutation d-mutation ✧ PE13/120
i·nuilin ← duilen nasal-mutation d-mutation ✧ PE13/120
i·ngailiath ← gail nasal-mutation g-mutation ✧ PE13/120
i·ngailith ← gail nasal-mutation g-mutation ✧ PE13/120
ngwaig [← gweg] nasal-mutation g-mutation ✧ PE13/124
i·ngwathir ← gwath nasal-mutation gw-mutation ✧ PE13/120
i·ngwaith ← gwath nasal-mutation gw-mutation ✧ PE13/121
i·nhiriant ← hîr nasal-mutation h-mutation ✧ PE13/121
i·hiriant ← hîr nasal-mutation h-mutation ✧ PE13/121
i·nhiriath ← hîr nasal-mutation h-mutation ✧ PE13/121
i·hiriath ← hîr nasal-mutation h-mutation ✧ PE13/121
i·mairth ← barth nasal-mutation mb-mutation ✧ PE13/120
marthor ← barth nasal-mutation mb-mutation ✧ PE13/120
i·mair ← bâr nasal-mutation mb-mutation ✧ PE13/120
i·nuir ← dôr nasal-mutation nd-mutation ✧ PE13/120
i·nglamiath ← glam nasal-mutation ng-mutation ✧ PE13/120
i·nglaim ← glam nasal-mutation ng-mutation ✧ PE13/120
i·nglamath ← glam nasal-mutation ng-mutation ✧ PE13/120
i·ngoluith ← goloth nasal-mutation ng-mutation ✧ PE13/120
i·ngolthor ← goloth nasal-mutation ng-mutation ✧ PE13/120
i·nguilt ← golt nasal-mutation ng-mutation ✧ PE13/121
i·faint ← cwant nasal-mutation p-mutation ✧ PE13/121
i·thiath ←  nasal-mutation t-mutation ✧ PE13/121
i·nthiath ←  nasal-mutation t-mutation ✧ PE13/121
bhair [← bâr] soft-mutation mb-mutation ✧ PE13/128

References ✧ PE13/121-124, 138


G. plural nouns grammar.

@@@ extract phonetic info

Examples (plural)
Ainilin ← ainil ✧ GL/18
Ainon [← ain¹] ✧ PE13/103
Ainon [← ain¹] ✧ PE15/20
Ainin [← ain¹] ✧ PE15/27
aiglith ← aigli ✧ GL/17
aiglin ← aigli ✧ GL/17
eigl ← aglen ✧ PE13/108
aigl ← aglan/agl ✧ PE13/108
ingin ← engan ✧ PE13/116
yngyn ← engan ✧ PE13/116
ailf ← alf ✧ PE13/109
amin ← am ✧ PE13/109
amuith ← amoth ✧ PE13/109
amlaid ← amlad ✧ PE13/109
emyn ← amon ✧ PE13/110
amosgarniath ← amosgarn ✧ PE13/110
alenin ← alan ✧ PE13/109
awlain ← awlan ✧ PE13/109
aulanin ← awlan ✧ PE13/109
aulenin ← awlan ✧ PE13/109
amruith-torni ← amrog-dorn ✧ GL/19
eirn ← arn ✧ PE13/110
dein ← dân ✧ PE13/112
Gwalin [← Gwala] ✧ GL/32
Gwalin [← Gwala] ✧ GL/44
Gwaloth [← Gwala] ✧ GL/44
Gwalin [← Gwala] ✧ PE15/8
gwaloth [← Gwala] ✧ PE15/8
Gwaloth [← Gwala] ✧ PE15/21
Banin [← Ban¹] ✧ GL/18
Banin ← Ban ✧ GL/21
Banin [← Ban¹] ✧ GL/32
Banin ← Ban ✧ LT1A/Valar
Banin [← Ban¹] ✧ LT2A/Valar
Banion [← Ban¹] ✧ LT2A/Valar
Banin [← Ban¹] ✧ PE15/21
Banion [← Ban¹] ✧ PE15/21
mothrim ← moth ✧ GL/58
mothin ← moth ✧ GL/58
bair “houses” ← bawr ✧ PE13/116
bessin “wives” ← bess ✧ GG/15
gaigin “arms” ← gaig ✧ GL/37
celebin ← celeb ✧ GG/12
ciril “jars” ← ceral ✧ PE13/116
cyryl ← ceral ✧ PE13/116
codingwalion ← cod·walion ✧ GL/26
codimbanion ← codwanion ✧ GL/26
garobin ← garob ✧ GL/37
garbin ← garob ✧ GL/37
crunghin ← crunc ✧ GL/27
crungin ← crunc ✧ PE13/111
cruinc ← crungin (plural) ✧ PE13/111
crync ← crwnc ✧ PE13/111
crynchin ← crwnc ✧ PE13/111
corbin ← corob ✧ GL/26
crith ← craith ✧ PE13/111
daleth ← dalech ✧ GL/29
duir ← Dor ✧ PE13/112
duirin ← Dor ✧ PE13/112
doriath ← Dor ✧ PE13/112
dorath ← Dor ✧ PE13/112
Eglath [← Egla] ✧ LT2A/Idril
Eglath “Elves or fairies” [← Egla] ✧ PE14/9
eil ← eilian ✧ PE13/113
eilienin ← eilian ✧ PE13/113
eilanin ← eilan ✧ PE13/113
aithruith ← aithrog ✧ PE13/109
aithronin ← aithron ✧ PE13/109
aithweith ← aithweg ✧ PE13/109
fidhin ← fith ✧ GL/35
fidhin ← fith ✧ LT2A/Glorfindel
elmin ← alm ✧ PE13/109
elvin ← alm ✧ PE13/109
alaif ← alm ✧ PE13/109
gardhin [← gar(th)] ✧ GL/17
gardhin [← gar(th)] ✧ GL/37
gaudhin ← gauth ✧ GL/38
gedhin ← geth ✧ GL/38
glôth “always” ← glâ ✧ GL/39
glorin ← glôr ✧ GG/12
glidhin ← glith ✧ GL/40
gôvin ← gôf ✧ GL/38
gôvin ← gôf ✧ GL/40
#govin(d) [← gôf] ✧ GL/42
Goldoth “Gnomes” ← golda ✧ GL/41
goldlin [← Golda] ✧ PE13/99
guil(t) ← †gôl ✧ PE13/117
golwint ← †gôl ✧ PE13/117
guil(t) ← †gôl ✧ PE13/117
guil(t) ← †gôl ✧ PE13/117
Golthaf ← goltha ✧ PE14/9
gawlais [← goloth] ✧ PE13/114
golmath ← golma- ✧ GL/41
gulwy ← gulweg ✧ PE13/117
gulweith/gulwaith ← gulweg ✧ PE13/117
gului ← gulweg ✧ PE13/118
gulwint ← gulwin ✧ PE13/117
gulwinith ← gulwin ✧ PE13/118
guluiwyn ← gulwin ✧ PE13/118
gonthaf ← gontha- ✧ GL/41
grandin [← grann] ✧ PE13/93
gwaidhint ← gwaidhi ✧ GL/46
gui(n) “men” ← gweg ✧ PE13/117
gweig ← gweg ✧ PE13/117
gwevin ← gwef ✧ GL/45
gweithiaid ← gweithiad ✧ PE13/117
gwinin ← gwin ✧ GL/45
gwinias ← gwin ✧ PE13/118
gwinieis ← gwin ✧ PE13/118
gwinis ← gwin ✧ PE13/118
gwidhin ← gwith ✧ GL/46
baidhin ← Baith ✧ GL/21
hent ← hen ✧ GL/48
hennin ← hen ✧ GL/48
eilch ← alch ✧ PE13/109
elcin ← alch ✧ PE13/109
alchair ← alchar ✧ PE13/109
ilbaroth “heaven” ← ilbar ✧ GL/50
Ilbaroth [← ilbar] ✧ LT1A/Ilwë
ginwion [← im] ✧ PE13/99
imrin ← im ✧ PE14/9
laithin ← laith ✧ GL/53
lambin ← lam ✧ GL/53
lamin ← lam ✧ GL/53
laudin ← laud ✧ GL/53
lepthin ← leptha ✧ GL/53
lendrim ← lenweg ✧ GL/53
terchin ← tereg ✧ GL/70
ulûgin ← ulug ✧ GL/74
losgin ← losc ✧ GL/54
Lossion “flowers” ← lôs ✧ LT1A/Gar Lossion
Lothion “flowers” [← lôs] ✧ LT2A/Duilin
mabin “hands” [← mab] ✧ GG/15
mabin ← mab ✧ GL/55
manossin ← manos ✧ GL/56
manossin ← manos ✧ LT1A/Mánir
maith ←  ✧ GL/55
modrim “numbers” ← mod ✧ GL/57
nacthin ← naith ✧ GL/59
naithin ← naith ✧ GL/59
nandin “the country (as opposed to town)” ← nand ✧ GL/59
nandin “country” ← nand ✧ LT1A/Nandini
narthin ← narth ✧ GL/59
deil(t) ← deil(i)an ✧ PE13/112
delwein ← delwen ✧ PE13/112
anthin ← ant ✧ GL/19
enthin ← ant ✧ PE13/110
ninconînin ← ninconin ✧ GL/60
dyrn ← dorn ✧ PE13/113
dwrnwyn ← dorn ✧ PE13/113
dwrnuin ← dorn ✧ PE13/113
duirn ← dorn ✧ PE13/113
uith ← och ✧ GL/62
uith “eggs” ← och ✧ GL/74
ochaf ← octha ✧ GL/62
ochin ← octha ✧ GL/62
orcin ← orc ✧ GL/63
orchoth ← orc ✧ GL/63
orcin ← orc ✧ LT1A/Orc
Orglin [← orc] ✧ PE13/99
ogrin [← orc] ✧ PE13/99
yrn ← orn ✧ PE13/115
yrn “trees” ← orn ✧ PE13/116
orodin ← orod ✧ GL/63
ortin ← ort ✧ GL/63
ôdhin ← ôth ✧ GL/62
ôdhin ← ôth ✧ GL/63
padhin ← path ✧ GL/63
Cwennin [← Cwenn] ✧ GL/32
Cwendin [← Cwenn] ✧ GL/32
Cwendion [← Cwenn] ✧ PE13/99
Cwennin [← Cwenn] ✧ PE14/9
pilnin ← pilon ✧ GL/64
leint “roads” ← lant ✧ PE13/116
Rôg(i) [← graug] ✧ PE13/99
Sulussin ← Sulus ✧ GL/68
Suluthrim ← Sulus ✧ GL/68
talin “feet” [← tâl] ✧ GG/15
tadhin ← tath ✧ GL/68
bacthin ← bactha ✧ GL/21
telthin ← telt ✧ GL/70
tenthin ← tent ✧ GL/70
tentin ← tent ✧ GL/70
tenthin ← tentha ✧ GL/70
Gwal(a)thir [← Gwala] dative ✧ GL/44
gwalthir [← Gwala] dative ✧ PE15/8
celebir ← celeb dative ✧ GG/12
a·gelebir ← celeb dative ✧ GG/12
celbir ← celeb dative ✧ GG/12
glorir ← glôr dative ✧ GG/12
no’lorir ← glôr dative ✧ GG/12
mabir “hands” [← mab] dative ✧ GG/11
lepthair ← lepthath (genitive plural) dative declension-B ✧ GG/13
lepthathir ← lepthath (genitive plural) dative declension-B ✧ GG/13
comathir ← comor (dative) dative declension-B ✧ GG/13
comathair ← comor (dative) dative declension-B ✧ GG/13
brindithir ← brindir (dative) dative declension-C ✧ GG/14
culuthir ← culor (dative) dative declension-C ✧ GG/14
culwir ← culor (dative) dative declension-C ✧ GG/14
urthuir ← urthor (dative) dative declension-C ✧ GG/14
gwithithir ← gwilthir (dative) dative declension-C ✧ GG/14
cuir ←  dative declension-D ✧ GG/14
cuthir ← cuth (plural) dative declension-D ✧ GG/14
fithir ←  dative declension-D ✧ GG/14
glâr ← glâ dative declension-D ✧ GG/14
glothir ← glâ dative declension-D ✧ GG/14
glathir ← glath (plural) dative declension-D ✧ GG/14
gwathir ← gwâ dative declension-D ✧ GG/14
ruthir ← rôr (dative) dative declension-D ✧ GG/14
lepthain ← leptha declension-B ✧ GG/13
comath ← coma declension-B ✧ GG/13
brindith ← brindi declension-C ✧ GG/14
culuth ← culu declension-C ✧ GG/14
culoth ← culu declension-C ✧ GG/14
culwin ← culu declension-C ✧ GG/14
urthuin ← urthu declension-C ✧ GG/14
gwithith ← gwilthi declension-C ✧ GG/14
cuin ←  declension-D ✧ GG/14
cuth ←  declension-D ✧ GG/14
cûthon ← declension-D declension-D ✧ GG/14
cûth ←  declension-D ✧ GG/14
fith ←  declension-D ✧ GG/14
gloth ← glâ declension-D ✧ GG/14
glath ← glâ declension-D ✧ GG/14
gloth ← glâ declension-D ✧ GG/14
glath ← glâ declension-D ✧ GG/14
gwath ← gwâ declension-D ✧ GG/14
roth ←  declension-D ✧ GG/14
ruth ←  declension-D ✧ GG/14
urthus [← gurth(u)] dialectical ✧ GG/13
gwilthis [← gwilthi] dialectical ✧ GG/13
lepthos [← leptha] dialectical ✧ GG/13
Gwal(a)thon [← Gwala] genitive ✧ GL/44
gwal(o)thon [← Gwala] genitive ✧ PE15/8
celebion ← celeb genitive ✧ GG/12
a·gelebin ← celeb genitive ✧ GG/12
celbion ← celeb genitive ✧ GG/12
a·gelebion ← celeb genitive ✧ GG/12
Eglathon [← Egla] genitive ✧ PE15/23
glorion ← glôr genitive ✧ GG/12
a’lorin ← glôr genitive ✧ GG/12
go’lora ← glôr genitive ✧ GG/12
gylt ← gul genitive ✧ PE13/117
guilain ← guilan (genitive) genitive ✧ PE13/117
guilant ← guilan (genitive) genitive ✧ PE13/117
hirilion “ladies” [← hiril] genitive ✧ GG/11
lassion [← lass] genitive ✧ GL/30
mabion “hands” [← mab] genitive ✧ GL/34
Nauglithon “of the Dwarves” [← naugli] genitive ✧ LT2A/Nauglafring
palthaion [← paltha] genitive ✧ GL/63
cwention [← cwent] genitive ✧ GG/12
taithron [← taith] genitive ✧ GL/63
Turion ← Tur genitive ✧ GG/15
lepthath ← leptha genitive declension-B ✧ GG/13
lepthathon ← lepthath (genitive plural) genitive declension-B ✧ GG/13
lepthaion ← lepthain (plural) genitive declension-B ✧ GG/13
comathon ← comon (genitive) genitive declension-B ✧ GG/13
a·gomath ← comon (genitive) genitive declension-B ✧ GG/13
brindithon ← brindin (genitive) genitive declension-C ✧ GG/14
culuthon ← culon (genitive) genitive declension-C ✧ GG/14
culwion ← culon (genitive) genitive declension-C ✧ GG/14
urthúion ← urthon (genitive) genitive declension-C ✧ GG/14
gwithithon ← gwilthin (genitive) genitive declension-C ✧ GG/14
cuion ←  genitive declension-D ✧ GG/14
cuthon ← cuth (plural) genitive declension-D ✧ GG/14
fithon ←  genitive declension-D ✧ GG/14
glân ← glâ genitive declension-D ✧ GG/14
glothon ← glâ genitive declension-D ✧ GG/14
glathon ← glath (plural) genitive declension-D ✧ GG/14
gwathon ← gwâ genitive declension-D ✧ GG/14
ruthon ← rôn (genitive) genitive declension-D ✧ GG/14
Gwedrin ← cwedri soft-mutation c-mutation ✧ GL/28
Gwedrin “tales” ← cwedri soft-mutation c-mutation ✧ LT2A/Tôn a Gwedrin
gwentin [← cwent] soft-mutation c-mutation ✧ GG/11
Vanion “of ... Valar” [← Ban¹] soft-mutation genitive b-mutation ✧ GL/44
gwention [← cwent] soft-mutation genitive c-mutation ✧ GG/12
’othwenion [← gothwen] soft-mutation genitive g-mutation ✧ GL/45
#walion [← Gwala] soft-mutation genitive gw-mutation ✧ GL/26
Ngoldathon [← Golda] soft-mutation genitive ng-mutation ✧ GL/17
a·nguilt ← †gôl soft-mutation genitive ng-mutation ✧ PE13/117
i·nguilt ← †gôl soft-mutation genitive ng-mutation ✧ PE13/117
na·nguilt ← †gôl soft-mutation genitive ng-mutation ✧ PE13/117
winin “women” [← gwin] soft-mutation gw-mutation ✧ GG/9
i·ngoldoth [← Golda] soft-mutation ng-mutation ✧ GG/15

References ✧ GG/10, 13, 15; PE13/113