S. short [a], [o], [u] became [e], [œ], [y] preceding [i]; [{ăŏŭ}{C|CC}i] > [{eœy}{C|CC}i]

S. short [a], [o], [u] became [e], [œ], [y] preceding [i]; [{ăŏŭ}{C|CC}i] > [{eœy}{C|CC}i]

In Sindarin and Noldorin the short vowels [a], [o], [u] were all moved forward in the mouth when they preceded a syllable containing the vowel [i], developing into [e], [œ], [y] respectively. This sort of sound change is a fairly common in many languages, where the front vowel [i] attracts other vowels further back in the mouth, causing them to move forward. This shift occurred even when there were other intervening syllables between the a/o/u and the syllable containing i. This sound change is the second stage of i-affection, called i-fronting in this lexicon following the suggestion of Elaran from a private Discord chat on 2018-08-25.

This sound change was described as “secondary affection” or “interior i-affection” in Jim Allen’s Introduction to Elvish published in 1978 (pp. 112-116, in an article written by Chris Gilson and Bill Welden). Later analyses were published in the 2000s by David Salo in Gateway to Sindarin (GS/§4.104, 2004) and by Bertrand Bellet in his essay on Vowel Affection in Sindarin and Noldorin (VASN, 2005). In this entry I follow the system outlined by Bertrand Bellet, which I think aligns mostly closely with the available evidence. A similar set of sound changes occurred in Welsh (non-ultimate i-affection) (WGCH/§70). However, Bertrand Bellet suggested the fronting of vowels in Sindarin is actually closer to Germanic phonetic developments (VASN); these three vowel shifts are nearly identical to the German umlaut.

The clearest decription of this sound change appears in a “Table of Vowel Notations in Exilic Noldorin” from a discussion of the Noldorin use of the Feanorian Alphabet from the 1930s (PE22/38), with excerpts of relevant rows only:

Phon[etic] Value Origin Archaic Later Gondolic Late Exilic
[æ] affection of ă ]G or æ > [e] q.v.
[œ̆] affection of ŏ hG hÖ h| h| > [e], q.v.
[y̆] affection of u, o , .G ü or ® y ® y ® y

These three rows are the only “affections” mentioned in this table. As described here, the basic affections were:

There is a note on the preceding page that makes it clears that [œ] and [y] are also the result of i-affection:

The new sounds [œ̆] and [y] produced by i-affection were denoted in various ways: thus [œ] by and by h|, [y] by and ® (PE22/37).

Somewhat further down there is a note indicating that the intermediate form [æ] was altered earlier than the rest:

The {mutation >>} i-affection of ă was distinguished from ĕ only in early Gondolic documents, where the spelling ]G or transcribed [æ] appears (PE22/37 and note #122).

Because of the comparatively early nature of shifting [æ], this lexicon does not treat [a] > [æ] and [æ] > [e] as a distinct phonetic developments, combining them only as [a] > [e]. There is less evidence for the intermediate form [æ] than there is for [œ], which lingered long enough to appear in some published words, such as archaic S./N. †arnoediad [arnœdiad] “unnumbered” in S./N. Nirnaeth Arnoediad versus the more ordinary form S./N. arnediad (S/192; WJ/28; Ety/NOT; EtyAC/NOT). Because of words like these, the later shift whereby [œ] became [e] is listed as a separate phonetic development.

The i-fronting sound changes went on to influence various grammatical systems in both Sindarin and Noldorin.

I-fronting in Sindarin Plurals: The result of these sound changes can be seen most clearly in Sindarin plurals, where the ancient plural suffix caused various sound shifts before it vanished. Consider the phonetic development in the initial syllables of the following three plurals:

The likely phonetic developments of these plurals are:

In the initial syllables, the development of a (> e) and u (> y) clearly demonstrate i-fronting, but the fronting of o in the initial syllable is partly obscured because later œ became e. The fronting of u > y is also clear in the final syllable of tylys. However, the fronting of o does not occur in the final syllable of plurals, because of the earlier sound change (i-raising) whereby short o became u in a syllable before final i and thereafter developed into the vowel y. Tolkien actually mentions this phonetic development of o in final syllables in his notes on the Feanorian Alphabet from the 1930s:

[œ̆]* This was never long. In final stressed syllables — where short vowels were lengthened — it did not occur, since here affection of o was > y (PE22/38).

Similarly, the i-fronting of a in final syllables of plurals is obscured by the later sound change (i-intrusion) whereby the plural suffix i intruded into the preceding syllable to produce the diphthong ei, which then developed into ai (in Sindarin, not always in Noldorin).

I-fronting in the Sindarin Present Tense: This sound change was also a factor in the Sindarin and Noldorin present tense. The bulk of the evidence is that Sindarin/Noldorin present was derived from the more ancient aorist tense, which used the primitive suffix as the basis for its inflection. In Primitive Elvish, this short final i became e when no further suffixes were added, but was retained when there was a pronominal suffix. This can be seen most clearly in the Quenya aorist, where the uninflected form is Q. care “make, do” (PE17/144; PE22/154) but the inflected form is Q. carin “I make, I do” (PE22/152; Ety/KAR).

In Sindarin, the short final e vanished in the uninflected form (care > car), and later still the short vowel lengthened as it usually did in monosyllables to produce the uninflected present tense: S. câr “make, do” (PE17/132, 145). In inflected forms, the i was retained, so that any appropriate vowels in the preceding syllable were fronted (a > e) and the inflected present tense becomes: S. cerin “I make, I do” (PE17/132; VT50/22). Unfortunately, we don’t have very many examples of the Sindarin/Noldorin present tense, and most of the published forms demonstrate only the mutation of a > e:

Presumably basic verbs containing o and (rare) u would show similar mutations, so we would expect the inflected present tense of S. tôl “come” (WJ/254) to be *telin “I come” (< *tœlin), and the present tense of N. tôg (Ety/TUK) “bring” to be tegin “I bring”. The form tegin actually appears (unglossed) in The Etymologies, but it was deleted (EtyAC/TUK). To muddy the waters, we do have an attested present tense form tolen “I am coming” that seems to contradict this pattern, but that appears to be a variant behavior of the Sindarin present tense rather than a change in this phonetic rule. Sindarin basic verbs containing u would be extremely rare since short u usually became o. However, a hypothetical verb like *run- “to rub, grind” (from the root √RUN² of the same meaning) would be expected to have an inflected present tense *rynin “I rub” (having a following nasal like n is one of the few cases where short u does not developed into o).

Other Examples of I-fronting: Many of the clearest examples of i-fronting come for Sindarin/Noldorin plurals and present tense forms, but there are other examples as well. Ancient compounds whose second element contains an i demonstrate i-fronting:

This was not true of late or reformed compounds, such as S./N. r(h)andir “wanderer” (PE17/60; Ety/RAN) or S./N. curunír “wizard” (PE22/151; Ety/KUR). The same is true for the plurals of recognized compounds, where the first half was generally reformed to be consistent with its singular form: S. rochben “rider” (roch + pen) has a plural form rochbin rather than expected **rechbin, because it was reformed from its archaic plural †rœchbin to better match its singular (WJ/376).

I-fronting was also a factor in the development of primitive -ya verbs, where the medial consonantal y became i:

There is an ancient feminine suffix that appears in some words, and Sindarin derivatives of these words also demonstrate i-fronting:

These last two examples show developmental irregularities of their own, so as examples they should be taken with a grain of salt.

Possible Mechanics: The data model in this lexicon represents this sound change as occurring before an [i] in a following syllable, but it could also have occurred before consonantal y [j] or asyllabic [ı̯]. The system is complicated by the fact that medial [j] became [i], and it isn’t clear which change took place first. This lexicon assumes [j] became [i] first, because it simplifies the data model, but that need not be the case.

In addition, there are Noldorin examples that seem to show i-fronting before either the diphthong ui or the vowel y, as pointed out by Bertrand Bellet in his essay on Vowel Affection in Sindarin and Noldorin (VASN):

These irregular plurals developed because in (Old) Noldorin the diphthong ui did not follow the rule whereby final i-diphthongs became long [ī] in polysyllables; instead it developed into vocalic [y] (probably from [ȳ]). As indicated by ON. malui > N. †mely and ON. rankui > N. †rhengy, the resulting final y seems to cause i-fronting: a > e. Bertrand Bellet suggested (VASN) that it is possible that the vowel y also caused i-fronting when it appeared medially, for example where it arose when primitive diphthongs [eu] and [iu] became [ȳ]. However, we have no attested examples of this, and such phonetic developments would probably have been rare.

The third example ON. orkui > N. †yrchy superficially appears not to follow the same pattern, but likely the [o] was first raised to [u] before being fronted to [y], as suggested by Bertrand Bellet (VASN). This suggests that i-fronting could also happen before final vocalic y [y], but such final y seems only to occur in Noldorin. In any case, it seems these development were sufficiently unusual that all three archaic plurals were regularized into the normal Noldorin plural patterns: N. meil, N. rhenc, N. yrch (Ety/SMAL, RAK, ÓROK).

Conceptual Development: The initial element of polysyllabic Early Noldorin plurals from the 1920s frequently show e/e/y for a/o/y, so it seems likely that i-fronting dates all the way back to the introduction of the i-mutational plurals, or at least emerged soon after. For a complete list of examples, see Thorsten Renk’s Early Noldorin Plural Patterns (ENPP). Here is a selection of examples:

There are quite a few variations on plural forms, especially involving o: ᴱN. lylyth plural of ᴱN. loloth “poplar-tree” (PE13/149); ᴱN. gonnin plural of ᴱN. gonnen “of stone”, later replaced by the more regular plural ᴱN. gennin (PE13/123, 145). Thus, it seems that in the Early Noldorin of the 1920s, this sound change was still settling into its ultimate form. Roman Rausch looks at the possible phonetic developments in more detail in his Historical Phonologies of Ilkorin, Telerin and Noldorin around 1923 (HPITN/§4.2.1).

Order (01700)

After 01400 medial [j] became [i] MAY > amya- > anya- > S. ein- PE17/163
After 01500 short [u] often became [o] ᴹ√DUL > dœlio > N. delio Ety/DUL
After 01600 short [e], [o] became [i], [u] in syllable before final [i] Ossai > ossī > ussi > S. yssı̯ WJ/400
Before 01800 [ē], [ō] became [ī], [ū]
Before 03000 final [i], [u] generally vanished Ossai > ossī > ussi > S. yssı̯ WJ/400
Before 03100 short vowels vanished before morpheme boundaries elen-barathī > el-mbereth > S. Elbereth PE17/22
Before 05200 [mb], [nd] became [mm], [nn] elen-barathī > el-mbereth > S. Elbereth PE17/22
Before 05700 [œ] became [e] ñgolodō > S. gœlyð PE17/139

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ăCi] > [eCi]
[ăCCi] > [eCCi]
[ăCăCi] > [eCeCi]
[ăCŭCi] > [eCyCi]
[ŏCi] > [œCi]
[ŏCŭCi] > [œCyCi]
[ŏCŏCi] > [œCœCi]
[ŭCi] > [yCi]
[ŭCCi] > [yCCi]

Phonetic Rule Examples

balθil > belθil ăCCi > eCCi thil- > S. Belthil ✧ SA/sil
daŋxini > deŋxini ăCCi > eCCi dankĭna > S. nenghin ✧ PE17/133
alfi > elfi ăCCi > eCCi T. alpa > S. eilph ✧ UT/265
gwaθrini > gweθrini ăCCi > eCCi WATH > S. gwethrin ✧ VT42/9
-iandi > -iendi ăCCi > eCCi yandē > S. iend ✧ PE17/42
sarnīe > sernīe ăCCi > eCCi sarniye > S. Serni ✧ VT42/11
tarxilði > terxilði ăCCi > eCCi tarkhildī > S. **terchil ✧ PE17/101
bania > benia ăCi > eCi GWAN > S. bain ✧ PE17/154
bania > benia ăCi > eCi banya > S. bain ✧ PE17/165
bari > beri ăCi > eCi mbā̆r > S. bair ✧ PE17/164
braθil > breθil ăCi > eCi BARATH > S. brethil ✧ PE17/23
alia- > elia- ăCi > eCi ALA > S. elia- ✧ PE17/146
ania- > enia- ăCi > eCi MAY > amya- > anya- > S. ein- ✧ PE17/163
aθia- > eθia- ăCi > eCi ATHA > S. eitha- ✧ PE17/148
fania > fenia ăCi > eCi phan > fein > S. fain ✧ NM/237
fania > fenia ăCi > eCi FAN > S. fain ✧ PE17/26
fania > fenia ăCi > eCi PHAN > S. fain ✧ PE17/36
fania > fenia ăCi > eCi phanyā > S. fain ✧ PE17/174
fania > fenia ăCi > eCi PHAN > S. fain ✧ PE17/179
glania- > glenia- ăCi > eCi (G)LAN > S. gleina- ✧ VT42/8
gwania > gwenia ăCi > eCi wanya > S. gwain ✧ PE17/150
kalini > kelini ăCi > eCi kal- > S. Gelin ✧ SA/calen
kawine > kewine ăCi > eCi kyawini > kawin(e) > S. cewin ✧ PE22/152
lania > lenia ăCi > eCi ‽√LAN > S. #lain ✧ PE17/60
rania > renia ăCi > eCi ran- > S. rain ✧ UT/242
rania > renia ăCi > eCi RAN > S. -rain ✧ VT42/12
rania > renia ăCi > eCi RAN > rein > S. rain ✧ VT42/13
samini > semini ăCi > eCi SAM > S. sevin ✧ PE17/173
satia > setia ăCi > eCi SAT > S. said ✧ VT42/20
satia- > setia- ăCi > eCi satya- > S. seidia- ✧ VT42/20
tawini > tewini ăCi > eCi tawĭnā > S. tewin ✧ PE17/115
θaria- > θeria- ăCi > eCi THAR > S. theria- ✧ PE17/187
balania > belenia ăCăCi > eCeCi Balaniā > S. **Belain ✧ Let/427
baraθi > bereθi ăCăCi > eCeCi barathī(e) > S. bereth ✧ PE17/23
atani > edeni ăCăCi > eCeCi Q. Atan > S. Edain ✧ WJ/387
elembarathi > elemberethi ăCăCi > eCeCi elen-barathi > elmbereth > S. Elbereth ✧ MR/387
elembarathi > elemberethi ăCăCi > eCeCi elen-barathī > el-mbereth > S. Elbereth ✧ PE17/22
atatia > etetia ăCăCi > eCeCi atatya > S. edaid ✧ VT42/26
avari > everi ăCăCi > eCeCi Abarī > S. †Evair ✧ WJ/380
galadandil > geleðendil ăCăCi > eCeCi Gala(da)ndil > S. Gelennil ✧ PE21/83
glawallinde > glewellinde ăCăCi > eCeCi OS. †glawar-lin > S. Glewellin ✧ PE17/61
lamani > lemeni ăCăCi > eCeCi laman(a)/lamān > S. levain ✧ WJ/416
satari > seteri ăCăCi > eCeCi satarŏ > S. sedair ✧ PE17/183
talani > teleni ăCăCi > eCeCi talam- > S. telain ✧ PE17/52
tannakylli > tennekylli ăCăCi > eCeCi tana > S. Tengyl ✧ MR/385
andundi > endyndi ăCŭCi > eCyCi ANA > S. Ennyn ✧ PE17/40
goria- > gœria- ŏCi > œCi GOR > S. gœria ✧ NM/176
-iondi > -iœndi ŏCi > œCi (ĭ)ondī > S. -ien ✧ PE17/170
onnini > œnnini ŏCi > œCi ONO > S. #oennin ✧ WJ/387
oronie > œrœnie ŏCŏCi > œCœCi oronyē > S. eryn ✧ PE17/119
goluði > gœlyði ŏCŭCi > œCyCi ñgolodō > S. Goelydh ✧ WJ/364
goluði > gœlyði ŏCŭCi > œCyCi ñgolodō > S. gœlyð ✧ PE17/139
θoluhi > θœlyhi ŏCŭCi > œCyCi ÞOL > S. thely ✧ PE17/188
oruni > œryni ŏCŭCi > œCyCi oronī > S. Eryn ✧ PE17/33
oruti > œryti ŏCŭCi > œCyCi OR/ORO > S. eryd/ered ✧ PE17/64
dumbi > dymbi ŭCCi > yCCi DOM > S. dym ✧ PE22/153
durni > dyrni ŭCCi > yCCi DOR > S. Dyrn ✧ PE17/181
tainakulli > tainakylli ŭCCi > yCCi tana > S. Taengyl ✧ MR/385
tannakulli > tannakylli ŭCCi > yCCi tana > S. Tengyl ✧ MR/385
urxi > yrxi ŭCCi > yCCi urkō > S. Yrch ✧ WJ/390
ussi > yssi ŭCCi > yCCi Ossai > ossī > ussi > S. yssı̯ ✧ WJ/400
xeruni > xeryni ŭCi > yCi herūnī > S. heryn ✧ PE17/97

N. short [a], [o], [u] became [e], [œ], [y] preceding [i]; [{ĕăŏ}{C|CC}i] > [{ieœ}{C|CC}i]

@@@ GS/§4.104 WGCH/§70 @@@

References ✧ PE22/37

Order (01700)

After 01400 medial [j] became [i] ᴹ✶baryā́- > N. berio
ᴹ√DUL > dœlio > N. delio
ᴹ√NOT > N. nœdia
After 01500 short [u] often became [o] ᴹ√DUL > dœlio > N. delio Ety/DUL
Before 02900 short vowels vanished before morpheme boundaries ON. ammalinde > em(m)elin > N. emlin Ety/SMAL
Before 03400 initial [pl] became [bl] ᴹ√PALAP > plebi > N. blebi Ety/PALAP
Before 05600 [mb], [nd] became [mm], [nn] Ilk. mur(i)lind/myr(i)lind > mœrilind > N. merilin Ety/TIN
Before 05700 [œ] became [e] ᴹ✶tal-runya > tellœin > N. tellen Ety/RUN

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ăCi] > [eCi]
[ăCCi] > [eCCi]
[ăCăCi] > [eCeCi]
[ăCVCi] > [eCVCi]
[ăCŏCi] > [eCœCi]
[ăCŭCi] > [eCyCi]
[ŏCi] > [œCi]
[ŏCŏCi] > [œCœCi]
[ŏCVCi] > [œCVCi]
[yCi] > [œCi]
[ŭCi] > [yCi]
[ŭCŭCi] > [yCyCi]
[ŭCCi] > [yCCi]

Phonetic Rule Examples

myrilind > mœrilind yCi > œCi Ilk. mur(i)lind/myr(i)lind > mœrilind > N. merilin ✧ Ety/TIN
myrilind > mœrilind yCi > œCi Ilk. mur(i)lind/myr(i)lind > mœrilinn > N. merilinn ✧ EtyAC/TIN
balθil > belθil ăCCi > eCCi ON. Balthil > N. Belthil ✧ Ety/BAL
alfi > elfi ăCCi > eCCi ON. alpha > N. Elf ✧ Ety/KHOP
andīn > endīn ăCCi > eCCi ᴹ√YEN > N. ennin ✧ Ety/YEN
karni > kerni ăCCi > eCCi ᴹ✶karani > N. cern ✧ EtyAC/KARÁN
lalmi > lelmi ăCCi > eCCi ᴹ√ÁLAM > N. lelf ✧ Ety/ÁLAM
panθīnare > penθīnare ăCCi > eCCi ᴹ√KWAT > N. penninar ✧ Ety/YEN
parmi > permi ăCCi > eCCi ON. parma > N. perf ✧ Ety/PAR
raŋxui > reŋxui ăCCi > eCCi ON. rankui > N. †rhengy ✧ Ety/RAK
xarmini > xermini ăCCi > eCCi ᴹ√KHYAR > N. herfin ✧ EtyAC/KHYAR
bania > benia ăCi > eCi ᴹ✶bányā > N. bein ✧ Ety/BAN
baria- > beria- ăCi > eCi ᴹ✶baryā́- > N. berio ✧ Ety/BAR
braðil > breðil ăCi > eCi ON. Bradil > N. Breðil ✧ Ety/BARÁD
dakie > dekie ăCi > eCi ON. ndakie > N. degi ✧ Ety/NDAK
dani > deni ăCi > eCi ᴹ√NDAN > N. Dein ✧ Ety/NDAN
daniθouro > deniθouro ăCi > eCi ᴹ✶ndani-thārō > N. Dainthor ✧ LR/188
daŋxini > deŋxini ăCi > eCi ᴹ√NDAK > N. Ndengin ✧ Ety/NDAK
dari > deri ăCi > eCi ᴹ√DAR > N. deri ✧ Ety/DAR
amil > emil ăCi > eCi ᴹ√AM¹ > N. †emil ✧ EtyAC/AM¹
arianθe > erianθe ăCi > eCi ᴹ√ANA¹ > N. Eriant ✧ Ety/AR¹
atīnar > etīnar ăCi > eCi ᴹ✶at-yēn-ar > N. edinar ✧ Ety/YEN
fania > fenia ăCi > eCi ᴹ√SPAN > N. fein ✧ Ety/SPAN
faria- > feria- ăCi > eCi ᴹ√PHAR > N. feira- ✧ EtyAC/PHAR
galia > geli ăCi > eCi ᴹ✶galyā > N. gail ✧ Ety/KAL
gwaria- > gweria- ăCi > eCi ON. warie > N. gwerio ✧ Ety/WAR
gwaθili > gweθili ăCi > eCi ON. wathel > N. gwethil ✧ Ety/THEL
lalmini > lelmini ăCi > eCi ᴹ√ÁLAM > N. lelvin ✧ Ety/ÁLAM
lalmini > lelmini ăCi > eCi ᴹ√LÁLAM > N. lelwin ✧ Ety/LÁLAM
latini > letini ăCi > eCi ᴹ√LAT > N. lhedin ✧ Ety/LAT
madli > medli ăCi > eCi ᴹ✶mad-lī > N. megli ✧ Ety/LIS
maðia > meðia ăCi > eCi ᴹ√MAD > meið > N. maið ✧ Ety/MAD
makile > mekile ăCi > eCi ᴹ✶makili- > N. megil ✧ EtyAC/MAK
m̥alðini > m̥elðini ăCi > eCi ᴹ√SMAL > N. Mellin ✧ Ety/SMAL
mali > meli ăCi > eCi ON. malo > N. meil ✧ Ety/SMAL
m̥alini > m̥elini ăCi > eCi ON. malina > N. melin ✧ Ety/SMAL
malui > melui ăCi > eCi ON. malui > N. mely ✧ Ety/SMAL
nestaki- > nesteki- ăCi > eCi ON. nestak- > N. nestegi ✧ Ety/STAK
palia- > pelia- ăCi > eCi ᴹ√PAL > N. pelio ✧ Ety/PAL
pani > peni ăCi > eCi ON. pano > N. pein ✧ Ety/PAN
pania- > penia- ăCi > eCi ᴹ√PAN > N. penio ✧ Ety/PAN
plapi- > plapi- ăCi > eCi ᴹ√PALAP > plebi > N. blebi ✧ Ety/PALAP
rania > renia ăCi > eCi ᴹ✶(a)ranı̯ā > rhein > N. rhain ✧ EtyAC/RAN
rania- > renia- ăCi > eCi ᴹ√RAN > N. rhenio ✧ Ety/RAN
rania- > renia- ăCi > eCi ᴹ✶ramya- > N. rhenio ✧ Ety/RAM
roumali > roumeli ăCi > eCi ᴹ✶rāmalē > N. rhofel ✧ Ety/RAM
tali > teli ăCi > eCi ᴹ√TAL > N. teil ✧ Ety/TAL
talia- > telia- ăCi > eCi ᴹ✶tyalı̯ā- > N. telio ✧ Ety/TYAL
taliene > teliene ăCi > eCi ᴹ√TYAL > N. te(i)lien ✧ Ety/TYAL
xania- > xenia- ăCi > eCi ᴹ√KHAN > N. henio ✧ Ety/KHAN
xaria > xeria ăCi > eCi ᴹ√KHYAR > N. heir ✧ Ety/KHYAR
balani > beleni ăCăCi > eCeCi ON. Bala > Belein > N. Belen ✧ Ety/BAL
baraθi > bereθi ăCăCi > eCeCi ᴹ√BARATH > N. bereth ✧ Ety/BARATH
baraθil > bereθil ăCăCi > eCeCi ON. Barathi(l) > N. Berethil ✧ Ety/BARATH
ambarenia > emberenia ăCăCi > eCeCi ᴹ√MBAR > Emmerein > N. Emerin ✧ Ety/MBAR
ammalinde > emmelinde ăCăCi > eCeCi ON. ammalinde > em(m)elin > N. emlin ✧ Ety/SMAL
arani > ereni ăCăCi > eCeCi ᴹ√ƷAR > N. erain ✧ Ety/ƷAR
atania > etenia ăCăCi > eCeCi ᴹ√AT(AT) > N. eden ✧ Ety/AT(AT)
atapi > etepi ăCăCi > eCeCi ᴹ✶atakwē > N. edeb ✧ Ety/TAK
atari > eteri ăCăCi > eCeCi ᴹ✶atar > edeir > N. eder ✧ Ety/ATA
falassi > felessi ăCăCi > eCeCi ᴹ√PHAL/PHÁLAS > N. feles ✧ Ety/PHAL
faradīr > feredīr ăCăCi > eCeCi ᴹ√SPAR > N. feredir ✧ Ety/SPAR
faradīr > feredīr ăCăCi > eCeCi ᴹ√PHAR² > N. feredir ✧ EtyAC/PHAR²
kalaria > keleria ăCăCi > eCeCi ᴹ✶kalaryā > N. celeir ✧ Ety/KAL
nawaki > neweki ăCăCi > eCeCi ᴹ√NÁWAK > neweig > N. neweg ✧ Ety/NAUK
salapi > selepi ăCăCi > eCeCi ON. salape > N. seleb ✧ Ety/SALÁK-(WĒ)
talami > telemi ăCăCi > eCeCi ᴹ√TALAM > N. teleif ✧ Ety/TAL
xalatir > xeletir ăCăCi > eCeCi ᴹ√KHAL¹ > N. heledir ✧ Ety/KHAL¹
xalatir > xeletir ăCăCi > eCeCi ᴹ√SKAL² > N. heledir ✧ Ety/SKAL²
xalatirno > xeletirno ăCăCi > eCeCi ᴹ✶khalatirnō̆ > N. heledirn ✧ Ety/TIR
xalaθθi > xeleθθi ăCăCi > eCeCi ᴹ√SKAL > N. heleth ✧ EtyAC/SKEL
xapati > xepeti ăCăCi > eCeCi ON. skhapa > N. hebeid ✧ Ety/SKYAP
gwatori > gwetœri ăCŏCi > eCœCi ON. wator > N. gwedeir ✧ Ety/TOR
tallonia > tellœnia ăCŏCi > eCœCi ᴹ✶tal-runya > tellœin > N. tellen ✧ Ety/RUN
tallonia > tellœnia ăCŏCi > eCœCi ᴹ✶talrunya > tellein > N. tellen ✧ Ety/TAL
ambuni > embyni ăCŭCi > eCyCi ᴹ√AM² > emuin > N. emyn ✧ Ety/AM²
andundi > endyndi ăCŭCi > eCyCi ᴹ√AD > N. ennyn ✧ Ety/AD
θalɣundi > θelɣyndi ăCŭCi > eCyCi ᴹ✶stalgondō > N. thelyn ✧ Ety/STÁLAG
formenia > fœrmenia ŏCVCi > œCVCi ᴹ√PHOR > N. fervein ✧ EtyAC/PHOR
bronia- > brœnia- ŏCi > œCi ON. bronie > N. brenio ✧ Ety/BORÓN
dolia- > dœlia- ŏCi > œCi ᴹ√DUL > dœlio > N. delio ✧ Ety/DUL
foria > fœria ŏCi > œCi ᴹ√PHOR > fœir > N. feir ✧ Ety/PHOR
korin > kœrin ŏCi > œCi ᴹ√KOR > N. cerin ✧ Ety/KOR
nohini > nœhini ŏCi > œCi ON. nœ(h)ini > N. nœin ✧ PE22/40
notia- > nœtia- ŏCi > œCi ᴹ√NOT > N. nœdia ✧ Ety/NOT
ronia > rœnia ŏCi > œCi #ᴹ✶runya > rhoein > N. rhein ✧ Ety/RUN
ronio > rœnio ŏCi > œCi ᴹ✶ronyō > N. rhŷn ✧ Ety/ROY¹
xoria- > xœria- ŏCi > œCi ᴹ√KHOR > hoerio > N. herio ✧ Ety/KHOR
olia > œlia ŏCi > œCi ᴹ✶ulyā > œil > N. eil ✧ Ety/ULU
oria- > œria- ŏCi > œCi ON. orie > N. erio ✧ Ety/ORO
doroni > dœrœni ŏCŏCi > œCœCi ᴹ√DÓRON > N. dœrœin/deren ✧ Ety/DÓRON
goloði > gœlœði ŏCŏCi > œCœCi ᴹ√ÑGÓLOD > goeloeidh > N. geleidh ✧ Ety/ÑGOLOD
θoroni > θœrœni ŏCŏCi > œCœCi ᴹ√THÓRON > N. therein ✧ Ety/THOR
olohi > œlœhi ŏCŏCi > œCœCi ᴹ√ÓLOS > N. elei ✧ Ety/ÓLOS
oroti > œrœti ŏCŏCi > œCœCi ON. oroti > ereid > N. ered ✧ Ety/ÓROT
oroti > œrœti ŏCŏCi > œCœCi N. †œrœid > N. ered ✧ PE22/41
dulθi > dylθi ŭCCi > yCCi ᴹ√NDOL > N. dylt ✧ Ety/NDOL
kurwi > kyrwi ŭCCi > yCCi ᴹ√KUR > N. cyry ✧ EtyAC/KUR
tulli > tylli ŭCCi > yCCi ᴹ✶tollo > N. tyll ✧ Ety/TOL²
urni > yrni ŭCCi > yCCi ᴹ✶ÓR-NI > N. yrn ✧ Ety/ÓR-NI
urxui > yrxui ŭCCi > yCCi ON. orkui > N. †yrchy ✧ EtyAC/ÓROK
duri > dyri ŭCi > yCi N. †dy̆r > N. dȳr ✧ PE22/38
puti > pyti ŭCi > yCi ON. poti > N. pŷd ✧ Ety/POTŌ
tulussi > tylyssi ŭCŭCi > yCyCi ᴹ✶tyulussē > N. tylys ✧ Ety/TYUL