Q. future grammar.

Q. future grammar.

The Quenya future tense refers to events occurring in the future: i atan matuva, matuvan “the man will eat, I will eat”. The English future tense uses a helping verb “will”, but the Quenya future tense has its own conjugation, with the suffix -uva.

Origins of the Future Tense: Tolkien discussed the origins of the future tense in a number of places. Unlike the other verb tenses, the Quenya future did not originate in Common Eldarin (CE), as described in Common Eldarin: Verb Structure (EVS2) from the early 1950s:

Future. All the Eldarin languages express, or in their older periods expressed, a simple future inflexionally, but the inflexions and patterns are different in each. It is thus probable that the development had not been completed at the time of the separation of the branches. In CE the future could still be expressed evidently by the aorist with defining adverbs (see above), and some of the habitual collocations were already hardening into fixed agglutinated groups on the way to becoming inflexional; while there were also probably some verbal expressions, like English “will go, am going to say” (PE22/131).

A similar statement appears in Quendian & Common Eldarin Verbal Structure (EVS1) from the late 1940s:

Future. All the Eldarin languages express a simple future inflexionally, but the inflexions and patterns used are different. This may mean that the device of an inflexional future had already been achieved in CE but that the later languages all abandoned the older pattern and separately substituted new ones; or that the future could still in CE be expressed by the aorist with defining adverbs, while there were already a good many other modes of expression in competitive existence among which the later languages chose different modes to become their normal pattern. Cf. English “I go home (soon, tomorrow, next year)”; or defined by a future sentence: “I shall go, when he calls”; beside “I shall go, will go, am about to go, am going to go etc.” (PE22/131).

Tolkien went on to describe the Quenya future formation in EVS2, as a derivative of the root √UB:

In Quenya the adverbial phrases did not harden into inflexional forms, but in older Quenya the aorist could be used with similar adverbs (en, enya) in a future sense: as AQ en i matinye “I shall eat then, soon”. The usual formation is with uva, often added to the bare stem: matuvanye “I shall eat”; but this was used far more constantly than the original CE matubāni, and had become an undefined future without implications of nearness or remoteness.

[The last refers to a separate statement about CE in the same document: “by adding ubā to the bare verbal stem as matubāni ‘I shall eat’, the remoter future”. The “remoter future” aspect of -ubā was lost in Quenya.]

The “suffix” in this case was -ubā, and the u had no connexion with the u-vowel seen after the stem in a number of old verbs [u-verbs] (see below). √UB was in fact a verbal element with the sense “ponder, have in mind”, and the form ubā is a 'present' formation of the type melā described above [a-verb]. Thus Prim. N. and Q mat-ubā-ni/nje signified “I intend to eat”. The stem ub, uv no longer survives in recorded Quenya as a separate verb; but cf. Q úvie “pondering, consideration”; ON ūba- “ponder, make up one’s mind” (PE22/131-132).

Tolkien returned to the topic of the future in Late Notes on Verb Structure (LVS) from 1969:

Q. developed a pure future of fact or eventuality, with a stem ubā suffixed to the bare base (without ómataima): as *karubā- “will do, is going to do”. This base UB provided a verbal stem (an a-verb) uba- in original sense: “impend, be imminent, approach, draw near”. In this form it was at an early date affixed to the simple verbal stem, but with a weakened and generalized sense: as e.g. *kar/ubā/ni = “I draw near to doing, I am about to do (it)” > CQ [here “Classical Quenya” = Parmaquesta, PQ] caruvan(ye) “I am going to do/shall do (it)”. The sense of imminence was lost; and no special sense of unwelcome approach was developed, such as appeared in Q. partly perhaps owing to influence of the “bad” sense of ū-prefix, and its derivatives.

As an independent word the verb uba was lost. But a strengthened form ūva was used “impend, be imminent” nearly always in a bad sense: “threaten (to come)”. Thus ulo ūva “rain (unwelcome) is coming/threatens”; but uluva “it is going to rain, it will rain”; hríve ūva vēna “winter is drawing near (to us)”, which would not be said of laire “summer” — unless for some special reason its approach was unwelcome (PE22/167-168).

Thus in the 1960s, the phonetic origins of the future suffix -uva remained the same, but its CE sense was altered from a remote future to a near future, and the meaning of the root √UB was revised from “ponder” to “approach, draw near”.

Forming the Future: The formation of the future is fairly straightforward: simply add the suffix -uva to the verb stem, replacing the final vowel if there is one: mat- “eat” → matuva (PE22/162); orya- “rise” → oryuva (PE22/157, 164). There are only a few exceptions to this rule:

In the case of u-verbs, the only examples we have are from the Quenya Verbal System (QVS) of the late 1940s, but the pattern remains phonologically sound in the systems of Tolkien’s later writings.

Conceptual Development: The Quenya future was established very early in Tolkien’s writing. In The Qenya Verb Forms of the 1910s, the future suffix was -va: ᴱQ. tul-tulva (PE14/28, 31), but he also said: “Ending of future is -uva- in many verbs, -ta derivatives and long stem cons[onant] verbs, as hosta-, hostuva; karpi-, karpuva” (PE14/34).

In the Early Qenya Grammar (EQG) of the 1920s, Tolkien decided the -uva suffix was also used for basic verbs. He said: “The future stem is obtained by the suffix -(u)va” (PE14/56). Examples in EQG include: tuletuluva, tangatangauva, tantilta[tantil]tŭva, tulyatulyuva, laptalaptuva, kelukelūva, loktalokatwa (PE14/57-58). The last example is the only one with suffixal -va > -wa instead of -uva.

The suffix -uva was still used in the Qenya Conjugations of the late 1920s or early 1930s, where it also served as the suffix for the conditional tense, distinguished from the future by its use of the short vs. long pronominal suffixes: 1st person conditional tuluvan vs. future tuluvanye, 2nd person conditional tuluval vs. future tuluvaste, etc. (PE16/124-127). Futures in contemporaneous poems like ᴱQ. Oilima Markirya used uva-futures as well, such as ᴱQ. kiluva “shall see” (MC/213), which became kenuva in the 1960s version of the poem (MC/221).

In the Quenya Verbal System (QVS) of the late 1940s, the -uva suffix continued its use in basic verbs, and the - and -formative verbs used -uva with replacement of the final -a: ᴹQ. nahtanahtuva, siryasiryuva (PE22/115). However, many other derived verbs in QVS used only -va, along with lengthening of the final -a: ᴹQ. faráva “will hunt”, hopáva “will wait”, oláva “will grow” (PE22/116), ortáva “will raise” (PE22/104). This va-future formation is seen in the late 1930s poem Fíriel’s Song: ᴹQ. antáva “will give” (LR/72). As Tolkien described it in QVS:

The Future. In Quenya this was made with the suffix -vā. The simple future: this showed -va added to the base + u. On the origin of the vowel [u] see above. It always in Q. appeared before -va in strong verbs, when added to the aorist base. Also in words with present-aorist formatives: as ista “know”, istuva “shall know”. Those with suffix -u already as liru­ “sing” usually show lirúva (-ūva). The u is absent when -vā is added to stems already ending in an original long vowel: so ortuva “will rise”, ortáva “will raise” (PE22/104).

In Quendian & Common Eldarin Verbal Structure (EVS1) written shortly before QVS, Tolkien described a distinct CE origin for the future:

In Quenya the suffix is -bā (Quenya -vā̆-), which is preceded by u (in case of most verbs). The origin of this formation is not clear; but is certainly verbal, not adverbial. Cf. √BĀ-, BANA “go, proceed”, as seen in Quenya vanwa “gone, over”. Q karuvā- “will make” thus originally = “is proceeding to / going to / make” (PE22/97).

In Common Eldarin: Verb Structure (EVS2) from the early 1950s, the origin was revised to the root √UB as described above (PE22/131), and thereafter future suffix -uva was used with all verb classes.

Neo-Quenya: For Neo-Quenya, I think you can just use -uva with all verbs, replacing the final vowel, with the exception of causative verbs which should use -auva.

Examples (future)
linduvanye [← #linda-] 1st-sg ✧ Minor-Doc/1975-01-01
aluva [← ala-¹] a-verb ✧ PE22/164
avauva [← ava-¹] a-verb ✧ PE22/164
auva [← ava-¹] a-verb ✧ PE22/164
avuva [← ava-¹] a-verb ✧ PE22/164
oruv· ← ora (aorist) a-verb ✧ VT41/13
valuvar “the will [of the Valar] will be done” ← vala a-verb ✧ WJ/404
aluvan [← ala-¹] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
auvan [← ava-¹] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/162
avuvan [← ava-¹] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
auvan [← ava-¹] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
avuvan ← ava- a-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT49/13
auvan ← ava- a-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT49/13
faruvan [← fara-] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
tenuva “will arrive” [← ten-] basic-verb ✧ VT49/23
kaluva “shall shine” [← #cal-] basic-verb ✧ UT/22
caruva “shall make” [← car-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/144
kenuva “shall see” ← ken- basic-verb ✧ MC/221
kenuva “shall see” ← ken- basic-verb ✧ MC/222
kenuva “shall see” ← ken- basic-verb ✧ MC/222
ekuva “have a chance of” [← ec-] basic-verb ✧ VT49/20
entuluva “shall come again” [← #entul-] basic-verb ✧ S/195
hiruva “shalt find (it)” [← hir-] basic-verb ✧ LotR/378
hiruva “find” [← hir-] basic-verb ✧ Minor-Doc/1963-12-18
hiruva “will find” [← hir-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/75
hiruva “will find” [← hir-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/76
hiruva [← hir-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/135
híruvà “shalt find (it)” [← hir-] basic-verb ✧ RGEO/58
hir-uva “find will (it)” [← hir-] basic-verb ✧ RGEO/59
hlaruva “shall hear” [← #hlar-] basic-verb ✧ MC/222
lavuva [← lav-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/152
lauva [← lav-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/152
menuva “will arrive” [← men-] basic-verb ✧ VT49/24
nauva “will try” [← nev-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/151
siluva “*will shine” [← sil-] basic-verb ✧ VT49/39
termaruva “shall stand” [← termar-] basic-verb ✧ UT/305
ter-maruva [← termar-] basic-verb ✧ UT/317
tiruva “shall heed” [← tir-] basic-verb ✧ MC/222
tiruva “shall heed” [← tir-] basic-verb ✧ MC/222
tuluva “*[will] come” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ VT43/14
tuvuva “will find” [← #tuv-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/155
túva [← #tuv-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/155
tuvua [← #tuv-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/155
tyauva [← tyav-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/152
uluva “it is going to rain, it will rain” [← #ul-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/167
firuvamme “*we will die” [← fir-] basic-verb 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ VT43/34
karuvalwe “we [shall] make” [← car-] basic-verb 1st-pl-inclusive ✧ PE22/161
kăruvn(ye) [← car-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/152
caruvan(ye) “I am going to do/shall do (it)” [← car-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/167
maruvan “I will abide” [← mar-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ LotR/967
maruvan “I will abide” [← mar-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE17/103
maruvan [← mar-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/147
matuvanye “I shall eat” [← mat-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/132
niruvan [← nir-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/165
tuluvanye “I shall come” [← tul-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/138
tuluvanye “I [will] come” [← tul-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/162
hiruvanyes [← hir-] basic-verb 1st-sg with-sg-object ✧ PE22/151
hiruvalyes [← hir-] basic-verb 2nd-sg with-sg-object ✧ PE22/151
hiruvatye [← hir-] basic-verb 2nd-sg-familiar ✧ PE17/135
matuvatye “you [shall] eat” [← mat-] basic-verb 2nd-sg-familiar ✧ PE22/162
hiruvalyë “thou shalt find” [← hir-] basic-verb 2nd-sg-polite ✧ LotR/378
hiruvalye “you (singular but courteous) will find” ← hiruva (future) basic-verb 2nd-sg-polite ✧ PE17/75
hir-uva-lye “find will you” [← hir-] basic-verb 2nd-sg-polite ✧ PE17/135
híruválye “thou shalt find” [← hir-] basic-verb 2nd-sg-polite ✧ RGEO/58
hir-uva-lye “find wilt-thou” [← hir-] basic-verb 2nd-sg-polite ✧ RGEO/59
tiruvantes “they will guard it” [← tir-] basic-verb 3rd-pl with-sg-object ✧ UT/305
tiruvantes “they will guard it” [← tir-] basic-verb 3rd-pl with-sg-object ✧ UT/317
karuvas [← car-] basic-verb 3rd-sg ✧ PE22/162
tuluváse “he [shall] come” [← tul-] basic-verb 3rd-sg prosodic-lengthening ✧ PE22/162
siluvat “*they (dual) will shine” [← sil-] basic-verb dual ✧ VT49/45
tauvar “*endure” [← #tav-] basic-verb plural ✧ PE22/147
autuva ← auta- irregular-verb ✧ PE17/63
auva ← av|va irregular-verb ✧ PE17/63
(e)uva [← ëa-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/147
euva ← ea irregular-verb ✧ VT49/29
lauva [← lá-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/153
lauva ← lā- irregular-verb ✧ PE22/156
lauva ←  irregular-verb ✧ VT49/13
mauva [← mai-²] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/148
nauva “will be” [← ná-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/154
nauva “will be” [← ná-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/168
nauva “will be” ←  irregular-verb ✧ VT42/34
nauva [← ná-] irregular-verb ✧ VT49/19
nauva [← ná-] irregular-verb ✧ VT49/27
uva [← ná-] irregular-verb ✧ VT49/30
auva [← öa-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/151
nauvan [← ná-] irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT49/19
úvan ← ua irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE17/144
caitúva ← caita (aorist) ta-causative ✧ PE22/159
ortauva ← orta (aorist) ta-causative ✧ PE22/159
ortúva ← orta (aorist) ta-causative ✧ PE22/159
ortauva ← orta ta-causative ✧ PE22/164
tultauvan [← tulta-] ta-causative ✧ PE22/164
tultauvas “he will send” ← tultā- ta-causative 3rd-sg ✧ PE22/156
caituva ← caita (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
cayuva ← caita (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
caitŭva ← †cea (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
kaituva ← kaita (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/164
istuva ← ista (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE17/77
isuva ← ista (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE17/77
siuva ← istā (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
istuva ← istā (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
istuva ← ista (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
istuva ← ista (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
istuvan [← ista-] ta-formative ✧ PE22/164
istuva [← ista-] ta-formative ✧ PE22/164
istuva ← ista (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/164
lantuva “[will] fall” [← lanta-] ta-formative ✧ VT49/47
nahtuva ← nahta (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE17/77
nakuva ← nahta (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE17/77
nahtuva ← nahta (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
nahtuva ← nahta ta-formative ✧ PE22/164
ortuva ← orta (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
ortuva ← orta (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/159
ortuva ← orta ta-formative ✧ PE22/164
ortuva ← orta (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE22/164
laituvalme [← laita-] ta-formative 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ SD/47
laituvalmet “we will praise the two” [← laita-] ta-formative 1st-pl-exclusive with-dual-object ✧ PE17/102
laituvalmet “we will praise them” [← laita-] ta-formative 1st-pl-exclusive with-pl-object ✧ Let/448
laituvalmet [← laita-] ta-formative 1st-pl-exclusive with-pl-object ✧ LotR/953
laituvalmet [← laita-] ta-formative 1st-pl-exclusive with-pl-object ✧ SD/47
[ninqu]itūva [← #ninquita-] ta-formative prosodic-lengthening ✧ PE22/157
taltuva- [← talta-] talat-stem ✧ PE22/134
taltuva ← †talat- talat-stem ✧ PE22/164
enquantuva “shall refill” [← enquanta-] weak-verb ✧ LotR/377
enquantuva [← enquanta-] weak-verb ✧ Minor-Doc/2013-05-13
enquantuva “will again/next/re- fill” [← enquanta-] weak-verb ✧ PE17/68
enquantuva “will refill” [← enquanta-] weak-verb ✧ PE22/161
ènquántuvà “shall refill” [← enquanta-] weak-verb ✧ RGEO/58
en-quant-uva “re-fill-will” [← enquanta-] weak-verb ✧ RGEO/59
enquantuva [← enquanta-] weak-verb ✧ VT21/6
enquantuva [← enquanta-] weak-verb ✧ VT41/16
hentuva ← henta weak-verb ✧ PE17/77
quantuva “will fill” ← quanta- weak-verb ✧ PE17/68
kestuvallen [← cesta-²] weak-verb 2nd-sg with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/138
enquantuvas [← enquanta-] weak-verb 3rd-sg ✧ PE22/161
oryauva [← orya-²] ya-causative ✧ PE22/164
tulyauva ← tulya (aorist) ya-causative ✧ PE22/164
meluva ← melya (aorist) ya-formative ✧ PE17/77
oryuva [← orya-¹] ya-formative ✧ PE22/157
oryuva [← orya-¹] ya-formative ✧ PE22/164
oruva ← orya (aorist) ya-formative ✧ PE22/164
siryuva ← sirya (aorist) ya-formative ✧ PE22/164

References ✧ PE22/131, 167

Element In

ᴹQ. future grammar.

Examples (future)
aláva [← ala-] a-verb ✧ PE22/109
aláva [← ala-] a-verb ✧ PE22/116
faráva “will hunt, be hunting” ← fara- a-verb ✧ PE22/116
hopáva “will continue to wait” ← hora a-verb ✧ PE22/116
oláva [← ola-] a-verb ✧ PE22/109
oláva “will go on growing, will grow” [← ola-] a-verb ✧ PE22/116
karuvā- “will make, (originally) is proceeding to/going to make” [← kar-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/97
karuva “shall/will/am going to make” [← kar-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/105
karuva [← kar-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/109
karuva [← kar-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/109
hiruva [← hir-] basic-verb ✧ VT24/5
matuva [← mat-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/105
nemuva [← nem-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/105
nouva ← NOV basic-verb ✧ PE22/101
nóva ← NOV basic-verb ✧ PE22/101
kauva [← #kav-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/105
kauva “shall be able to” [← #kav-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/121
kauva [← #kav-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/127
qeluva “faileth” [← #qel-] basic-verb ✧ LR/72
tuluva “shall come” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/97
tuluva [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/105
tuluva [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/106
tuluva “shall come” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/120
túva ← TUV basic-verb ✧ PE22/101
túva ← tuv basic-verb ✧ PE22/105
maruvan “I will abide” [← mar-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ SD/56
nakuvan “I will slay” [← nak-¹] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE21/65
nimaruva “will abide” [← mar-] basic-verb 1st-sg pronoun-prefix ✧ SD/56
hiruvalle [← hir-] basic-verb 2nd-pl ✧ VT24/5
karuvar [← kar-] basic-verb plural ✧ PE22/109
menuvar “will wish” [← men-] basic-verb plural ✧ PE22/118
meruvar “will wish” [← mer-] basic-verb plural ✧ PE22/118
tuluvar [← tul-] basic-verb plural ✧ PE22/106
karuvan [← kar-] basic-verb with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/109
← ëa irregular-verb ✧ PE22/123
ēva “will exist” ← ëa irregular-verb ✧ PE22/123
ëava “will exist” ← ëa irregular-verb ✧ PE22/123
ŭva ← ëa irregular-verb ✧ PE22/123
euva “will exist” ← ëa irregular-verb ✧ PE22/123
éva [← ea-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/124
yéva “there will be” [← ye-] irregular-verb ✧ LR/72
yéva “is” [← ye-] irregular-verb ✧ LR/72
yéva [← ye-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/123
[← ye-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/123
láva [← lá-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/126
úva “it will not be” [← um-] irregular-verb ✧ LR/72
vár “shall be” [← ea-] irregular-verb plural ✧ PE22/124
antáva “will ... give” [← anta-] ta-causative ✧ LR/72
ortáva “will raise” [← orta-¹] ta-causative ✧ PE22/104
ortáva [← orta-¹] ta-causative ✧ PE22/105
ortáva [← orta-¹] ta-causative ✧ PE22/109
ortáva [← orta-¹] ta-causative ✧ PE22/117
antaváro “will he give” [← anta-] ta-causative 3rd-sg-masc prosodic-lengthening ✧ LR/63
istuva “shall know” ← ista ta-formative ✧ PE22/104
istuva [← ista-] ta-formative ✧ PE22/115
nahtuva [← nahta-] ta-formative ✧ PE22/115
ortuva “will rise” [← orta-²] ta-formative ✧ PE22/104
ortuva [← orta-²] ta-formative ✧ PE22/115
ekkoituvalya [← ekkoita-] ta-formative imperfect-participle ✧ VT27/10
taltuva [← talta-] talat-stem ✧ PE22/115
kelūva “will flow” ← kelu u-verb ✧ PE22/97
kelúva [← kelu-] u-verb ✧ PE22/105
kelúva [← kelu-] u-verb ✧ PE22/109
kelúva ← kelu u-verb ✧ PE22/117
lirúva ← liru- u-verb ✧ PE22/104
lirúva ← liru u-verb ✧ PE22/117
altañkantuva [← altankanta-] weak-verb ✧ PE22/117
ampanótuva [← ampanóta-] weak-verb ✧ PE22/118
kararruva [← kakarra-] weak-verb ✧ PE22/100
kakarruva [← kakarra-] weak-verb ✧ PE22/109
laituva “?live” [← laita-] weak-verb ✧ PE22/106
niñqintuva [← ninqinta-] weak-verb ✧ PE22/117
niñquitáva [← ninqita-] weak-verb ✧ PE22/117
laituvar “praise [them]” [← laita-] weak-verb plural ✧ SD/47
kestuvan “asks me” [← kesta-] weak-verb with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/97
kestuvan “asks me” [← kesta-] weak-verb with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/120
oryuva [← orya-] ya-formative ✧ PE22/115
siryuva [← sirya-] ya-formative ✧ PE22/115

References ✧ PE22/97, 104

Element In

ᴱQ. future grammar.

Examples (future)
kaptuva ← kapta ✧ PE14/56
kiluva “shall see” [← kili-] ✧ MC/213
kiluva “shall heed” [← kili-] ✧ MC/213
kiluva “shall see” [← kili-] ✧ MC/214
kiluva “shall see” [← kili-] ✧ MC/214
va ← e (present) ✧ PE14/57
va “will be” [← e-²] ✧ PE14/57
haryuva ← hari ✧ PE14/58
tenuva “shall hear” [← #ten-] ✧ MC/213
hostuva ← hosta- ✧ PE14/34
karpuva ← karpi- ✧ PE14/34
kelūva ← kelu ✧ PE14/58
laptuva ← lapta ✧ PE14/58
lokatwa ← lokta ✧ PE14/58
loktauva ← lokta ✧ PE14/58
matuva ← mat- ✧ PE14/57
tangauva ← tanga ✧ PE14/58
[tantil]auva ← tantila ✧ PE14/58
[tantil]tŭva ← tantilta ✧ PE14/58
tiruva “shall heed” [← tiri-] ✧ MC/214
tulva [← tulu-] ✧ PE14/28
tuluva ← tul- ✧ PE14/57
tuluva [← tulu-] ✧ PE14/59
tuluva “come (fut.)” [← tulu-] ✧ PE14/59
[tulu](vāta) [← tulu-] ✧ PE16/124
tuluva [← tulu-] ✧ PE16/126
tulyuva ← tulya ✧ PE14/58
tuluvanye [← tulu-] 1st-sg ✧ PE16/124
tuluvanye [← tulu-] 1st-sg ✧ PE16/126
tuluvaste [← tulu-] 2nd-sg ✧ PE16/124
tuluvalye [← tulu-] 2nd-sg ✧ PE16/126
[tulu]vaste [← tulu-] 2nd-sg ✧ PE16/126
funduváren [← fundu(na)-] 3rd-pl-fem ✧ PE16/59
fundanyuváron [← fundu(na)-] 3rd-pl-masc ✧ PE16/59
ninkuvaaron [← ninqa-] 3rd-pl-masc ✧ PE16/77
kaluvaare [← kala-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/77
kilivande [← kili-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/77
falastuvaare [← falasta-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/77
funduváre [← fundu(na)-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/57
lantuváre [← lant-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/59
[tulu]vasse [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/124
tuluvande [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/126
kiluvando [← kili-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/77
laustuvaaro [← lausta-²] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/77
tuluvando [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/124
tuluvando [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/126
[tulu]vāta [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-neut ✧ PE16/124
tuluváta [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-neut ✧ PE16/126
van(da) ← e (present) active-participle ✧ PE14/57
tulvanwa [← tulu-] active-participle ✧ PE14/28
tuluvan(d-) ← tul- active-participle ✧ PE14/57
tulvat [← tulu-] dual ✧ PE14/28
tulva(n)t [← tulu-] dual ✧ PE14/28
tuluvar [← tulu-] dual ✧ PE16/126
tulvasset [← tulu-] dual fem ✧ PE14/28
tulvandon [← tulu-] dual masc ✧ PE14/28
tulvasta [← tulu-] dual neut ✧ PE14/28
tulvant(a) [← tulu-] dual neut ✧ PE14/28
tulvat [← tulu-] dual neut ✧ PE14/28
tūlient(a) [← tulu-] dual neut ✧ PE14/28
tūliet [← tulu-] dual neut ✧ PE14/28
tulvar [← tulu-] fem ✧ PE14/28
tulvasse [← tulu-] fem ✧ PE14/28
vasta ← e (present) gerund ✧ PE14/57
[tul]vanto [← tulu-] gerund ✧ PE14/28
tulvanta [← tulu-] gerund ✧ PE14/28
tulienta [← tulu-] gerund ✧ PE14/28
tuluvasta ← tul- gerund ✧ PE14/57
var ← e (present) impersonal ✧ PE14/57
tuluvar ← tul- impersonal ✧ PE14/57
tulvant [← tulu-] infinitive ✧ PE14/28
tulvasta [← tulu-] infinitive ✧ PE14/28
tuluvant [← tulu-] infinitive ✧ PE16/128
tulvan(do) [← tulu-] masc ✧ PE14/28
tulva [← tulu-] neut ✧ PE14/28
tulvalwe [← tulu-] passive ✧ PE14/30
tulvaldo [← tulu-] passive ✧ PE14/30
lantumáre [← lant-] passive 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/57
tulvalwet [← tulu-] passive dual ✧ PE14/30
tulvaldon [← tulu-] passive dual ✧ PE14/30
tulvallet [← tulu-] passive dual fem ✧ PE14/30
tulvalmut [← tulu-] passive dual masc ✧ PE14/30
tulvaltan [← tulu-] passive dual neut ✧ PE14/30
tulvaltat [← tulu-] passive dual neut ✧ PE14/30
tulvalle [← tulu-] passive fem ✧ PE14/30
tulvalse [← tulu-] passive fem ✧ PE14/30
tulvaldo [← tulu-] passive gerund ✧ PE14/30
tulvalma [← tulu-] passive gerund ✧ PE14/30
tulval(de) [← tulu-] passive infinitive ✧ PE14/30
tulvalmo [← tulu-] passive masc ✧ PE14/30
tulvalta [← tulu-] passive neut ✧ PE14/30
tulvalwi(r) [← tulu-] passive plural ✧ PE14/30
tulvaldu [← tulu-] passive plural ✧ PE14/30
tulvallir [← tulu-] passive plural fem ✧ PE14/30
tulvalmur [← tulu-] passive plural masc ✧ PE14/30
tulvaltai [← tulu-] passive plural neut ✧ PE14/30
tulvaltar [← tulu-] passive plural neut ✧ PE14/30
tulvalya(nt) [← tulu-] passive-participle ✧ PE14/30
val ← e (present) plural ✧ PE14/57
tulvar [← tulu-] plural ✧ PE14/28
tulvau [← tulu-] plural ✧ PE14/28
tuluval ← tul- plural ✧ PE14/57
tuluval “will come” [← tulu-] plural ✧ PE14/59
tuluvant [← tulu-] plural ✧ PE16/126
tulvassir [← tulu-] plural fem ✧ PE14/28
tulvandoi [← tulu-] plural masc ✧ PE14/28
tulvanta [← tulu-] plural neut ✧ PE14/28
tulvar [← tulu-] plural neut ✧ PE14/28
vakto ← e (present) reflexive ✧ PE14/57
tulvas(ta) [← tulu-] reflexive ✧ PE14/29
[tul]vas [← tulu-] reflexive ✧ PE14/29
tulvak(to) [← tulu-] reflexive ✧ PE14/29
tulvas(to) [← tulu-] reflexive ✧ PE14/29
tuluvakto ← tul- reflexive ✧ PE14/57
tulvastan [← tulu-] reflexive dual ✧ PE14/29
tuliston [← tulu-] reflexive dual ✧ PE14/29
tulvaksin [← tulu-] reflexive dual fem ✧ PE14/29
tulvakson [← tulu-] reflexive dual masc ✧ PE14/29
tulvaktan [← tulu-] reflexive dual neut ✧ PE14/29
tulvakse [← tulu-] reflexive fem ✧ PE14/29
tulvatsa [← tulu-] reflexive gerund ✧ PE14/29
[tulva]ksa(nt) [← tulu-] reflexive gerund ✧ PE14/29
tulvas(te) [← tulu-] reflexive infinitive ✧ PE14/29
tulvakso [← tulu-] reflexive masc ✧ PE14/29
tulvakta [← tulu-] reflexive neut ✧ PE14/29
tulvastu [← tulu-] reflexive plural ✧ PE14/29
tulvastoi [← tulu-] reflexive plural ✧ PE14/29
tulvaksi [← tulu-] reflexive plural fem ✧ PE14/29
tulvaksoi [← tulu-] reflexive plural masc ✧ PE14/29
tulvaktai [← tulu-] reflexive plural neut ✧ PE14/29
tulvaska [← tulu-] reflexive-participle ✧ PE14/29

References ✧ PE14/34, 56

Element In