S. final [i] intruded into preceding syllable; [-VCi] > [-ViC]

S. final [i] intruded into preceding syllable; [-VCi] > [-ViC]

Epenthesis of i (insertion of i into the interior of a word) occurs in both Sindarin and Noldorin where i or y [j] became final and the preceding syllable ended with a single consonant. This lexicon uses the terms i-epenthesis or (more casually) i-intrusion for this phenomenon. Like other forms of i-affection, this sound change plays a significant role in the development of Sindarin and Noldorin plurals, particularly in final syllables. Tolkien discussed i-epenthesis several times in the context of diphthongal developments in his notes on the Noldorin usage of the Feanorian Alphabet from the 1930s:

The old long diphthongs and the [newer] long diphthongs produced (a) by vowels + vocalized consonants, (b) by long vowels + epenthentic ı̯; [emphasis added] (c) by diphthongization of ON ō > ou > au: were usually denoted by two vowels signs. Thus archaic ]. = [au], h. = [ou], h`B or h~B = [oi]; l`B or l~B = [ei]; ]l = [ae̯], hl = [oe]; .`B, .~B = [ui]. The modifier –Ö peg dadol “double dot”, in ON called ambayō “raised y”, was used thus = ĕı̯ produced by epenthesis of ı̯ to ĕ [emphasis added]: as in băr “home”, pl. bĕı̯r (later by lengthening before sonorous consonants bār, be͡ır) written w]7 wlÖ7 (PE22/36).

Tolkien also mentions i-epenthesis in a chart of diphthongs from the same document (PE22/39-40). The relevant entries are listed here:

Tolkien mentioned i-intrusion (or y-intrusion) for Sindarin in notes from the late 1950s or early 1960s:

N.B. final -w (left after loss of vowels) in Sindarin was dropped after labials (-mw > mm anyway): after other consonants [it] became ŭ or was intruded like y [emphasis added] but without alt[ering] of the preceding vowel. So matwā [>] madw̯ > maud or madu. teswā “[?chip]” > teχwā > teχw̯ > tewch. lisyā “sweet” > liχı̯ā > leχı̯ > leich > laich, pl. lîch [emphasis added] (PE17/148).

In this note, Tolkien also seems to be considering w-intrusion as a sound change parallel to i-intrusion, but there is no evidence for it beyond this note. I think it’s likely that w-intrusion was only a transient idea.

Over the years, various analyses of this sound change have been published, the earliest appearing in Jim Allen’s Introduction to Elvish (1978, pp. 112, 115, in an article written by Chris Gilson and Bill Welden), which covered only e > ei > ai given the lack of published evidence in the 1970s. A somewhat more comprehensive analysis appeared in David Salo’s Gateway to Sindarin (GS/§4.99, 2004). I consider the most complete analysis to be the one written by Bertrand Bellet in his Vowel Affection in Sindarin and Noldorin (VASN, 2005), and I mostly follow his analysis in this entry. Bertrand Bellet used the linguistic term epenthesis to describe this change, as did Tolkien, but I often use the less formal term i-intrusion, following the suggestion of Elaran from a private Discord chat on 2018-08-25.

Mechanics of i-intrusion: As discussed by Bertrand Bellet, the likely mechanism for this sound change is as follows. When there was a final i or ı̯ in a Sindarin or Noldorin word (possibly after becoming final as the result of earlier vowel loss), it palatalized the preceding consonant. This palatalized nature transmitted forward into the preceding syllable, breaking the preceding vowel into an i-diphthong. Somewhat later the now-final consonant lost its palatalization. Adding some intermediate stages to the example leχı̯ > leich above (PE17/148), the probable phonetic developments were:

This palatalization broke most preceding single vowels (both short and long) into a new i-diphthong. The scenarios listed by Bertrand Bellet (VASN) are:

The first three scenarios match the Tolkien’s list from his notes on the Noldorin use of the Feanorian Alphabet from the 1930s given above (PE22/39-40). The fourth scenario is not mentioned separately in Tolkien’s notes, because in the Noldorin period, [ǭi] became [ui], so that the end result was the same as the third scenario. See the next section below for more discussion of this fourth scenario in the context of Noldorin and Sindarin.

As noted by Bertrand Bellet (VASN), there are two vowels that seem to resist i-intrusion: i and y (a more rounded i-sound). The vowel i cannot move any further forward; as for y see the discussion under Plurals of Monosyllables with ô below. The remaining vowels listed above (short e, œ; long ǭ, ū) are actually a complete list of all vowels that could appear before final -i, because:

As was the case for the vowel i, any existing i-diphthong such as ai or ui also resisted i-intrusion.

I-intrusion and u-diphthongs: Whether i-intrusion could affect u-diphthongs is a bit more ambiguous. At this stage of Sindarin’s (and Noldorin’s) phonetic evolution, the only possible surviving primitive u-diphthong was au: primitive [eu] and [iu] developed into [ȳ] in Sindarin ([ū] or [io] in Noldorin) and primitive [ou] developed into [ū] (or [au] in Noldorin). In Noldorin, any au-monosyllables mutate to ui in the plural, such as:

These plurals fit the Noldorin i-epenthesis rules of au/ō [ǭ] described by Tolkien in his notes on the Feanorian Alphabet from the 1930s:

[ui] ... also [from] ON au, ō + epenthetic ı̯ or + i in contraction (PE22/40).

The primitive diphthong [au] merged with [ǭ] in Old Noldorin, so that the likely Noldorin phonetic development is:

In Sindarin, the plural of S. naug “dwarf; stunted” (< ✶naukā) is noeg (WJ/413; UT/100). There is a similar (but deleted) plural thoen of thaun “pine-tree” (PE17/81); apparently this was the proper Sindarin phonetic development, but Tolkien couldn’t use it because he had already published a (Noldorized?) word thôn in Orod-na-Thôn “Pine-mountain” (LotR/469; RC/384). Their developments might have been similar to that of Noldorin except for the development of the resulting diphthong [oi], as suggested by Betrand Bellet (VASN):

The problem here is that, unlike Noldorin, there is no evidence that primitive [au] > [ǭ] prior to i-intrusion as a universal rule (though it probably did so at a later point since [au] became [o] in many polysyllables). In fact, there is evidence that ǭ > au before final vowel losses and hence before i-intrusion: arāme < arǭmæ < araum(a) < araum̌, arauv < araw (WJ/400). Thus the plural form of both these words was probably thauni and nauki immediately prior to i-intrusion. A more likely development would be:

I think it’s likelier the diphthong au monophthongized to o (or perhaps ǫ, IPA [o̞]) as part of the vowel breaking, ultimately resulting in the diphthong oi. Hence:

The effect of i-intrusion on any later u-diphthongs that might have arisen in Sindarin from the vocalization of [ɸ] is unclear, but perhaps they fell in with [ȳ] developments (for [eu] or [iu]) or [au] developments (for [ou]).

Effects of i-intrusion on plurals: The results of i-intrusion manifested in plural mutations for certain final syllables in Sindarin and Noldorin. As noted by Betrand Bellet (VASN), the relevant plural patterns are:

The complexities of the plural mutation of au are discussed in the previous section. The plural mutations of a to ai (S.) or ei (N.) in final syllables are more straightforward and much better attested. Some examples include:

As representative of this phonetic development, the plural for S./N. bar “home” would likely be derived from:

The last change is Sindarin-only, where [ei] became [ai] in final syllables, a sound change that did not (usually) occur in Noldorin. This Sindarin-only sound change is the likeliest reason for the ai/ei variations in Sindarin/Noldorin plurals. There are a few Noldorin plurals that show ai, such as erain plural of N. aran “king” (Ety/ƷAR) and (m)belain plural of Balan “God” (Ety/BAL, KIRIK), but these can be explained as early manifestations of the Sindarin phonetic development. By the time Tolkien started writing The Lord of the Rings drafts in the 1940s, most of these plurals show ai, such as N. bair “houses” (WR/380) instead of earlier beir from the 1930s (PE22/36).

The plurals where û mutates to ui are also straightforward phonetically. The main challenge is finding clear examples, but there are at least a couple:

The plurals where o mutates to ei seem to be a Noldorin-only phenomenon. In Sindarin, polysyllabic words with an o in the final syllable consistently mutate to y in plurals. This is the result of i-raising and i-fronting on the final syllable, for example:

As noted in the entry on i-raising, in Noldorin the raising of o > u > y is inhibited under some conditions. As such, some Noldorin plurals underwent a different phonetic development that involved i-intrusion:

Without i-raising, the o in the final syllable developed into [œ], which became the diphthong [œi] after i-intrusion. Later on, the vowel [œ] became [e] and the diphthong [œi] became [ei], producing the same result as i-intrusion combined with the vowel e. This Noldorin phonetic development was mentioned by Tolkien in his notes on the Feanorian Alphabet from the 1930s:

[œ̆ı̯] [from] affected ŏ, ŭ in unstressed syllables + epenthetic ı̯. hÖ| œi later > ei, and so to [e] or [e͡i] (PE22/39).

Although the diphthong [œi] did not arise in the development of Sindarin plurals, in theory it could occur in other circumstances, such as in primitive words with the suffixes -yā or -yē and the base vowel o or u. Presumably the phonetic development would be: -uCya > -oCya > -oCia > -œCi > -œiC > -eiC > -aiC. [@@@ revisit, what if œ > e after ei > ai. Also possibly fuir “north”.] There are no clear examples of this, however, and in fact the few examples we have seem to contradict this phonetic development:

Whether these are aberrations or represent some special Sindarin-only development is unclear.

Noldorin plurals with a that mutates to e: There are a few Noldorin plurals in The Etymologies that show e in final syllables instead of the expected ei, such as:

The last example appears beside variants neweig and (deleted) newaig (EtyAC/NAUK). Many of these examples can be explained by the Noldorin sound change whereby [ei] sometimes became [e] in unstressed final syllables; this sound change is also seen in words that are not plurals, such as ᴹ✶talrunya > tellœin > tellein > N. tellen “sole of foot” (Ety/RUN, TAL). This reduction of ei to e is mentioned by Tolkien in his notes on the Feanorian Alphabet from the 1930s:

[ĕı̯] e or affected a + epenthetic ı̯. later became either [e] [emphasis added] or becoming long was identified with [e͡i] (PE22/39).

There are few monosyllabic plurals with a mutating to e that require a different explanation; see the next section.

Consonant clusters resist i-intrusion: As noted by Bertrand Bellet (VASN), in Noldorin there is clear evidence that consonant clusters prevent i-intrusion. We see, for example:

There are similar examples in Sindarin:

However, there are other Sindarin examples (and at least one Noldorin example) where i-intrusion seems to have occurred despite consonant clusters:

There are further Sindarin examples where i-intrusion occurred before an old consonant cluster [-ss] that was later reduced:

In the example above, it is possible that the cluster reduction of [-ss] > [-s] occurred before i-intrusion, however, and thus the i-intrusion was in fact regular. There is also the following example of an e-plural before a reduced consonant cluster:

Absent further evidence, it is hard to determine the reason for these Sindarin plural variations. Phonetically, it makes sense that the palatalization from final i had difficulty penetrating more than one consonant, and the plural variations showing e before consonant clusters would therefore be the “expected” pattern. The variations showing ai (or ei) could represent (a) normalization to the plural patterns of single consonants, (b) indication that some consonant clusters did not inhibit i-intrusion, or (c) conceptual vacillations on Tolkien’s part.

Plurals of monosyllables with ô: Based on the phonetic rules discussed above, the expected plural form of monosyllables with overlong ô would be overlong ŷ, for example:

Tolkien discussed this phonetic development in his notes on the Feanorian Alphabet from the 1930s:

[ȳ]** only occurred after archaic period from lengthening of stressed y before voiced final consonants as dȳr < dy̆r “lands” (PE22/38).

Overlong ô could only appear in Sindarin and Noldorin from the lengthening of a short ŏ in monosyllables. Based on the rules above, the expected phonetic development of these forms would be the raising of o to u, the fronting of u to y and finally the lengthening of y as was common in stressed monosyllables:

There would be no i-intrusion because (at least in Noldorin of the 1930s) the front vowel y seems to have resisted i-intrusion. However, there are several Sindarin and Noldorin ô-monosyllables with ui in their plurals instead:

The last example is of particular interest, because it seems to be a reformation of an older and irregular plural S. thely, but this “reformation” only makes sense if ui was the normal plural pattern for ô-monosyllables. The likeliest explanation I can think of is that y did not resist i-intrusion and instead broke into the diphthong yi > ui. Presumably in this scenario the round front y dissimilated to the round back vowel u in order to remain distinct from the i in the newly formed diphthong ui. This would be a fifth scenario for i-intrusion in addition to the four discussed above:

This sound change could have happened in both monosyllables and polysyllables, but with polysyllables it seems the unstressed yi then simplified to y instead of becoming ui, as evidenced by plurals like emyn and gelydh. There are a couple more examples, however, that seem to show ui diphthongs at the end of polysyllables resulting from i-intrusion that later develop into y:

Thus it may be that yi > ui was a general rule, and then ui > y in the final syllable of polysyllables. Note that there are plenty of Sindarin words with ui in final syllables, but they are mostly obvious compounds, which may have helped preserve the ui: Baranduin (baran + duin), Draugluin (draug + luin), Orodruin (orod + ruin), Thranduil (tharan + tuil). Conversely, where a monosyllable ended in a consonant cluster no i-intrusion occurred, as in S. dyrn plural of S. dorn “tough” (PE17/181) and S. gyrth plural of S. gorth “dead (person)” (Let/417).

All the attested examples of ŷ-plurals from ô-monosyllables are from Noldorin. It seems likely that the ui-plurals given above represent the normal plural pattern for all ô-monosyllables in Sindarin, and this was a conceptual shift in the behavior of i-intrusion between Noldorin and Sindarin.

Internal i-intrusion: There are a number of examples where i-intrusion occurs at morpheme boundaries rather than at the end of words. This only produces abnormal results in the (comparatively rare) case of second elements of compound that began with a “y”-sound, which is spelled i- at the beginning of Sindarin and Noldorin words. Bertrand Bellet pointed out a number of examples (VASN):

In the last example, the “y”-sound did not vanish, but instead developed into the vowel [i] as was usually the case medially. This interior i-intrusion at morpheme boundaries seems to be limited to ancient compounds. More recent compounds (as seen from the fact that there is no evidence of i-affection in the initial element of the compound) are not modified:

As pointed out by Bertrand Bellet, there are also few examples of interior i-intrusion in Noldorin and Sindarin words that are not at morpheme boundaries, most involving the verbal suffix -ia from primitive ✶-ya:

These examples are very much in the minority, however. The vast majority of Sindarin and Noldorin -ia verbs show no such interior i-intrusion. These may be transient conceptual shifts or perhaps some dialectical variation.

Conceptual Development: As discussed by Roman Rausch in his Historical Phonologies of Ilkorin, Telerin and Noldorin around 1923 (HPITN/§4.2.1), there are numerous examples of i-diphthongs in the final syllables of plurals in the Early Noldorin of the 1920s, so some form of i-intrusion must have existed at this early conceptual stage. There are quite a few variations in the Early Noldorin plural patterns, however, making it difficult to determine the exact phonetic rules. There are also numerous examples of i-diphthongs in plurals before consonant clusters, so it seems that such clusters did not inhibit i-intrusion in Early Noldorin (at least, not in all cases):

It seems the basic process for i-intrusion was the same for the Noldorin of the 1930s and the Sindarin of the 1950s and 1960s, but the phonetic developments are somewhat masked by shifting conceptions for diphthongal developments. To summarize the discussion above, Bertrand Bellet (VASN) identified four scenarios for i-intrusion, and I would add two more Sindarin-only scenarios:

There is strong evidence for the first two scenarios in both Sindarin and Noldorin, assuming you compensate for obscuring phonetic developments: ei surviving in Noldorin but becoming ai in Sindarin. The third and fourth scenarios are basically the same, but account for the early change of au > ǭ in Noldorin vs. the pre-intrusion change of ǭ > au in Sindarin. The fifth scenario could (in theory) have happened in Sindarin, but all the clear examples are from Noldorin, where they were more numerous due to inhibited i-raising of o to y in some Noldorin polysyllables. Possible examples of the sixth scenario started to appear in the 1940s (duil “hills”, SM/225) and it may have become the normal plural pattern for ô-monosyllables in the Sindarin of the 1950s and later.

As discussed above, there is clear evidence that by the Noldorin of the 1930s, consonant clusters inhibited i-intrusion. This seems to be the most common pattern in Sindarin as well, but in later writing the evidence is more mixed, with a few examples that seem to show i-intrusion despite consonant clusters.

Reference ✧ PE17/148 ✧ for example: laich < leich < leχı̯ < liχı̯ā < ✶lisyā

Order (02400)

After 00800 short [i], [u] became [e], [o] preceding final [a] lisyā > liχı̯ā > leχı̯ > leich > S. laich PE17/148
After 02300 short final vowels vanished lisyā > liχı̯ā > leχı̯ > leich > S. laich PE17/148
Before 03200 final [i], [u] generally vanished
Before 03500 later [ei] became [ai] in final syllables delya > deil > S. dail
pheryā > feir > S. fair
Before 05800 [œ] became [e] ᴹ✶tal-runya > tellœin > N. tellen Ety/RUN


Phonetic Rule Elements

[-iCi] > [-iC]
[-ĕCi] > [-eiC]
[-yCi] > [-yC]
[-œCi] > [-œiC]
[-ǭCi] > [-oiC]
[-ūCi] > [-uiC]
[-ăCw] > [-auC]
[-ĕCw] > [-euC]

Phonetic Rule Examples

deŋxini > deŋxin -iCi > -iC dankĭna > S. nenghin ✧ PE17/133
eðili > eðil -iCi > -iC edelō > S. Edhil ✧ WJ/364
elini > elin -iCi > -iC elenā > S. Elin ✧ WJ/363
firi > fir -iCi > -iC Q. Firya > S. Fîr ✧ WJ/387
gilī > gil -iCi > -iC GIL > S. gîl ✧ PE17/152
gweθrini > gwaθrin -iCi > -iC WATH > S. gwethrin ✧ VT42/9
iri > ir -iCi > -iC eryā > erı̯a > erı̯ > irı̯ > S. îr ✧ VT50/18
kelini > kelin -iCi > -iC kal- > S. Gelin ✧ SA/calen
lepiri > lepir -iCi > -iC leper- > S. lebir ✧ VT47/10
lepiri > lepir -iCi > -iC leperī > S. lebir ✧ VT47/24
lepiri > lepir -iCi > -iC leperī > S. lebir ✧ VT48/5
lixī > lix -iCi > -iC lisyā > S. lîch ✧ PE17/148
maɣiti > maɣit -iCi > -iC magiti- > S. maed ✧ VT41/10
mīni > min -iCi > -iC mīni > S. mîn ✧ VT47/11
rembini > rembin -iCi > -iC rembinī > S. remmin ✧ PE17/26
semini > semin -iCi > -iC SAM > S. sevin ✧ PE17/173
tewini > tewin -iCi > -iC tawĭnā > S. tewin ✧ PE17/115
tīwi > tīw -iCi > -iC tekmāi > tekmī > tiŋw > S. tīw ✧ PE17/43
tīwi > tīw -iCi > -iC teñmi > tiñm(i) > S. tîw ✧ PE17/44
xini > xin -iCi > -iC khīnā/khinā > S. hîn ✧ WJ/403
œnnini > œnnin -iCi > -iC ONO > S. #oennin ✧ WJ/387
gœlyði > gœlyð -yCi > -yC ñgolodō > S. Goelydh ✧ WJ/364
gœlyði > gœlyð -yCi > -yC ñgolodō > S. gœlyð ✧ PE17/139
θœlyhi > θœlyh -yCi > -yC ÞOL > S. thely ✧ PE17/188
xeryni > xeryn -yCi > -yC herūnī > S. heryn ✧ PE17/97
œryni > œryn -yCi > -yC oronī > S. Eryn ✧ PE17/33
œryti > œryt -yCi > -yC OR/ORO > S. eryd/ered ✧ PE17/64
anw > aun -ăCw > -auC AWA/WĀ > S. awn ✧ PE17/148
gwanw > gwaun -ăCw > -auC AWA/WĀ > S. gwawn ✧ PE17/148
matw > maut -ăCw > -auC matwā > madw̯ > S. maud ✧ PE17/148
beni > bein -ĕCi > -eiC GWAN > S. bain ✧ PE17/154
beni > bein -ĕCi > -eiC banya > S. bain ✧ PE17/165
beni > bein -ĕCi > -eiC gwenyā > bein > S. bain ✧ PE17/191
beri > beir -ĕCi > -eiC mbā̆r > S. bair ✧ PE17/164
beleni > belein -ĕCi > -eiC Balaniā > S. **Belain ✧ Let/427
deli > deil -ĕCi > -eiC delya > deil > S. dail ✧ PE17/151
deli > deil -ĕCi > -eiC delya > S. deil ✧ PE17/151
edeni > edein -ĕCi > -eiC Q. Atan > S. Edain ✧ WJ/387
elfi > eilf -ĕCi > -eiC T. alpa > S. eilph ✧ UT/265
enia- > eina- -ĕCi > -eiC MAY > amya- > anya- > S. ein- ✧ PE17/163
eri > eir -ĕCi > -eiC eryā > eir > S. air ✧ PE17/28
eθia- > eiθa- -ĕCi > -eiC ATHA > S. eitha- ✧ PE17/148
eleni > elein -ĕCi > -eiC elenyā > S. †elein ✧ PE17/139
eneti > eneit -ĕCi > -eiC HENET > enetya > S. enaid ✧ VT41/16
eteti > eteit -ĕCi > -eiC atatya > S. edaid ✧ VT42/26
everi > eveir -ĕCi > -eiC Abarī > S. †Evair ✧ WJ/380
feni > fein -ĕCi > -eiC phan > fein > S. fain ✧ NM/237
feni > fein -ĕCi > -eiC FAN > S. fain ✧ PE17/26
feni > fein -ĕCi > -eiC PHAN > S. fain ✧ PE17/36
feni > fein -ĕCi > -eiC phanyā > S. fain ✧ PE17/174
feni > fein -ĕCi > -eiC PHAN > S. fain ✧ PE17/179
feri > feir -ĕCi > -eiC pheryā > feir > S. fair ✧ PE17/181
feri > feir -ĕCi > -eiC Q. Firya > S. Feir ✧ WJ/387
ferī > feir -ĕCi > -eiC PHERE > S. ferui ✧ PE17/181
geli > geil -ĕCi > -eiC gilyā > geil > S. gail ✧ PE17/152
glenia- > gleina- -ĕCi > -eiC (G)LAN > S. gleina- ✧ VT42/8
gweni > gwein -ĕCi > -eiC WIN > S. gwein ✧ PE17/191
gweni > gwein -ĕCi > -eiC wanya > S. gwain ✧ PE17/150
keɣi > keiɣ -ĕCi > -eiC kegyā > S. cai ✧ UT/282
leni > lein -ĕCi > -eiC ‽√LAN > S. #lain ✧ PE17/60
lexi > leix -ĕCi > -eiC lisyā > liχı̯ā > leχı̯ > leich > S. laich ✧ PE17/148
lemeni > lemein -ĕCi > -eiC laman(a)/lamān > S. levain ✧ WJ/416
lepeni > lepein -ĕCi > -eiC lepenya > lepein(a) > OS. lepni(a) ✧ VT42/26
meni > mein -ĕCi > -eiC minya > mein > S. main ✧ VT42/25
reni > rein -ĕCi > -eiC ran- > S. rain ✧ UT/242
reni > rein -ĕCi > -eiC RAN > S. -rain ✧ VT42/12
reni > rein -ĕCi > -eiC RAN > rein > S. rain ✧ VT42/13
seti > seit -ĕCi > -eiC SAT > S. said ✧ VT42/20
setia- > seitia- -ĕCi > -eiC satya- > S. seidia- ✧ VT42/20
seteri > seteir -ĕCi > -eiC satarŏ > S. sedair ✧ PE17/183
teleni > telein -ĕCi > -eiC talam- > S. telain ✧ PE17/52
teleri > teleir -ĕCi > -eiC teleryā > S. teleir ✧ PE17/139
texw > tewx -ĕCw > -euC teswā > teχwā > teχw̯ > S. tewch ✧ PE17/148
œrœni > œrœin -œCi > -œiC oronyē > S. eryn ✧ PE17/119
rūni > ruin -ūCi > -uiC RUN > S. ruin ✧ PM/366
θuli > θuil -ūCi > -uiC ÞOL > S. thuil ✧ PE17/188
θuni > θuin -ūCi > -uiC thŏno > S. thuin ✧ PE17/81
xerūni > xeruin -ūCi > -uiC herūnī > S. heruin ✧ PE17/97
θǭni > θoin -ǭCi > -oiC thānĭ- > S. thoen ✧ PE17/81

N. final [i] intruded into preceding syllable; [-VCi] > [-ViC]

GS/§4.95 GS/§4.99 GS/§4.105 GS/§4.231 possible medial examples: eilian(w), Dainthor @@@

References ✧ PE22/36, 38-40

Order (02200)

After 01100 short [i], [u] became [e], [o] preceding final [a] ᴹ✶gilya > N. geil
ᴹ✶ulyā > œil > N. eil
Before 05700 [œ] became [e] ᴹ✶tal-runya > tellœin > N. tellen Ety/RUN


Phonetic Rule Elements

[-iCi] > [-iC]
[-ĕCi] > [-eiC]
[-yCi] > [-yC]
[-ūCi] > [-uiC]
[-auCi] > [-uiC]
[-œCi] > [-œiC]
[-ŭCi] > [-uiC]

Phonetic Rule Examples

gwauni > gwuin -auCi > -uiC ᴹ✶WĀ-N > N. guin ✧ Ety/WA-N
jauvi > juiv -auCi > -uiC ᴹ√YAB > N. iui ✧ EtyAC/YAB
nauki > nuik -auCi > -uiC ᴹ√NAU̯K > N. nuig ✧ EtyAC/NAUK
rauwi > ruiw -auCi > -uiC ON. rōwi > N. rhui ✧ Ety/RAW
sauvi > suiv -auCi > -uiC ON. sōba > N. sui ✧ Ety/SAB
θauni > θuin -auCi > -uiC Ilk. thōn > N. thuin ✧ Ety/THŌN
aili > ail -iCi > -iC ᴹ✶ai-lin- > N. oel ✧ Ety/AY
bini > bin -iCi > -iC ᴹ√GWIN > N. bîn ✧ EtyAC/GWIN
breθili > breθil -iCi > -iC ᴹ√BERÉTH > N. brethil ✧ Ety/NEL
deŋxini > deŋxin -iCi > -iC ᴹ√NDAK > N. Ndengin ✧ Ety/NDAK
dūmini > dūmin -iCi > -iC ᴹ√NDŪ > N. dúvin ✧ EtyAC/NDŪ
eliði > elið -iCi > -iC ᴹ√ÉLED > N. Elidh ✧ Ety/ELED
eriki > erik -iCi > -iC ᴹ√ERÉK > N. erig ✧ Ety/ERÉK
eθθiri > eθθir -iCi > -iC ᴹ✶etsiri > N. ethir ✧ Ety/ET
ferini > ferin -iCi > -iC ON. pheren > N. †ferin ✧ Ety/BERÉTH
firī > fir -iCi > -iC ᴹ√PHIR > N. fîr ✧ Ety/PHIR
gilī > gil -iCi > -iC ᴹ✶gilya > N. gíl ✧ Ety/GIL
glihi > glih -iCi > -iC ᴹ✶g-lisi > N. glî ✧ Ety/LIS
gweθili > gweθil -iCi > -iC ON. wathel > N. gwethil ✧ Ety/THEL
gwini > gwin -iCi > -iC ᴹ√WINI > N. gwîn ✧ EtyAC/WIR
gwini > gwin -iCi > -iC ᴹ✶winyā > N. gwîn ✧ Ety/WIN
gwini > gwin -iCi > -iC ᴹ✶winyē > N. gwîn ✧ EtyAC/WIN
kepiri > kepir -iCi > -iC ᴹ√KEPER > N. cebir ✧ Ety/KEPER
lelmini > lelmin -iCi > -iC ᴹ√ÁLAM > N. lelvin ✧ Ety/ÁLAM
lelmini > lelmin -iCi > -iC ᴹ√LÁLAM > N. lelwin ✧ Ety/LÁLAM
letini > letin -iCi > -iC ᴹ√LAT > N. lhedin ✧ Ety/LAT
lini > lin -iCi > -iC ᴹ√LIN¹ > N. lhîn ✧ Ety/LIN¹
m̥elðini > m̥elðin -iCi > -iC ᴹ√SMAL > N. Mellin ✧ Ety/SMAL
m̥elini > m̥elin -iCi > -iC ON. malina > N. melin ✧ Ety/SMAL
nini > nin -iCi > -iC ᴹ√NEN > N. nîn ✧ Ety/NEN
pelihi > pelih -iCi > -iC ON. pelehi > N. peli ✧ Ety/PEL(ES)
peniði > penið -iCi > -iC ᴹ✶kwenedē > N. penidh ✧ Ety/KWEN(ED)
sini > sin -iCi > -iC ᴹ√SI > N. sîn ✧ Ety/SI
tiθθini > tiθθin -iCi > -iC ᴹ√TIT > N. tithin ✧ Ety/TIT
θini > θin -iCi > -iC ᴹ√THIN > N. †thîn ✧ Ety/THIN
θlini > θlin -iCi > -iC ᴹ✶slinyā > N. thlîn ✧ Ety/SLIN
xermini > xermin -iCi > -iC ᴹ√KHYAR > N. herfin ✧ EtyAC/KHYAR
dyri > dyr -yCi > -yC N. †dy̆r > N. dȳr ✧ PE22/38
embyni > embyn -yCi > -yC ᴹ√AM² > emuin > N. emyn ✧ Ety/AM²
pyti > pyt -yCi > -yC ON. poti > N. pŷd ✧ Ety/POTŌ
beni > bein -ĕCi > -eiC ᴹ✶bányā > N. bein ✧ Ety/BAN
beni > bein -ĕCi > -eiC ᴹ√GWEN > N. bein ✧ Ety/GWEN
beleni > belein -ĕCi > -eiC ON. Bala > Belein > N. Belen ✧ Ety/BAL
bereθi > bereiθ -ĕCi > -eiC ᴹ√BARATH > N. bereth ✧ Ety/BARATH
breki > breik -ĕCi > -eiC ᴹ✶mrekjā > breig > N. braig ✧ Ety/MERÉK
deni > dein -ĕCi > -eiC ᴹ√NDAN > N. Dein ✧ Ety/NDAN
deniθaur > deiniθaur -ĕCi > -eiC ᴹ✶ndani-thārō > N. Dainthor ✧ LR/188
elianw > eilianw -ĕCi > -eiC ON. elyadme > N. eilian(w) ✧ Ety/ƷEL
embereni > emberein -ĕCi > -eiC ᴹ√MBAR > Emmerein > N. Emerin ✧ Ety/MBAR
ereni > erein -ĕCi > -eiC ᴹ√ƷAR > N. erain ✧ Ety/ƷAR
eteni > etein -ĕCi > -eiC ᴹ√AT(AT) > N. eden ✧ Ety/AT(AT)
etepi > eteip -ĕCi > -eiC ᴹ✶atakwē > N. edeb ✧ Ety/TAK
eteri > eteir -ĕCi > -eiC ᴹ✶atar > edeir > N. eder ✧ Ety/ATA
feni > fein -ĕCi > -eiC ᴹ√SPAN > N. fein ✧ Ety/SPAN
feri > feir -ĕCi > -eiC ᴹ√PHIR > N. feir ✧ Ety/PHIR
fir > fīr -ĕCi > -eiC ᴹ√PHIR > N. fîr ✧ Ety/PHIR
fœrmeni > fœrmein -ĕCi > -eiC ᴹ√PHOR > N. fervein ✧ EtyAC/PHOR
geli > geil -ĕCi > -eiC ᴹ✶galyā > N. gail ✧ Ety/KAL
geli > geil -ĕCi > -eiC ᴹ✶gilya > N. geil ✧ Ety/GIL
gweni > gwein -ĕCi > -eiC ᴹ✶winyā > N. gwein ✧ Ety/WIN
kemi > keim -ĕCi > -eiC ᴹ√KEM > N. ceif ✧ Ety/KEM
keri > keir -ĕCi > -eiC ᴹ√KIR > N. ceir ✧ Ety/KIR
keleri > keleir -ĕCi > -eiC ᴹ✶kalaryā > N. celeir ✧ Ety/KAL
meði > meið -ĕCi > -eiC ᴹ√MAD > meið > N. maið ✧ Ety/MAD
meli > meil -ĕCi > -eiC ON. malo > N. meil ✧ Ety/SMAL
n̥eθθi > n̥eiθθ -ĕCi > -eiC ‽ᴹ✶natsai > N. naith ✧ Ety/SNAS
neweki > neweik -ĕCi > -eiC ᴹ√NÁWAK > neweig > N. neweg ✧ Ety/NAUK
peni > pein -ĕCi > -eiC ON. pano > N. pein ✧ Ety/PAN
pexi > peix -ĕCi > -eiC ᴹ√PIS > N. peich ✧ Ety/PIS
raumeli > raumeil -ĕCi > -eiC ᴹ✶rāmalē > N. rhofel ✧ Ety/RAM
reni > rein -ĕCi > -eiC ᴹ✶(a)ranı̯ā > rhein > N. rhain ✧ EtyAC/RAN
seni > sein -ĕCi > -eiC ᴹ√SI > N. sein ✧ Ety/SI
selepi > seleip -ĕCi > -eiC ON. salape > N. seleb ✧ Ety/SALÁK
teli > teil -ĕCi > -eiC ᴹ√TAL > N. teil ✧ Ety/TAL
telehi > teleih -ĕCi > -eiC ᴹ√TELES > N. telei ✧ Ety/TELES
telemi > teleim -ĕCi > -eiC ᴹ√TALAM > N. teleif ✧ Ety/TAL
θleni > θlein -ĕCi > -eiC ᴹ✶slinyā > N. thlein ✧ Ety/SLIN
xeri > xeir -ĕCi > -eiC ᴹ√KHYAR > N. heir ✧ Ety/KHYAR
xepeti > xepeit -ĕCi > -eiC ON. skhapa > N. hebeid ✧ Ety/SKYAP
dœrœni > dœrœin -œCi > -œiC ᴹ√DÓRON > N. dœrœin/deren ✧ Ety/DÓRON
fœri > fœir -œCi > -œiC ᴹ√PHOR > fœir > N. feir ✧ Ety/PHOR
gwetœri > gwetœir -œCi > -œiC ON. wator > N. gwedeir ✧ Ety/TOR
gœlœði > gœlœið -œCi > -œiC ᴹ√ÑGÓLOD > goeloeidh > N. geleidh ✧ Ety/ÑGOLOD
rœni > rœin -œCi > -œiC #ᴹ✶runya > rhoein > N. rhein ✧ Ety/RUN
rœni > rœin -œCi > -œiC ᴹ✶ronyō > N. rhŷn ✧ Ety/ROY¹
tellœni > tellœin -œCi > -œiC ᴹ✶tal-runya > tellœin > N. tellen ✧ Ety/RUN
tellœni > tellœin -œCi > -œiC ᴹ✶talrunya > tellein > N. tellen ✧ Ety/TAL
θœrœni > θœrœin -œCi > -œiC ᴹ√THÓRON > N. therein ✧ Ety/THOR
œli > œil -œCi > -œiC ᴹ✶ulyā > œil > N. eil ✧ Ety/ULU
œlœhi > œlœih -œCi > -œiC ᴹ√ÓLOS > N. elei ✧ Ety/ÓLOS
œrœti > œrœit -œCi > -œiC ON. oroti > ereid > N. ered ✧ Ety/ÓROT
œrœti > œrœit -œCi > -œiC N. †œrœid > N. ered ✧ PE22/41
lūni > luin -ūCi > -uiC ᴹ✶lugni > N. luin ✧ Ety/LUG²