Q. past grammar.

Q. past grammar.

The Quenya past tense is, like in most languages, used to refer to events occurring in the past: i atan mante, manten “the man ate, I ate”. Of all the Quenya tenses, the past is the most complex in its formation.

Origins of the Past Tense: The Quenya past tense originated from two competing ancient patterns: (1) nasal infixion (mat-mantē) and (2) the past tense suffix -nē (kar-karnē). Tolkien described these ancient past forms in numerous places:

On the other hand n-infixion and n-suffixion remained concurrently in use, and often performed identical functions: as in the strong past tenses formed with either n-infix + suffix ē, yē, or with suffix nē, nyē, as √KAT pa.t. *ka-n-tē beside √KAR pa.t. *kar-nē (Tengwesta Qenderinwa 1, late 1930s, PE18/46).
Past ... the pure undefined past (referring to an action thought of as over) was usually formed either (a) by nasalizing the aorist (in which case the augment was usual): as manti, amanti “ate”; or by a suffix (added to the unmodified base) -nḗ: √MBAR: mbarnē “dwelt” / ambarnē; or blended form mantē, ambarni etc. (Quendian & Common Eldarin Verbal Structure, late 1940s, PE22/96).
These were derived from those formations described above: see general account of Quendian and Eldarin. The varieties amatyē, (a)manti, mātiye were given up, and for Past the augmentless formations: mantḗ or karnḗ were adopted (Quenya Verbal System, late 1940s, PE22/96).
On the other hand nasal-infixion and n-suffixion remained concurrently in use and to some extent in competition, as seen in the formation of past-tense stems with intrusion as *kantē < √KAT, or with suffixion as in *karnē < √KAR (Tengwesta Qenderinwa 2, around 1950, PE18/95).
Past ... the pure undefined past, referring to an action thought of as over, was usually formed either: (a) by nasalizing the aorist: in which case the augment was usual: as amanti, manti “ate”; or (b) by the suffix -nē added to the unmodified base: as √MBAR, pa.t. mbarnē, ambarnē “dwelt” (Common Eldarin: Verb Structure, early 1950s, PE22/131).
... played a chief part in the indication of past time in C.E., being found both as a verbal suffix marking past tenses, and by a curious treatment (probably descending from primitive Quendian methods of agglutination) also in the form of a nasal inserted before the final consonant of a verbal stem, while the ē followed (linguistic notes from 1968, VT49/30).

In Late Notes on Verb Structure written 1969 towards the end of his life, Tolkien considered discarding nasal infixion as an ancient past tense formation:

would it not be best to eliminate inserted nasal from pa.t., the rare cases being transposition of stops (p, t, k + n). So that e.g. √KJABA “taste”, LABA “lick” would not have pa.t. tyambe or lambe, and insertion be used for other purposes (as already in lambe “tongue”), but tyamne, lamne or later tyáve, láve (PE22/151).

This late idea must be taken with a big grain of salt, since it overthrows three decades of established past tense formations. For most (but not all) basic verbs, the end result of this new system would be the same as the old, since ancient metathesis was common and the more irregular past tenses would be reformed to match the perfect as with tyáve, láve above. However without nasal infixion, the past tenses for half-strong ya-verbs such as sirya-sirinye no longer make sense, and these past forms are quite common (see below for details).

Strong Past Tenses of Basic Verbs: Tolkien labeled the past tenses of basic verbs as “strong” since they frequently involved modification of the verb stem. The most detailed description of past tenses for basic verbs appears in Quenya Verbal System (QVS) written in the late 1940s (PE22/102-103). Nearly all of this information remains relevant to Tolkien’s later ideas of the language, since his conception of the past tense for basic verbs was mostly established by the 1930s, and the relevant phonetic changes remained fairly stable. The past tense for basic verbs depends mainly on the (ancient) final consonant of the stem, which appeared immediately before or after the past tense nasal n.

p, t, k. √KAP “leap”, √MAT “eat”, √RUK “pluck”: past kampe, mante, runke (PE22/103).

With voiceless stops, nasal suffixion vs. infixion doesn’t matter, since a suffixed nasal would undergo metathesis: pn, tn, kn > mp, nt, ñk. Basic verbs of this type are common, and this past tense pattern is well attested:

b, d, g. √KYAB “taste”, √LAB “lick”, √KUB “bow“; √SYAD “cleave through”, √MED “wish, want”, √SED “rest”, √WAD “err, stray”; √NDAG “slay”, √LUG “be heavy”. More examples are given here since the developments were more various. Owing to the early pre-classical loss of [ʒ] from initial and medial g, very few of the older basic verbs with g-medial survived in Quenya in strong form: thus √NDAG appears, as a verb, only in the “weak” from nahta-, pa.t. nahtane. In case of [v] from b the historic forms were mn or mb, but “perfect” stem with lengthening tended to intrude. kave “can”, kambe “could”. tyave “taste”: pa.t. tyambe or later tyáve; perf. atyávie. kuve “bow”: pa.t. kumbe, perf. ukúvie. lave “lick”: pa.t. láve (always so since lambe, substantive = “tongue”), perf. alávie. hyare “cleave”: pa.t. hyande (non-classical TQ var[iant] hyarne), perf. ahyárie. sere “rest”: pa.t. sére, perf. esérie; similarly ware “err”. mere “wish for, desire”: with pa.t. always mende. An example of [g] is the common verb, used impersonally in Q., lue “it is heavy, sad”, luin “it is heavy on me, I am sad”: pa.t. lunge, perf. ulungie (the historic form †uluiye is rare and archaic) (PE22/103).

Basic verb with stems ending in ancient g rarely survive in Quenya, and the few that do are best treated as irregular verbs. Basic verbs stems ending in ancient b had a historic past tense with mb, but the intervocalic development in the aorist was to v, obscuring this relationship. The past tense of these verbs was usually reformed to match the perfect: †tyambe,lambe later tyáve, láve after perfects atyávie, alávie.

Basic verbs stems ending in ancient d are the most variable, since the intervocalic development d > r is further removed from its ancient past form. Here there are three possibilities:

  1. The ancient past tense with nd survived: [ᴹQ.] rer-rende “sowed” (Ety/RED).
  2. The past tense was reformed to match the perfect: yor-yóre “enclosed” from perfect oiórie [oyórie], archaic past †yonde (PE17/43).
  3. The past tense was reformed to rn by analogy with verbs whose ancient stem ended in r: nir-nirne “pressed”, archaic past †ninde (PE22/165).

With these verbs, there is simply no other option but to memorize the past form, since there is no fixed pattern.

ph, th, kh. Not many strong verbs with these medials survive. Where they do they preserve the historic forms with pp etc. < mph etc. with occasional forms derived from phn > pt, khn > kt, ht (ñkh, khn [???]). √RAPH “snatch”: Q raphe, rafe: pa.t. rappe. √LAKH “kick”: Q lahe: pa.t. lahte, lakke. √PITH “spit”: Q pise (pithe): pa.t. pitte (PE22/103-104).

Basic verbs with stems originally ending in aspirates are another rare group. The intervocalic developments were [pʰ, tʰ, kʰ] > [ɸ, θ, x] > [f, s, h]. The nasal infixed forms became [mpʰ, ntʰ, ŋkʰ] > [pp, tt, kk]. In the case of basic verbs with stems ending in f and h, the pp and kk were close enough to the stem that these past tenses generally survived. In the case of s vs. tt, these past tenses were frequently reformed to ns after the change of [θ] > [s], such as kense past tense of kes- “search, examine” (PE17/156). As Tolkien explained it in the Outline of Phonology (OP2) written in the early 1950s: “Where this grammatical renewal occurred in TQ after the change of þ > s, ns remained as in TQ panse ‘smoothed’ for PQ patte, after pase ‘smooths’ (PE19/89)” [and then possibly > passe (PE19/89 note #96 and 97), but I recommend ignoring this is a problematic late sound change of ns > ss for the purposes of Neo-Quenya].

m, n. ... [m] shows in past both mn and mm. √KHIM “adhere”: hime, pa.t. himne, perf. ihímie, similarly √KIM “light on, find”. √KHAM “sit down”: hame, pa.t. hamme, perf. ahámie (ahammie). [n] usually shows nn: √KEN “see, perceive”, pa.t. kenne, perf. ekénie (ekennie); √TON “tap, knock”: tone, pa.t. tonne, perf. otonnie (otónie); √MEN “aim at, intend, purpose”, with allative “make for, proceed towards”, menne; but √MUN “groan, moan (?)”, in Q. used = to express dislike, not to like: mune, pa.t. us[ually] múne (not munne), perf. umúnie (PE22/104).

Velar nasal [ŋ] vanished early enough that it rarely factored into verbal inflections, the most notable exception being enge (< eŋŋē) the past tense of ea “exist” (PE22/147; VT49/29). Basic verbs with stems ending in nasals m, n for the most part simply suffix -ne in the past tense. In theory with a nasal-infixed m-stem the result would be [nm] > [mm], but the only example is ham-hamme above, and later Tolkien changed this verb to har- “sit”. Some more examples of these mn past forms:

There are a couple examples of n-stem and m-stem basic verbs with past tenses with long vowels, reformed to match the perfect (probably): [ᴹQ.] mun- “to dislike” → past múne above, and sam- “to have” → past sáme (PE17/173).

l, r. [l] usually employs ll (< nl), but ld (< ln) also appears. √TUL “come”: tule, pa.t. tulle, perf. utúlie. √KHAL (cf. halda “high, tall”) in orhale “exalt”, pa.t. orhalde (orhalle), perf. orahallie. √OL “grow”, olle “became”, perf. olólie, ólie. Also from weak present: ehtelu- “well, bubble out” (< et-kelu), pa.t. ehtelle, perf. ehtelunelye (see below) or etekélie. [r] usually employs [rn]: √KAR: karne “made”, perf. akárie. √NDUR “grow, be, dark”: nure, nurne, unúrie (PE22/103).

For basic verb with stems ending in l, Tolkien generally favored ll past tenses (< nl), especially in the 1930s and 40s. In addition to the examples above there were:

There are, however, examples of l-stem verbs whose past seems to be reformed to match the perfect, most notably túle “came” (PE22/140; LR/47; SD/246) the past form of tul- “come” probably altered to match its perfect utúlie. It is hard to tell if this is a “new idea” or was inspired by an “old idea”, since in Early Qenya its past form was likewise túle (PE14/28) or túlie (PE14/57; PE16/124) using the Early Qenya past tense pattern of vowel-lengthening (see Conceptual Development below). It may be that past túle was an early form Tolkien wanted to retain and came up with a new justification for it. Indeed, even in 1969 when he decided the “normal” past tense was the result of nasal-suffixion, it seems he vacillated between tulde (PE22/158) and túle (PE22/140).

Verbs whose ancient stems ended in r show pasts with rn pretty much universally:

This was not generally true of verbs whose ancient stems ended in s > z > r:

s. This became [z] medially; but ns became prehistorically (common to Noldorin and Quenya) > ss. (Since later Q. tolerated ns this is sometimes found for pa.t. ss in late classical Q. and TQ.) This form was adopted since snḗ > zne > nne was obscure: this nn only survived in archaic poetic †lanne “heard” [lasnḗ], no doubt kept alive by frequent use together with kenne “saw”. So hlasta- “hear”; hlasse (†hlanne), perf. ahlázie. Similarly nusta “smell”: nusse, unúzie.

These ss/ns past tenses appear in Tolkien’s later writing as well: hríza “snow” with past forms hrinse and hrisse (PE17/168); the “modern” form of this is verb is probably hris- with the [z] dissimilating away from the preceding hr. There is one example, though, where it seems an originally s-stem verb developed a strong past tense rn after the sound change [z] > [r]: virne the (strong) past of virya- “change” derived from the root √WIS, which appears beside a half-strong past tense viranye (PE17/189).

y, w. Verbs with these medials rarely survived with full strong conjugations owing to the weakness, and from point of view of Q. phonetic insufficiency, of medial y, w after a short vowel. But several strong pasts survive. These always show addition of -nē. So: koita- “live, be alive”, pa.t. koine, perf. okoine [sic.]. √LAW “abound”: lauta, pa.t. laune, perf. alaunie used impersonally in Q. as malta launen “gold abounded to me” = “I had lots of gold” (PE22/103).

There are not any attested basic verbs whose stems end in y, w. Roots of this form require a formative suffix (tă, yă), putting them into the category of half-strong verbs. Some of these half-strong verbs have strong past tenses, produced by dropping the formative suffix and adding -ne. In addition to the examples above there is caine past tense caita- “to lie” (PE17/72; PE22/159).

To summarize, the most common patterns for basic verbs whose modern stems end in various consonants are:

For beginners, it is probably easier to memorize the past tenses rather than the rules.

Weak Past Tenses of Derived Verbs: Most derived verbs ending in a or u formed a weak past tense by adding -ne to the unmodified stem: i atan laitane, laitanen “the man praised, I praised”; i atan lirune, lirunen “the man sang, I sang”. Tolkien discussed the past tenses of the various classes of derived verbs in QVS of the 1940s, and most classes used this weak pattern:

ā-verbs ... The past tenses of such verbs could either be weak olane “grew, were growing”; or strong óle “grew, finished growing, grew up, became” (PE22/116).
ū̆-verbs ... The past was weak lirŭne, kelŭne. Strong forms like kelle, ehtelle (ehtelu) were not strictly parts of the u-verb conjugation but parallel forms from defective unextended base-verb (PE22/117).
The causatives ... The past is made with -nḗ: hence ortane, tultane, kaltane. Those with a long stem and short vowel before make past tense in -táne: niñqitáne (analog[ical] after áre, áva [gerund and future forms in the late 1940s]) (PE22/117).

QVS indicates that while ne-suffixion was the most common way of forming the past, some derived verbs had variant strong pasts formed directly from the root. The weak past is also the most common past tense for derived verbs elsewhere in Tolkien’s writing:

As indicated by several examples above, the weak past form is subject to prosodic lengthening when the verbal stem is long enough (trisyllabic): airitáne, ninquitáne, though not of course if the second-to-last syllable of the stem is heavy: ampanótane (PE22/114).

There are quite a few examples with both weak and strong past tenses. There is no universal pattern for when one might be used over the other, but in several verbs the weak past is transitive (caitane, ulyane) and the strong past is intransitive (caine, ulle). Likely the strong past is from the causative suffixes -tā, -yā and the weak past is from formative suffixes -tă, -yă dropped in the past tense, so in these cases the two past forms originate from distinct ancient verbs.

There are other occasional oddities like the past tense onortane “rode” with a vocalic augment versus more ordinary nortane. These are probably remnants of a competing ancient past tense formation with vocalic augment, as seen in the Sindarin past, but until we get more information about them, I would ignore them for the purposes of Neo-Quenya.

Half-strong past tenses: In QVS, Tolkien identified two classes of verbs that formed “half-strong” past tenses: those with formative suffixes -tă, -yă and the talat-stem verbs. In these verbs, the past tense was formed with nasal infixion before the last consonant:

Past. This was originally formed “strong” with n-intrusion before the last consonant: as sirya: sirinye “flowed”; talta: talante. Where the stem was of √AT type this past could be made from ’ta-form: as orta: *rontē “rose”; ista: sinte “knew”. But few examples — only sinte “knew” is common — survive; the usual form is oronte “rose”.

Where the base was verbal a strong form without present affix frequently appeared: so kenya “see”; pa.t. always kenne. lasta “hear”; pa.t. lasse. síre beside sirinye.

The talat-stems tended to be weak: thus taltane beside talante; or sulpane only (not *sulumpe).

Similarly naktane [elsewhere nahtane] “slew” beside analogical nahante. Since the stem is historically √NDAG the historic pasts would have been *ndañge or *nda’ante (PE22/115).

I use the term “half-strong” pasts to distinguish them from the ordinary “strong” past formed directly from the primitive root; this terminology is useful because many verbs have both “half-strong” and “strong” past tense variants. The way that the formatives and talat-stem verbs arrived at the half-strong past tense is a bit different. For the talat-stem verbs, these half-strong past were simply derived from the ordinary Common Eldarin nasal-infixed past tense. There was a general trend among talat-stem verbs towards the weak conjugation, however, and many talat-stems verbs had variant weak past tenses, some of which replaced the original half-strong past completely:

Among formative verbs, the half-strong past involved a special formation in CE, where the nasal was inserted before the formative suffix along with an extra base vowel which was added to make the form pronounceable: siryăsir-i-n-y-e. This class verbs was large enough that the half-strong past usually survived. However, weak or strong past tense variants are still pretty common:

There is quite a lot of variation here, and many (but not all) of the variant forms coexisted in a single source. One special subgroup of the formatives are those formed from roots ending in Y or W, where the formative suffix was required not by the meaning of the verb but by its phonetic character; without the formative suffix the inflected forms would be extremely irregular. This group of verbs could have past tenses that were either half-strong (as above) or strong (from the root + -nē), but the half-strong pasts where rather peculiar:

These unusual half-strong past forms were the result of phonetic developments like aya > ëa [*kayantē > keante] and awa > öa [*awantē > oante], and apparently they were common enough that they frequently survive.

Summary: To summarize, there are four major ways the past tense might be formed in Quenya:

As a general rule, basic verbs have strong pasts and most derived verbs have weak pasts, except the talat-stem and formative verbs which tend to have half-strong pasts. Some basic verbs tend to reform their past to match the perfect, notably those with stems ending in v (lav-láve) or l (tul-túle).

There are, however, many exceptions to these rules, due to (a) competing past tense formations in Common Eldarin and (b) competing patterns for reforming past tenses in Quenya. The result is a past tense system that is quite irregular. For example, basic verbs ending in l might have pasts with ll from ancient nasal-infix (tunle > tulle), pasts with ld from ancient nasal-suffix (tulne > tulde) or pasts reformed after the perfect (túle). The formative verbs might have a strong past from ancient forms that dropped the formative suffix (nahta-nance), the “normal” half-strong past (nahta-nacante) or a reformed weak past (nahta-nahtane).

To make things even more complicated, some verbs have different past tenses if they are used transitively (with a past derived from an ancient causative verb) or intransitively (with a past derived from an ancient formative verb). The transitive pasts are typically weak, and the intransitive pasts can be either strong or half-strong:

The end result is past-tense tense system full of irregularities.

Conceptual Development: The past tense in Early Qenya was also very irregular. In the Early Qenya of the 1910s, Tolkien had not yet invented a distinct perfect tense, so there was no other tense referring to the past. Thorsten Renk looked at these early past tenses in some detail in his article on the Quenya Past Tense (QPT). In the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s, there were a lot of competing past tense forms, the main competition being between nasal-infixion vs. vowel-lengthening.

The examples above show both nasal-infixed and vowel-lengthened past forms on a single verb, but the majority of Early Qenya basic verbs show only one form or the other. Depending on the final consonant, some past tenses were favored over others: verbs whose primitive stem ended in a liquid favor vowel lengthening (mal-māle, pere-pēre) whereas those ending in voiceless stops favor nasal infixion (mata-mante, sipi-simpe). However, this pattern was not universal: liquids sometimes have past tenses with -lle (< -nle) and -rne (either a nasal-suffix or metathesis) and voiceless stops sometimes have past tenses with lengthened vowels (see above).

Verbs whose primitive stem contained a syllabic ḷ, ṛ, ṇ also formed past tenses via ancient lengthening. Here the result was frequent vowel gradations in the past tense, due to the differences in the phonetic developments of short vs. long syllable consonants:

Early Qenya derived verbs frequently have a weak past with the suffix -ne, especially for u-verbs. In the case of u-verbs, the past suffix sometimes preserved an earlier long ū:

Derived verbs ending in a often had weak pasts, but sometimes had a strong past as well:

Large numbers of derived verbs had only strong pasts, however:

Conversely, some examples of non-derived verbs were reinterpreted and assigned weak pasts. This includes a few basic verbs that originally had syllabic consonants for their vowel, but there are other examples as well (talta-stem verbs?):

There are a large number of Early Qenya verbs with “half-strong” past tenses (according to later terminology), though some also have either weak or strong variants. One notable characteristic of these early half-strong (formative?) verbs is that the stem ends in the base vowel, with -i, -u > -e, -o:

The early ya-verbs behaved quite differently, though. They seemed to form pasts by adding the suffix -ne directly to the y of the verb, so that -yne > -ine, as in: tintya- → past tintine. This could have various phonetic effects on the preceding consonant, including the frequent introduction s or t (either via a normal sound change like ti > tsi or by analogy with other past tenses).

By the 1930s and 40s ya-verb pasts were mostly replaced by weak or half-strong forms (siryasirinye). However, there is at least one example of an “Early Qenya style” past form of a ya-verb in Tolkien’s later writing: lelya- “attract” → past lēline (PE17/151).

The past tenses in the Quenya Lexicon end in -e, consistent with the past forms in The Qenya Verb Forms also written around this time (PE14/28). In the Early Qenya Grammar of the 1920s, however, past tenses of basic verbs ended in -ie, though weak pasts still showed final -ne (PE14/57-58). As Tolkien described it:

The past stem is obtained by the suffix -ye, (i̯ie >) -ie, or -ne; but -ie (the commonest) is normally accompanied by stem strengthening consisting of (1) a-infixion, (2) n-infixion, (3) vowel lengthening (this last perhaps largely an analogical extension from the ā resulting in many stems). The stems that apparently have an original stem vowel ḷ, ṛ, ṇ () thus often show a kind of vowel gradation between il, ul &c., the product in the normal stems, and al &c., the product (either by nasal infixion or a ?) in the past.

There are no obvious examples of past tenses involving a-infixion in the 1920s, but attested pasts of basic verbs from the 1920s show the same competition between nasal-infixion and vowel lengthening seen in the 1910s, the main change being that the strong past tenses now ended in -ie, sometimes triggering various phonetic changes like ti > tsi > si:

Derived verbs in the 1920s mostly behaved as they did in the 1910s, except their strong pasts were sometimes formed with -ie:

The Qenya Conjugations from early 1920s also show past forms with -ie (PE16/124-127), along with a similarly formed perfect, distinguished from the past by short vs. long pronominal suffixes: 1st person tūlien (past) vs. tūlienye (perfect), 2nd person tūliel (past) vs. tūlieste (perfect), etc. Starting later in the 1920s, though, these ie-past forms started to fall out of Tolkien’s favor. In English-Quenya Dictionary (PE15/67-79) and Quenya word lists (PE16/132-145) written in the mid to late 1920s, some strong past forms appear with only e along with some ye- and ie-pasts:

In drafts of the ᴱQ. Oilima Markirya from the late 1920s we see a variety of forms for the past tense of lutu- “float, sail”: lunte (drafts 1a-1b, PE16/56-57), lūte (draft 1c, PE16/60) and lútie as it appeared in the final poem (MC/216). It’s hard to discern a pattern in these vacillations, but there seems to be a propensity for ie-pasts to appear with vowel-lengthened forms (including lengthened syllabic consonants) and a tendency for pasts with nasal infixion or suffixion to use only -e: compare karne vs. kárie (PE15/71). These distinctions may represent the gradual emergence of the distinct past and perfect tenses as Tolkien conceived of them in his later writings.

In the 1930s and 40s, Tolkien gradually abandoned -ie as a suffix for the past tense. The “last gasp” of the ie-past may be the early versions of the poem I call the ᴹQ. Lament of Atalante. The first versions of this poem appeared in The Lost Road from the 1930s (LR/47, 56), and they contain several ie-forms that look like past tenses: lantier “fell [plural]”, ullier “poured [plural]”. However, the 1930s versions of the poem also contains several strong past forms that without -ie: tūle “came”, kāre “made”, lende “went”. In later versions of the poem from the 1940s, “fell” was remade into a weak past lantaner but ullier “poured” remained unchanged (SD/247, 310). Some of these “pasts” may have been reinterpreted as “perfects” in later versions of the poem.

The use of the suffix as an alternative to ē in past tenses was mentioned in Tengwesta Qenderinwa 1 (TQ1) written in the late 1930s:

On the other hand n-infixion and n-suffixion remained concurrently in use, and often performed identical functions: as in the strong past tenses formed with either n-infix + suffix ē, yē, or with suffix nē, nyē, as √KAT pa.t. *ka-n-tē beside √KAR pa.t. *kar-nē (PE18/46).

However, there are no signs of ie-past forms in The Etymologies written around 1937. All the strong past forms there use nasal infixion or suffixion, with a couple exceptions showing vowel lengthening:

The strong past forms óne and úme in the 1930s, along with the occasional appearance of káre and túle, were probably remnants of the alternate Early Qenya past-tense formation using vowel lengthening. Starting with the 1930s, though, such forms are very much the exception rather than the rule. Tolkien eventually contrived a new reason for these forms in the Quenya Verbal System (QVS) written in the late 1940s, as borrowing from the (newly invented) perfect tense, as described above (PE22/103). However, in Tolkien’s later writing there are still a few examples of vowel-lengthened (archaic?) strong pasts of derived verbs where it is unlikely (though not impossible) they were reformed from the perfect. Thus, it is not clear whether he entirely abandoned the concept of vowel-lengthened pasts, especially since vowel-lengthening was a feature of the Sindarin past tense system:

Tolkien went on to describe his new past/perfect system in great detail in QVS, and the system remained more or less the same thereafter except for some very late (and possibly experimental) ideas for removing ancient nasal-infixion as noted above (PE22/151).

To summarize the conceptual development of the Quenya past tense, for basic verbs:

For derived verbs:

Neo-Quenya: For purposes of Neo-Quenya, I recommend ignoring Tolkien’s very late vacillations on nasal infixion and stick with the system he used for most of the 1930s through 1960s, where basic verbs form past tenses using either nasal infixion or nasal suffixion (but mostly infixion). Given all the competing possibilities for past forms in Quenya, it is frequently impossible to know the proper past tense of a verb from its stem form alone. New students of Quenya are better off memorizing past tenses and trying to internalize the system rather than learning the many possible rules for past tense formation. The past and present forms are often only vaguely related to each other. This is not too different from people learning English, which has a similarly irregular system of past tenses: “see” vs. “saw”, “come” vs. “came”, “walk” vs. “walked”, “pin” vs. “pinned”.

However, there are a large number of verbs with no attested past tense, and we need some kind of heuristic to determine their past tense. I suggest the following:

  1. For most basic verbs, assume a strong nasal infixed or suffixed past tense with sound changes as appropriate:
    • p, t, k, s (from þ) → mp, nt, nk, ns.
    • l, f, hll, pp, kk.
    • m, n, rmn, nn, rn.
  2. Especially unstable basic pasts are reformed to match the perfect: tyav-, lav-tyáve, láve (†tyambe,lambe).
  3. Derived verbs ending in a and u-verbs mostly have weak pasts ending in -ne: henta-hentane, liru-lirune.
  4. Intransitive verbs ending in ta and (especially) ya probably have half-strong pasts: sirya-sirinye, tankata-tankante.

In cases where the transitive and intransitive variants of derived verbs use the same consonant in their suffixes, you might have different pasts or perfects depending on whether a verb is used transitively or intransitively. However, the suffix -tā is more common for transitives, and -yă more common for intransitives, so overlaps with -tă intransitives or -yā transitives are relatively rare.

Examples (past)
kestanellan “you had asked me!” [← cesta-²] 2nd-sg with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/139
alane [← ala-¹] a-verb ✧ PE22/164
aune [← ava-¹] a-verb ✧ PE22/151
aune [← ava-¹] a-verb ✧ PE22/152
avane [← ava-¹] a-verb ✧ PE22/164
avane [← ava-¹] a-verb ✧ PE22/164
avane [← ava-¹] a-verb ✧ WJ/370
orane ← ora (aorist) a-verb ✧ VT41/13
alanen [← ala-¹] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
avanen [← ava-¹] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/162
aunen [← ava-¹] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/162
avanen [← ava-¹] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
aunen [← ava-¹] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
avanen ← ava- a-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT49/13
faranen [← fara-] a-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/164
alden [← ala-¹] a-verb 1st-sg strong-past ✧ PE22/164
aunen ← ava- a-verb 1st-sg strong-past ✧ VT49/13
farnen [← fara-] a-verb 1st-sg strong-past ✧ PE22/164
alde [← ala-¹] a-verb strong-past ✧ PE22/164
aune “*was not” [← ava-¹] a-verb strong-past ✧ VT49/13
orne ← ora (aorist) a-verb strong-past ✧ VT41/13
karne “did” [← car-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/74
carne “did make” [← car-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/144
karne [← car-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/152
cante “shaped” ← cat- basic-verb ✧ PE18/90
kense ← kes- basic-verb ✧ PE17/156
kense ← kes- basic-verb ✧ PE17/156
lāve ← LAB basic-verb ✧ PE17/72
**lambe [← lav-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/151
lamne [← lav-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/151
láve [← lav-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/151
lāve “licked” [← lav-] basic-verb ✧ RGEO/59
maquente [← #maquet-] basic-verb ✧ PM/403
mante “ate” [← mat-] basic-verb ✧ VT39/7
menne “arrived, reached” [← men-] basic-verb ✧ VT49/24
nanke [← #nac-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/156
nanquerne “*turned back” [← nanquer-] basic-verb ✧ VT49/20
nemne [← nem-²] basic-verb ✧ PE22/152
norne “he ran” [← nor-¹] basic-verb ✧ PE17/58
norne “he ran” [← nor-¹] basic-verb ✧ PE17/58
norne “he ran” [← nor-¹] basic-verb ✧ PE17/59
norne ← nor- basic-verb ✧ PE17/168
okomne ← okom- basic-verb ✧ PE17/157
panne [← #pan-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/152
panse “smoothed” ← pase (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE19/89
patte “smoothed” ← pase (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE19/89
passe “smoothed” ← pase (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE19/89
querne “turned” [← quer-] basic-verb ✧ VT49/20
Quente [← quet-] basic-verb ✧ PM/401
Quente [← quet-] basic-verb ✧ PM/404
rappe “waved” ← rafe (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE19/89
sáme ← samin (aorist 1st-sg) basic-verb ✧ PE17/173
tarne “stood” [← #tar-²] basic-verb ✧ PE17/71
tenne “arrived, reached” [← ten-] basic-verb ✧ VT49/23
tūle “*came” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/140
tulde [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/152
**tyambe [← tyav-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/151
tyamne [← tyav-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/151
tyáve [← tyav-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/151
undulávë “are drowned” [← undulav-] basic-verb ✧ LotR/377
unduláve “have down-washed” ← undu-lav- basic-verb ✧ PE17/72
undu-láve “submerged” [← undulav-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/72
ùndu-lā́ve “are drowned” [← undulav-] basic-verb ✧ RGEO/58
yonde [← yor-] basic-verb ✧ PE17/43
mantelme [← mat-] basic-verb 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE17/76
karnen [← car-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/152
kāren [← car-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/152
kennen “I saw” [← cen-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/155
mennen “I arrive[d]” [← men-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT49/24
ninden [← nir-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/165
nirnen [← nir-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/165
quenten “I said” [← quet-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/158
tennen “I arrive[d]” [← ten-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT49/23
tullenye “I should have come” [← tul-] basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE22/139
váquenten ← vā-quet basic-verb 1st-sg ✧ WJ/370
cambelyes ← *cav- basic-verb 2nd-sg-polite with-sg-object ✧ VT47/21
camnelyes “you received it” ← *cam- basic-verb 2nd-sg-polite with-sg-object ✧ VT47/21
quernes [← quer-] basic-verb 3rd-sg ✧ VT49/20
quernesse [← quer-] basic-verb 3rd-sg ✧ VT49/20
tūleste “*he came” [← tul-] basic-verb 3rd-sg ✧ PE22/140
tuldes [← tul-] basic-verb 3rd-sg ✧ PE22/158
unduláver [← undulav-] basic-verb plural ✧ PE17/72
hrinse ← hríza (present) basic-verb strong-past ✧ PE17/168
?hrisse ← hríza (present) basic-verb strong-past ✧ PE17/168
yóre [← yor-] basic-verb strong-past ✧ PE17/43
vāne ← auta- irregular-verb ✧ PE17/63
vāne ← av|va irregular-verb ✧ PE17/63
anwe ← auta irregular-verb ✧ PE17/148
vāne ← auta- irregular-verb ✧ WJ/366
enge [← ëa-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/147
engne [← ëa-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/152
enne [← ëa-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/152
eane ← ea irregular-verb ✧ VT49/30
lāne [← lá-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/153
lāne ← lā- irregular-verb ✧ PE22/156
láne “had no, *was not” [← lá-] irregular-verb ✧ VT49/13
lāne ←  irregular-verb ✧ VT49/13
mange [← mai-²] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/148
manne [← mai-²] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/148
maine [← mai-²] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/148
náne “was” [← ná-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/158
náne “was” [← ná-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/158
nāne [← ná-] irregular-verb ✧ VT49/27
nāne ← nā- irregular-verb ✧ VT49/27
náne “was” [← ná-] irregular-verb ✧ VT49/27
←  irregular-verb ✧ VT49/28
←  irregular-verb ✧ VT49/30
← nā̆ irregular-verb ✧ VT49/30
au̯ante [← oa-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/151
oante [← oa-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/151
vante [← oa-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/151
tenge “indicated” ← tëa (aorist) irregular-verb ✧ VT39/6
úvane [← úva-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/168
anen ←  (past) irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT49/28
únen ← ua- irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE17/144
únen ← ua irregular-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE17/144
anel ←  (past) irregular-verb 2nd-sg ✧ VT49/28
nēse ←  (past) irregular-verb 3rd-sg ✧ VT49/28
anes ←  (past) irregular-verb 3rd-sg ✧ VT49/28
nése “he was” [← ná-] irregular-verb 3rd-sg ✧ VT49/29
nēt ←  irregular-verb dual ✧ VT49/30
oänte ← auta irregular-verb half-strong-past ✧ PE17/148
oante [← auta-¹] irregular-verb half-strong-past ✧ PE22/164
oantë “went away (to another place)” ← auta- irregular-verb half-strong-past ✧ WJ/366
oantë ← auta- irregular-verb half-strong-past ✧ WJ/366
nāner “were” [← ná-] irregular-verb plural ✧ VT49/9
náner [← ná-] irregular-verb plural ✧ VT49/10
nēr ←  irregular-verb plural ✧ VT49/30
avante ← auta- irregular-verb strong-past ✧ PE17/63
anwe ← auta- irregular-verb strong-past ✧ WJ/366
enge “*was” [← ëa-] irregular-verb strong-past ✧ VT43/38
enge ← ea irregular-verb strong-past ✧ VT49/29
lendes “he came” [← #lenna-] na-formative 3rd-sg strong-past ✧ PE17/65
lambe ← lamma (present) na-formative strong-past ✧ VT47/21
lende [← #lenna-] na-formative strong-past ✧ PE16/96
lende [← #lenna-] na-formative strong-past ✧ PE16/96
(e)lende [← #lenna-] na-formative strong-past ✧ PE17/139
antane ← anta ta-causative ✧ PE17/93
antane [← anta-] ta-causative ✧ PE17/147
caitane ← caita (aorist) ta-causative ✧ PE22/159
fintane [← finta-] ta-causative ✧ PE17/17
mahtane [← mahta-] ta-causative ✧ VT49/10
ortani “raised” [← orta-¹] ta-causative ✧ Let/426
ortanë “has uplifted” [← orta-¹] ta-causative ✧ LotR/377
ortane ← ortā- ta-causative ✧ PE17/63
ortane “lifted” [← orta-¹] ta-causative ✧ PE17/70
ortane “raised” ← orta ta-causative ✧ PE17/70
ortane ← orta ta-causative ✧ PE17/70
ortane ← orta (aorist) ta-causative ✧ PE17/77
ortane ← ortā ta-causative ✧ PE22/157
ortāne ← ortā ta-causative ✧ PE22/157
ortane ← orta (aorist) ta-causative ✧ PE22/159
ortane ← orta (aorist) ta-causative ✧ PE22/159
ortane ← orta ta-causative ✧ PE22/164
órtanè “has uplifted” [← orta-¹] ta-causative ✧ RGEO/58
ortane “lifted up” [← orta-¹] ta-causative ✧ RGEO/59
ortane “has uplifted” [← orta-¹] ta-causative ✧ RGEO/60
tultane [← tulta-] ta-causative ✧ PE22/157
tultanen [← tulta-] ta-causative ✧ PE22/164
vistane ← vista- ta-causative ✧ PE17/189
antanen “I gave” [← anta-] ta-causative 1st-sg ✧ PE17/91
antanen “I gave” ← anta- ta-causative 1st-sg ✧ VT49/14
antanenyes “I presented him” [← anta-] ta-causative 1st-sg with-sg-object ✧ PE17/91
leltanelyes “you sent him” [← #lelta-] ta-causative 2nd-sg-polite with-sg-object ✧ VT47/21
lentanelyes [← #lelta-] ta-causative 2nd-sg-polite with-sg-object ✧ VT47/22
leltanelyes [← #lelta-] ta-causative 2nd-sg-polite with-sg-object ✧ VT47/22
tultanelyes [← tulta-] ta-causative 2nd-sg-polite with-sg-object ✧ VT47/22
āne [← anta-] ta-causative strong-past ✧ PE17/147
fantanē- ← fanta- ta-formative ✧ PE17/180
anaktane ← nahta (aorist) ta-formative ✧ PE17/77
tentane “pointed” ← tenta ta-formative ✧ VT49/23
kainen “I lay” [← caita-¹] ta-formative 1st-sg strong-past ✧ VT48/12
tentanes “it pointed” [← tenta-] ta-formative 3rd-sg ✧ VT49/26
keante [← caita-¹] ta-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE22/157
kayante ← kaita (aorist) ta-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE22/164
keante ← kaita (aorist) ta-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE22/164
keante [← caita-¹] ta-formative half-strong-past ✧ VT48/12
sinte ← ista (aorist) ta-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE17/77
isinte ← ista (aorist) ta-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE22/159
(i)sinte [← ista-] ta-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE22/164
(i)sinte ← ista (aorist) ta-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE22/164
sinte “knew” ← is-ta ta-formative half-strong-past ✧ VT48/25
isinte ← is-ta ta-formative half-strong-past ✧ VT48/25
lenwente ← lenweta ta-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE17/51
nakante ← nahta (aorist) ta-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE17/77
nakante “slew” [← nahta-¹] ta-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE22/156
nakante [← nahta-¹] ta-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE22/157
nakante ← nahta (aorist) ta-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE22/159
nakante ← nahta ta-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE22/164
ninquinte [← #ninquita-] ta-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE22/157
oronte ← órta- ta-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE17/64
oronte ← ortă ta-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE22/157
oronte ← orta (aorist) ta-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE22/159
oronte ← orta (aorist) ta-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE22/159
oronte ← orta ta-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE22/164
oronte ← orta (aorist) ta-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE22/164
rëante ← raita ta-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE17/182
tankante [← tancata-] ta-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE17/76
tenante “*directed toward” ← tenta ta-formative half-strong-past ✧ VT49/23
fantaner “cloaked” [← fanta-] ta-formative plural ✧ PE17/174
fantaner “veiled” [← fanta-] ta-formative plural ✧ PE17/175
oronter “arose” [← orta-²] ta-formative plural half-strong-past ✧ PE21/77
caine ← caita (aorist) ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE17/72
kaine [← caita-¹] ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/157
caine ← caita (aorist) ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/159
caine ← caita (aorist) ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/159
caine ← †cea (aorist) ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/159
koine [← #coita-] ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/152
fāne- ← fanta- ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE17/180
īse [← ista-] ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/157
sīne [← ista-] ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/157
sīne ← istā (aorist) ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/159
inse ← ista (aorist) ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/159
inse ← ista (aorist) ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/159
mennē- ← menta- ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE17/93
menē- ← menta- ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE17/93
nanke [← nahta-¹] ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/157
nanke ← nahta (aorist) ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/159
raine ← raita- ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/159
tente “pointed” [← tenta-] ta-formative strong-past ✧ VT49/23
taltane ← talta (aorist) talat-stem ✧ PE17/186
karampe- ← karpa- talat-stem half-strong-past ✧ PE17/126
talante ← talta (present) talat-stem half-strong-past ✧ PE17/186
talante ← †talat- talat-stem half-strong-past ✧ PE22/164
indune ← indu- u-verb ✧ PE22/165
nicune “it snowed, froze” ← niku- u-verb ✧ PE17/168
indunenyes “I willed it, I did it on purpose” ← indu- u-verb 1st-sg with-sg-object ✧ PE22/165
airitáne “hallowed” [← #airita-] weak-verb ✧ VT32/7
aptane “refused, denied, said nay” ← apta weak-verb ✧ PE19/90
apsane ← apsa weak-verb ✧ PE19/90
canyane ← canya weak-verb ✧ PE17/113
kesyane ← kesya weak-verb ✧ PE17/156
komyane [← comya-] weak-verb ✧ PE17/157
contane [← conta-] weak-verb ✧ PE17/157
hehtane ← hehta- weak-verb ✧ WJ/365
hentăne ← henta weak-verb ✧ PE17/77
huntane ← húta- weak-verb ✧ PE17/149
pendane ← penda weak-verb ✧ PE17/171
tengwane ← tengwa- weak-verb ✧ VT49/48
onortanen “I rode” [← norta-] weak-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE17/168
nortanen “I rode” [← norta-] weak-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE17/168
ūpa-nēn [← úpa-] weak-verb 1st-sg ✧ PE17/126
veryanen ← verya weak-verb 1st-sg ✧ VT49/45
ūpa-nēs [← úpa-] weak-verb 3rd-sg ✧ PE17/126
avante “refused, denied, said nay” ← apta weak-verb half-strong-past ✧ PE19/90
hunte ← húta- weak-verb strong-past ✧ PE17/149
ahyanë “did ... change” [← #ahya-] ya-causative ✧ PM/395
oryane [← orya-²] ya-causative ✧ PE22/164
tulyane ← tulya (aorist) ya-causative ✧ PE22/164
oryane [← orya-¹] ya-formative ✧ PE22/157
oryane [← orya-¹] ya-formative ✧ PE22/157
siryane [← sirya-] ya-formative ✧ PE22/157
amanye [← amya-²] ya-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE17/157
hrisinye ← hrisya (aorist) ya-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE17/168
melenye ← melya (aorist) ya-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE17/77
oronye ← óryă ya-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE17/64
(o)rony[e] ← orya (aorist) ya-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE17/77
oronye [← orya-¹] ya-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE22/164
oronye ← orya (aorist) ya-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE22/164
sirinye ← sirya (aorist) ya-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE17/77
sirinye ← sirya (aorist) ya-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE22/164
virinye ← virya- ya-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE17/189
hrinte ← hrisya (aorist) ya-formative strong-past ✧ PE17/168
lende ← lelya- ya-formative strong-past ✧ WJ/363
lēline ← lelya ya-formative strong-past ✧ PE17/151
tenne ← †tenya ya-formative strong-past ✧ VT49/24
virne ← virya- ya-formative strong-past ✧ PE17/189

References ✧ PE22/131, 151-152

Element In


ᴹQ. past grammar.

Examples (past)
alane [← ala-] a-verb ✧ PE22/116
olane “grew, were growing” [← ola-] a-verb ✧ PE22/116
alle [← ala-] a-verb strong-past ✧ PE22/116
óle “grew, finished growing, grew up, became” [← ola-] a-verb strong-past ✧ PE22/116
sakkante “rent” [← #askat-] basic-verb ✧ SD/246
askante “sunder-broke” [← #askat-] basic-verb ✧ SD/310
karne ← karin (aorist 1st-sg) basic-verb ✧ Ety/KAR
kāre “made” [← kar-] basic-verb ✧ LR/47
káre “made” [← kar-] basic-verb ✧ LR/72
karne “made” [← kar-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
karne [← kar-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/109
karne [← kar-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/109
káre “made” [← kar-] basic-verb ✧ SD/246
kāre “made” [← kar-] basic-verb ✧ SD/310
kenne [← #ken-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
kenne “saw” [← #ken-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
empe [← ef-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/127
emphe [← ef-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/127
?kusse “camp up, emerged” [← khus-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/127
hamme ← hame (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
hamme “sat” [← ham-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/117
hante ← hat- basic-verb ✧ Ety/SKAT
himne ← hime (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
hyande ← hyare (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
hyarne ← hyare (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
kampe [← kap-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
kampe [← kap-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/104
kambe “could” [← #kav-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
kimme “found” [← kim-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/108
lahte ← lahe (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
lakke ← lahe (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
lante “did ... lie” [← lat-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/126
láve ← lave (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
láve [← lav-¹] basic-verb ✧ PE22/104
lhinte “sped” [← #lhit-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/127
lunge ← lue (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
kumbe ← kuve (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
mante [← mat-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
mante [← mat-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/119
menne [← men-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
mende “wished” [← men-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/118
mene “wish” [← men-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/118
merne [← mer-] basic-verb ✧ Ety/MER
mende ← mere (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
merne “wish for, want” [← mer-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
merne “wished” [← mer-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/118
múne ← mune (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
ndanne “went back” [← #nan-²] basic-verb ✧ PE22/96
nurne ← nure (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
oine “live” [← oi-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/125
olle “became” [← ol-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
orhalde ← orhale (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
orhalle ← orhale (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
pitte ← pise (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
qente “said” [← qet-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/119
rappe “seized” [← raf-] basic-verb ✧ PE19/44
rappe ← rafe (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
rampe ← rafe (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
rende ← rerin (aorist 1st-sg) basic-verb ✧ Ety/RED
rimpe “hurled” [← #rip-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/127
ruñke [← ruk-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
sére ← sere (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
sumbe [← #suv-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/127
tanke ← take (aorist) basic-verb ✧ Ety/TAK
tamne ← tamin (aorist 1st-sg) basic-verb ✧ Ety/TAM
tampe ← tape (aorist) basic-verb ✧ Ety/TAP
terhante “broke” [← terhat-] basic-verb ✧ LR/47
terhante “broke” [← terhat-] basic-verb ✧ LR/56
terhante “sunder-broke” [← terhat-] basic-verb ✧ SD/310
tirne ← tirin (aorist 1st-sg) basic-verb ✧ Ety/TIR
tolle “stood” [← #tol-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/117
tonne ← tone (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
tunne ← tune (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
tūle “came” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ LR/47
tulle ← tule (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/103
tulle “came” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/108
tulle “came” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/119
tulle “came” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/121
túle “came” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ SD/246
túle “came” [← tul-] basic-verb ✧ SD/310
tompe ← tope (aorist) basic-verb ✧ Ety/TOP
turne ← turin (aorist 1st-sg) basic-verb ✧ Ety/TUR
túve “found” [← #tuv-] basic-verb ✧ PE22/108
tyambe ← tyave (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
tyáve ← tyave (aorist) basic-verb ✧ PE22/102
ville ← vilin (aorist 1st-sg) basic-verb ✧ Ety/WIL
kampelle [← kap-] basic-verb ? ✧ PE22/104
karner [← kar-] basic-verb plural ✧ PE22/109
kenner “saw” [← #ken-] basic-verb plural ✧ PE22/124
mender “wished” [← men-] basic-verb plural ✧ PE22/118
merner “wished” [← mer-] basic-verb plural ✧ PE22/118
karnen [← kar-] basic-verb with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/109
kampen [← kap-] basic-verb with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/104
láven [← lav-¹] basic-verb with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/104
lungen “I was sad” [← lu-] basic-verb with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/104
karnet [← kar-] basic-verb with-sg-object ✧ PE22/121
karnes [← kar-] basic-verb with-sg-object ✧ PE22/121
karnéte “had made (lit. made) it” [← kar-] basic-verb with-sg-object prosodic-lengthening ✧ PE22/118
← ea irregular-verb ✧ PE19/48
ne “was” [← ea-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/119
eñge [← ea-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/122
eñge [← ea-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/122
“was” ← ëa irregular-verb ✧ PE22/123
ëane “existed” ← ëa irregular-verb ✧ PE22/123
“was” [← ea-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/124
ëane [← ea-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/124
yene [← ye-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/123
[← ye-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/123
láne [← lá-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/126
lane [← lá-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/126
alle [← lá-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/126
láne “did not” [← lá-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/127
“was” [← ná-] irregular-verb ✧ PE22/96
úme ← umin (aorist 1st-sg) irregular-verb ✧ Ety/UGU
hūme ← humin (aorist 1st-sg) irregular-verb ✧ EtyAC/ƷŪ
ener [← ye-] irregular-verb plural ✧ PE22/123
nér [← ye-] irregular-verb plural ✧ PE22/123
láner “were not” [← lá-] irregular-verb plural ✧ PE22/119
lende “went, departed” ← lenna na-formative strong-past ✧ Ety/LED
lende “went” [← lenna-] na-formative strong-past ✧ LR/47
lende “came” [← lenna-] na-formative strong-past ✧ LR/56
lende “went” [← lenna-] na-formative strong-past ✧ LR/56
lende “has gone” [← lenna-] na-formative strong-past ✧ LR/72
lende “went” [← lenna-] na-formative strong-past ✧ SD/310
lūve [← lumna-] na-formative strong-past ✧ EtyAC/DUB
kaltane [← kalta-] ta-causative ✧ PE22/117
ontane ← onta- ta-causative ✧ Ety/ONO
ortane “raised” ← orya- ta-causative ✧ PE22/115
ortane [← orta-¹] ta-causative ✧ PE22/117
tultane [← tulta-] ta-causative ✧ PE22/117
óne ← onta- ta-causative strong-past ✧ Ety/ONO
nahtane [← nahta-] ta-formative ✧ PE22/102
naktane “slew” [← nahta-] ta-formative ✧ PE22/115
ununte “came/went down” [← unta-] ta-formative ✧ PE22/127
vintane ← vinta- ta-formative ✧ Ety/WIN
vindane ← vinda- ta-formative ✧ EtyAC/WIN
avante [← auta-¹] ta-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE19/45
sinte ← ista- ta-formative half-strong-past ✧ Ety/IS
sinte “knew” ← ista ta-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE22/115
nahante [← nahta-] ta-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE22/115
oronte “rose” [← orta-²] ta-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE22/100
oronte “rose” ← orta ta-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE22/115
lantaner “fell” [← lanta-] ta-formative plural ✧ SD/246
lantaner “they-fell” [← lanta-] ta-formative plural ✧ SD/310
lantaner “they fell” [← lanta-] ta-formative plural ✧ VT24/7
koine ← koita- ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/103
lanne “heard” ← hlasta- ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/103
hlasse ← hlasta- ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/103
hlanne ← hlasta- ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/103
lasse ← lasta- ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/103
lanne ← lasta- ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/103
lasse ← lasta ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/115
laune ← lauta ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/103
lende ← lesta- ta-formative strong-past ✧ Ety/ELED
nusse ← nusta ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/103
rontē “rose” ← orta ta-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/115
vinte ← vinta- ta-formative strong-past ✧ Ety/WIN
launen “abounded to me, I had lots of ...” ← lauta ta-formative with-1st-sg-object strong-past ✧ PE22/103
ataltane “down-fell” [← atalta-] talat-stem ✧ LR/47
ataltane “fell down” [← atalta-] talat-stem ✧ SD/247
ataltane “slip down in ruin” [← atalta-] talat-stem ✧ SD/249
ataltane “down-fell” [← atalta-] talat-stem ✧ SD/310
sulpane [← sulpa-] talat-stem ✧ PE22/115
taltane ← talta talat-stem ✧ PE22/115
atalante “down-fell” [← atalta-] talat-stem half-strong-past ✧ LR/56
**sulumpe [← sulpa-] talat-stem half-strong-past ✧ PE22/115
talante “was slipping down” [← talta-] talat-stem half-strong-past ✧ PE18/35
talante ← talta talat-stem half-strong-past ✧ PE22/115
talantie “He is fallen” [← talta-] talat-stem stative half-strong-past ✧ LR/72
kelŭne ← kelu u-verb ✧ PE22/117
lirŭne ← liru u-verb ✧ PE22/117
ehtelle ← ehtelu- u-verb strong-past ✧ PE22/103
ehtelle ← ehtelu u-verb strong-past ✧ PE22/117
kelle ← kelu u-verb strong-past ✧ PE22/117
ampanótane [← ampanóta-] weak-verb ✧ PE22/118
apsane [← apsa-] weak-verb ✧ PE19/45
kestane “asked” [← kesta-] weak-verb ✧ PE22/118
kakarrane [← kakarra-] weak-verb ✧ PE22/100
kakarrane [← kakarra-] weak-verb ✧ PE22/109
lingane ← linga weak-verb ✧ PE22/103
niñkwityóne ← niñqityo (infinitive) weak-verb ✧ PE22/117
niñqitáne [← ninqita-] weak-verb ✧ PE22/117
sintane ← sinta- weak-verb ✧ Ety/THIN
tangane ← tanga weak-verb ✧ PE22/103
tatallaner “marveled” [← tatalla-] weak-verb plural ✧ PE22/108
linge “rang, twanged” ← linga weak-verb strong-past ✧ PE22/103
tange “twanged” ← tanga weak-verb strong-past ✧ PE22/103
altañkantane [← altankanta-] weak-verb weak-past ✧ PE22/117
niñqintane [← ninqinta-] weak-verb weak-past ✧ PE22/117
kestanen “asked me” [← kesta-] weak-verb with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/121
kestanen [← kesta-] weak-verb with-1st-sg-object ✧ PE22/122
tatallanes “marveled” [← tatalla-] weak-verb with-sg-object ✧ PE22/108
oryane “rose” ← orya- ya-formative ✧ PE22/115
ulyane ← ulya- ya-formative ✧ Ety/ULU
farinye ← farya- ya-formative half-strong-past ✧ EtyAC/PHAR
sirinye “flowed” ← sirya ya-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE22/115
sirinyella ← sirya ya-formative half-strong-past ✧ PE22/115
farne ← farya- ya-formative strong-past ✧ Ety/PHAR
farne ← farya- ya-formative strong-past ✧ EtyAC/PHAR
kenne ← kenya ya-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/115
síre ← sirya ya-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/115
ulle ← ulya- ya-formative strong-past ✧ Ety/ULU
ulle “poured” [← ulya-] ya-formative strong-past ✧ PE22/112
vanne ← vanya- ya-formative strong-past ✧ Ety/WAN

References ✧ PE22/96, 101-104

Element In


ᴱQ. past grammar.

Examples (past)
allune ← allu- ✧ QL/30
mapant- ← mapta- ✧ PE13/163
angaisine ← angaitya- ✧ QL/34
áne “gave” ← anir (present 1st-sg) ✧ QL/31
āne ← anta- ✧ QL/31
apaiksine ← apaitya ✧ QL/34
apante ← apanta- ✧ QL/34
[apant]ane ← apanta- ✧ QL/34
anqe “seized” [← #aqa-] ✧ QL/31
arme ← arm- ✧ QL/32
kaine [← kaita-] ✧ PE14/58
kálie “shone” [← kala-] ✧ PE14/46
kale “shone” [← kala-] ✧ PE14/46
kallie [← kala-] ✧ PE16/75
kalle “shone” ← kal- ✧ PE16/143
kāle ← kala- ✧ QL/44
kalante ← kalta- ✧ QL/44
kalante ← kalta- ✧ QL/44
kāpe ← ‽kapta- ✧ QL/45
kampie ← kapta ✧ PE14/56
kampie [← kapta-²] ✧ PE14/58
kampie- ← kapta- ✧ PE14/66
karne [← kara-] ✧ PE14/58
karne “did” [← kara-] ✧ PE14/84
kārie ← kara ✧ PE15/71
karne ← kara ✧ PE15/71
káre ← karin (present 1st-sg) ✧ QL/45
sie ← sehta ✧ QL/82
sāke ← saka- ✧ QL/81
kalka ← kilkin (present 1st-sg) ✧ QL/47
ekitsine ← kitya- ✧ QL/47
tāle ← talta ✧ QL/88
talante ← talta ✧ QL/88
kōme ← konta- ✧ QL/47
ie ← e (present) ✧ PE14/57
ye ← e (present) ✧ PE14/57
hye ← e (present) ✧ PE14/57
ie [← e-²] ✧ PE16/66
inye [← e-²] ✧ PE16/141
ie “was” [← e-²] ✧ PE16/143
elle “came” [← #ele-] ✧ MC/215
Elle “came” [← #ele-] ✧ PE16/90
elle “came” [← #ele-] ✧ PE16/90
Elle “came” [← #ele-] ✧ PE16/92
elle “came” [← #ele-] ✧ PE16/92
elle [← #ele-] ✧ PE16/133
elle [← #ele-] ✧ PE16/146
éle “drove” ← elin (present 1st-sg) ✧ QL/35
ēre ← erin (present 1st-sg) ✧ QL/36
erne “went” [← ere-²] ✧ PE16/133
palastine ← palasya- ✧ QL/72
fūme- ← fum- ✧ QL/39
fumbe ← fum- ✧ QL/39
halle ← halta- ✧ QL/39
ehalle ← halta- ✧ QL/39
hāre ← harin (present 1st-sg) ✧ QL/39
hande ← harin (present 1st-sg) ✧ QL/39
harīne ← hari ✧ PE14/58
hărie ← hari ✧ PE14/58
sōre ← sosta- ✧ QL/85
malke ← milk- ✧ QL/62
hante ← hatin (present 1st-sg) ✧ QL/39
avaltane ← avalta ✧ QL/34
avalante ← avalta ✧ QL/34
hepsine “bound” [← hepe-] ✧ PE14/56
hempe ← hepin (present 1st-sg) ✧ QL/40
anqe ← †unqu-² ✧ QL/98
qisse ← qisi- ✧ QL/77
qīse ← qisi- ✧ QL/77
hontye ← hotin (present 1st-sg) ✧ QL/41
hue ← hūta- ✧ QL/41
hyalle “resounded” ← hyal ✧ PE16/144
alke ← ilkin- (present 3rd-sg) ✧ QL/42
īne ← inta ✧ GL/51
íse [← ista-] ✧ PE16/133
sinte ← ista ✧ QL/43
sinte “he knew” [← ista-] ✧ QL/85
kallune- ← kal(l)u- ✧ QL/44
kandane ← kanda- ✧ QL/47
kande ← kanda- ✧ QL/47
kampe ← kapin (present 1st-sg) ✧ QL/45
karpie [← karp-] ✧ PE14/58
kelūne ← kelu ✧ PE14/58
kelwie ← kelu ✧ PE14/58
ekinkatte ← †kinka- ✧ QL/47
ekinkatande ← kinkata- ✧ QL/47
kōse ← kosta- ✧ QL/48
kalpe ← kulpin (present 1st-sg) ✧ QL/47
kúme ← kumin (present 1st-sg) ✧ QL/49
kumbe ← kumin (present 1st-sg) ✧ QL/49
lahante ← lahta- ✧ QL/50
lampane ← lampa- ✧ QL/51
lante ← lant- ✧ QL/51
laptăne ← lapta ✧ PE14/58
lapsine ← tantya ✧ PE14/58
lanqe ← laqa- ✧ QL/51
lāqe ← laqa- ✧ QL/51
lante ← lata ✧ PE15/67
lāve ← lava- ✧ QL/52
lehtane ← lehta ✧ PE15/76
lenge ← LEHE ✧ QL/52
leqente- ← lekte- ✧ QL/53
līsine ← lia- ✧ QL/53
likindane ← likinda- ✧ QL/54
lalsie [← lilt-] ✧ PE14/58
laltye [← lilt-] ✧ PE14/58
lalsie ← lilte (present) ✧ PE15/71
laltye ← lilte (present) ✧ PE15/71
līme ← limin (present 3rd-sg) ✧ QL/54
līne ← linta- ✧ QL/54
lintine ← linya- ✧ QL/54
līre ← liri- ✧ QL/54
linde ← liri- ✧ QL/54
suksine- ← sutya- ✧ QL/87
listine ← listya- ✧ QL/55
lokante ← lokta ✧ PE14/58
loktane ← lokta- ✧ QL/55
lombe ← lomir (present 1st-sg) ✧ QL/55
lombe ← lomir (present 1st-sg) ✧ QL/55
lopetāne ← lopeta- ✧ QL/56
lōqe ← loqo- ✧ QL/56
lonqe ← loqo- ✧ QL/56
lōre ← lor- ✧ QL/56
fantane ← fanta- ✧ QL/37
fante ← fanta- ✧ QL/37
lonte ← lōto- ✧ QL/55
lunte [← lutu-] ✧ PE16/56
lunte [← lutu-] ✧ PE16/57
lūte [← lutu-] ✧ PE16/60
lūte [← lutu-] ✧ PE16/60
lunte [← lutu-] ✧ PE16/60
lunte [← lutu-] ✧ PE16/61
lūte ← lutta- ✧ QL/57
lue ← lūta- ✧ QL/56
māke ← mak- ✧ QL/57
manke ← mak- ✧ QL/57
māke ← makta- ✧ QL/58
maksine ← maktya ✧ PE14/58
māle ← mal- ✧ QL/58
malle ← mala- ✧ PE15/67
malde ← mald- ✧ QL/62
malde ← mild- ✧ QL/62
maltune ← ‽malu- ✧ QL/58
malūne ← ‽malu- ✧ QL/58
nampie [← mapa-] ✧ PE14/58
nampie ← mapa- ✧ PE15/76
nampe ← map- ✧ QL/59
māre ← mar- ✧ QL/59
māse ← mas- ✧ QL/59
mansie ← mat- ✧ PE14/57
mante [← mata-] ✧ PE14/57
mansie [← mata-] ✧ PE14/58
mantye [← mata-] ✧ PE14/58
mante “ate” [← mata-] ✧ PE14/85
mante ← mat- ✧ QL/59
mekente ← mekte- ✧ QL/60
mēle ← mel- ✧ QL/60
mantye ← minty- ✧ QL/62
minqe ← miq- ✧ QL/61
mirtine ← mirtya- ✧ QL/61
mausine ← mauya- ✧ QL/60
mōke ← mokir (present 1st-sg) ✧ QL/62
mūke ← mukta- ✧ QL/63
mūle ← mul- ✧ QL/63
nanye “it was” [← ná-] ✧ PE16/141
Ne [← ná-] ✧ VT40/8
nyenne ← nyēna- ✧ QL/68
naïksine ← naitya- ✧ QL/65
nanke ← naka- ✧ QL/64
nāke ← naka- ✧ QL/64
nange ← nang- ✧ QL/66
nanqe ← naqa- ✧ QL/64
nāre ← nara- ✧ QL/64
natse ← nasa- ✧ QL/64
nāve ← nauta- ✧ QL/65
nāye ← naẏa- ✧ QL/65
nēme ← neme- ✧ QL/65
nēse ← nesta- ✧ QL/66
nesse ← nesta- ✧ QL/66
nente ← nete- ✧ QL/66
niqente ← nikte- ✧ QL/66
niqistine ← niqisya ✧ QL/66
niqistane ← niqista- ✧ QL/66
nōte ← nō- ✧ QL/66
nonte ← nohto- ✧ QL/67
nōle ← nolo- ✧ QL/67
nornoronte ← nornoro- ✧ QL/67
nŏrnōre ← nornoro- ✧ QL/67
nurūne ← nūru- ✧ QL/68
nūve ← nuvu- ✧ QL/68
nyande ← NYAŘA ✧ QL/68
nyāre ← NYAŘA ✧ QL/68
nyatse ← nyasa- ✧ QL/68
oa- ← ohta ✧ QL/69
oionte ← oito ✧ QL/71
oltane ← olta- ✧ QL/69
olonte- ← olto- ✧ QL/69
ōle “waxed” ← olto- ✧ QL/69
oronte ← orto- ✧ QL/70
orīne ← orya- ✧ QL/70
ōre ← oro- ✧ QL/70
otonte ← otto- ✧ QL/71
paisine ← paitya- ✧ QL/72
palle “shook” ← pal- ✧ PE16/143
palaute ← palava- ✧ QL/71
paltune ← palwa- ✧ QL/71
pante ← panta- ✧ QL/72
pantine ← panya- ✧ QL/72
pampe ← papa- ✧ QL/72
patte ← pata- ✧ QL/72
pante ← pata- ✧ QL/72
peane ← peanta- ✧ QL/72
peantane ← peanta- ✧ QL/72
pelle- ← pele- ✧ QL/73
pelenke- ← pelekta- ✧ QL/73
pelektane- ← pelekta- ✧ QL/73
pelente- ← pelte- ✧ QL/73
penqe- ← peqe- ✧ QL/73
pēre- ← pere- ✧ QL/73
pente ← pete- ✧ QL/73
mindane ← minda- ✧ QL/61
pieksine- ← pietya- ✧ QL/73
piektane- ← piekta- ✧ QL/73
pīle ← pili- ✧ QL/74
paltye ← pilty- ✧ QL/74
paltien ← pilty- ✧ QL/74
pirpinde ← pipiři- ✧ QL/74
pirpirinte ← pipiři- ✧ QL/74
pipente ← pipte- ✧ QL/74
pīre ← piri- ✧ QL/74
pastie [← pist-] ✧ PE14/58
pastye [← pist-] ✧ PE14/58
rentye- ← retye- ✧ QL/79
poine ← poita ✧ QL/75
poiksine ← poitya ✧ QL/75
wāre ← ’warin (3rd-sg) ✧ QL/103
pue- ← pukta- ✧ QL/75
pūke ← pukta- ✧ QL/75
pūle ← pulu- ✧ QL/75
pūre- ← puru- ✧ QL/75
purīne ← purya- ✧ QL/75
pustine ← purya- ✧ QL/75
pūse ← pus- ✧ QL/76
pūsule ← pusulta ✧ QL/76
qelūne ← qelu- ✧ QL/76
qinqe ← qiqi- ✧ QL/77
qisqīre ← qisqiri- ✧ QL/78
qirqisse ← qirqisi- ✧ QL/78
qonte ← qoto- ✧ QL/78
qalle “died” ← qal- ✧ PE16/143
qame ← qama- ✧ QL/76
qante ← qanta- ✧ QL/78
qantane ← qanta- ✧ QL/78
qampe ← qapa- ✧ QL/76
qapante ← qapta- ✧ QL/76
qanqe- ← qaqa- ✧ QL/76
qāqe ← qaqa- ✧ QL/76
qasse ← qasa- ✧ QL/76
qēle ← qele- ✧ QL/76
qeleksine- ← qeletya ✧ QL/76
qentë ← qet- ✧ LT2A/Tôn a Gwedrin
qensie “were told” [← qet-] ✧ PE14/54
qense [← qet-] ✧ PE14/54
qente “*said” [← qet-] ✧ PE15/32
qente ← qet- ✧ QL/77
qalde ← qildi- ✧ QL/78
qalte ← qilti- ✧ QL/78
qīle ← qilya- ✧ QL/77
qīlline ← qilya- ✧ QL/77
qiltane ← qilta- ✧ QL/77
qīnine- ← qīni- ✧ QL/77
qīne- ← qīni- ✧ QL/77
qange ← qingi- ✧ QL/77
qinde- ← qiri- ✧ QL/77
qintye ← qity- ✧ QL/78
qōle ← qolo- ✧ QL/78
qonde- ← qoro- ✧ QL/78
qōre ← qosta- ✧ QL/78
qōse ← qosta- ✧ QL/78
rai ← rakta¹ ✧ QL/78
← rakta¹ ✧ QL/78
rakante- ← rakta-² ✧ QL/78
rāme ← rama- ✧ QL/78
rāre ← rara- ✧ QL/79
rande ← rara- ✧ QL/79
rāve ← rauta- ✧ QL/79
laustane [← lausta-²] ✧ PE16/75
rangwe ← rawa- ✧ QL/79
rēse ← resta- ✧ QL/79
rinqe ← riqi- ✧ QL/80
rīme ← rim- ✧ QL/80
rīpe ← ripta- ✧ QL/80
ristane ← rista- ✧ QL/80
roa ← rōna- ✧ QL/80
roi ← rōna- ✧ QL/80
ruktane ← rukta- ✧ QL/80
rūke ← ruku- ✧ QL/80
sai ← sahta- ✧ QL/81
sanye ← saita ✧ QL/82
sāye ← saita ✧ QL/82
saikeltane ← saikelta ✧ QL/82
saiksine ← saitya ✧ QL/82
saitune ← saiwa- ✧ QL/72
salle “?remained (or ?removed)” ← sal- ✧ PE16/143
salke ← silki- ✧ QL/84
salpane- ← salpa- ✧ QL/84
salle ← salta ✧ PE15/77
sange ← sanga- ✧ QL/81
sampe- ← sapa- ✧ QL/82
sāre ← sara- ✧ QL/82
sande ← sara- ✧ QL/82
sēre ← serta- ✧ QL/83
sestane ← (a)sesta- ✧ QL/82
sīle ← sili- ✧ QL/83
salsie [← silt-] ✧ PE14/58
salte- ← silt- ✧ QL/84
silinte ← silte- ✧ QL/83
santye ← sinty- ✧ QL/85
simpe- ← sipi- ✧ QL/84
sīqe ← siqi- ✧ QL/84
sinde ← siri- ✧ QL/84
sīre ← siri- ✧ QL/84
sisse ← sisi- ✧ QL/84
sokonte ← sokto- ✧ QL/85
sōrie “sat” [← soro-] ✧ PE14/46
sōre “sat” [← soro-] ✧ PE14/46
sórie “sat” [← soro-] ✧ PE14/78
sōrie ← soro ✧ PE15/77
sōre ← soro- ✧ QL/85
sonde ← soro- ✧ QL/86
sonde ← soro ✧ QL/86
soronte ← sorto- ✧ QL/85
soronte ← sosto ✧ QL/86
sōve ← sovo- ✧ QL/86
sovallune ← sovallu- ✧ QL/86
sōke ← soko- ✧ QL/85
salpe ← sulpe (present) ✧ PE13/149
salpie [← sulp-] ✧ PE14/58
salpe ← sulp- ✧ QL/84
sunqe ← suq- ✧ QL/87
tanke ← taka- ✧ QL/88
talle ← tala- ✧ QL/88
talte ← tilt- ✧ QL/93
tangane ← tanga ✧ PE14/58
tansie [← tanta-¹] ✧ PE14/58
tantye [← tanta-¹] ✧ PE14/58
tante ← tanta- ✧ QL/93
tantye ← tanta ✧ PE15/71
tantane ← tanta- ✧ QL/94
tantilane ← tantila ✧ PE14/58
tantille ← tantila ✧ PE14/58
tantilante ← tantilta ✧ PE14/58
tansĭne ← tantya ✧ PE14/58
tansīne ← tantya ✧ PE14/58
tapīne ← tapa- ✧ QL/89
tanqe ← taqa- ✧ QL/89
tāqe ← taqa- ✧ QL/89
tāre ← tara- ✧ QL/89
tarqe ← tarqa- ✧ QL/94
tapsine ← tatya ✧ QL/89
tenke ← teke- ✧ QL/90
telyansine [← telyanta-] ✧ PE15/69
telyansine ← telyanta ✧ PE15/69
telyansine ← telyanta ✧ QL/90
tenge- ← tenge- ✧ QL/91
tentine ← tenya- ✧ QL/91
tēne ← tela ✧ PE15/69
téne ← teta ✧ QL/90
tembe ← teve- ✧ QL/90
tēve ← teve- ✧ QL/90
talde ← tildir (1st-sg) ✧ QL/93
tintine ← tintya- ✧ QL/92
tinqie [← tiqi-] ✧ PE14/58
tíqie [← tiqi-] ✧ PE14/58
tinqe ← tiqi- ✧ QL/92
tīre ← tiri- ✧ QL/93
tartye- ← tirty- ✧ QL/94
tīwe ← tiuta- ✧ QL/93
tiutane ← tiuta- ✧ QL/93
piwente ← piute- ✧ QL/74
pivente ← piute- ✧ QL/74
tōke ← toko- ✧ QL/94
tompone ← tompo- ✧ QL/94
tōqe ← toqo- ✧ QL/94
tōre ← tori- ✧ QL/94
tūye ← tuita- ✧ QL/96
tūle [← tulu-] ✧ PE14/28
túlie ← tul- ✧ PE14/57
túlie “have come” [← tulu-] ✧ PE14/59
túlie [← tulu-] ✧ PE14/59
tūlie [← tulu-] ✧ PE16/124
túlie [← tulu-] ✧ PE16/126
túlie [← tulu-] ✧ PE16/133
talpe ← tulpu- ✧ QL/93
tulĭne ← tulya ✧ PE14/58
tulīne ← tulya ✧ PE14/58
tampie [← tump-¹] ✧ PE14/58
tampe ← tump- ✧ QL/93
tunde ← †turu- ✧ QL/96
tundane ← tunda- ✧ QL/96
tanqie [← tunq-] ✧ PE14/58
tanqe- ← tunq- ✧ QL/93
tūne ← tunta- ✧ QL/95
tūpe ← tupu- ✧ QL/95
tūre- ← turu- ✧ QL/95
tustine ← turya- ✧ QL/96
tūke ← tuku ✧ QL/95
túvie [← tuvu-] ✧ PE14/58
tūve ← tuvu- ✧ QL/96
tyalūne ← tyalu ✧ PE15/76
tyāse ← tyasa- ✧ QL/49
tyasante ← tyasta- ✧ QL/49
tyastāve ← tyastava- ✧ QL/49
tyāve ← tyava- ✧ QL/49
tyostone ← tyosto ✧ QL/50
tyūke ← tyuku- ✧ QL/50
tyunke ← tyuku- ✧ QL/50
tyūle ← tyulta- ✧ QL/50
tyustyūke ← tyustyukta- ✧ QL/50
ūme ← umin (3rd-sg) ✧ QL/98
unye “was not” [← úya-] ✧ PE16/141
úqe ← uqin (3rd-sg) ✧ QL/98
alqe ← ulqin ✧ QL/97
ulunte ← ulto- ✧ QL/97
ūle ← ulu- ✧ QL/97
anqe ← unq-¹ ✧ QL/98
usse ← usin (3rd-sg) ✧ QL/98
ūse ← usin (3rd-sg) ✧ QL/98
vanye ← vana ✧ PE15/76
“went” [← #ava-] ✧ LT1A/Qalvanda
ambe ← avin (present 3rd-sg) ✧ QL/33
“went” [← #ava-] ✧ QL/99
“went” [← #ava-] ✧ QL/99
vāse ← vasin (3rd-sg) ✧ QL/100
vasse ← vastan (3rd-sg) ✧ QL/100
vartye ← virtir (1st-sg) ✧ QL/102
valke ← vilkin (3rd-sg) ✧ QL/101
wastane ← wastar (1st-sg) ✧ QL/102
welle- ← ’wele- ✧ QL/103
wīle- ← ’wili- ✧ QL/104
’wintine- ← ’winya- ✧ QL/104
yāme ← yamin (3rd-sg) ✧ QL/105
yambe ← yamin (3rd-sg) ✧ QL/105
yansine ← yantya ✧ PE15/69
yante- ← ’yanta- ✧ QL/106
yāve ← yavin (3rd-sg) ✧ QL/105
astūve ← astuvu- ✧ QL/33
yōle ← yolo- ✧ QL/106
yolle ← yolo- ✧ QL/106
yūre ← yurin (3rd-sg) ✧ QL/106
tuliēmur [← tulu-] 1st-dual-exclusive ✧ PE16/124
túliémur [← tulu-] 1st-dual-exclusive ✧ PE16/126
muyanyet [← anta-] 1st-dual-exclusive dual pronoun-prefix ✧ PE14/86
muanyet [← anta-] 1st-dual-exclusive dual pronoun-prefix ✧ PE14/86
[tuli]ēvur [← tulu-] 1st-dual-inclusive ✧ PE16/124
[tuli]ēvo [← tulu-] 1st-dual-inclusive ✧ PE16/124
túliévur [← tulu-] 1st-dual-inclusive ✧ PE16/126
tuliēmen [← tulu-] 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE16/124
túliémen [← tulu-] 1st-pl-exclusive ✧ PE16/126
[tuli]ēven [← tulu-] 1st-pl-inclusive ✧ PE16/124
[túli]éven [← tulu-] 1st-pl-inclusive ✧ PE16/126
linganen [← linga-] 1st-sg ✧ PE16/100
qentien “*I said” [← qet-] 1st-sg ✧ PE15/32
tūlien [← tulu-] 1st-sg ✧ PE16/124
túlien [← tulu-] 1st-sg ✧ PE16/126
[tuli]ēlur [← tulu-] 2nd-dual ✧ PE16/124
[tuli]ēlo [← tulu-] 2nd-dual ✧ PE16/124
túliélur [← tulu-] 2nd-dual ✧ PE16/126
[tuli]ēlen [← tulu-] 2nd-pl ✧ PE16/124
[túli]élen [← tulu-] 2nd-pl ✧ PE16/126
tūliet [← tulu-] 2nd-sg ✧ PE16/124
túliel [← tulu-] 2nd-sg ✧ PE16/126
[tuli]ēris [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-fem ✧ PE16/124
túliéris [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-fem ✧ PE16/126
[tuli]ētur [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-masc ✧ PE16/124
túliérus [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-masc ✧ PE16/126
tuliētar [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-neut ✧ PE16/124
túliétar [← tulu-] 3rd-dual-neut ✧ PE16/126
listanelto “*blessed” [← listya-] 3rd-pl ✧ PE15/32
royenta ← rōna- 3rd-pl ✧ QL/80
tūkielto “*they have looked for” [← tuku-] 3rd-pl ✧ PE15/32
alkantaméren “made it shine” [← alkanta-] 3rd-pl-fem ✧ MC/216
alkantaniéren “made it shine” [← alkanta-] 3rd-pl-fem ✧ PE16/100
alkantaniéren [← alkanta-] 3rd-pl-fem ✧ PE16/100
alkantanéren [← alkanta-] 3rd-pl-fem ✧ PE16/100
alkantanieeren [← alkanta-] 3rd-pl-fem ✧ PE16/104
lótanéren [← lóto-] 3rd-pl-fem ✧ PE16/57
[tuli]ēden [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-fem ✧ PE16/124
[túli]éren [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-fem ✧ PE16/126
ninqanéron “lay white” [← ninqa-] 3rd-pl-masc ✧ MC/220
ninqanéron [← ninqa-] 3rd-pl-masc ✧ PE16/74
[tuli]ēton [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-masc ✧ PE16/124
[túli]éron [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-masc ✧ PE16/126
[tuli]ētan [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-neut ✧ PE16/124
[túli]étan [← tulu-] 3rd-pl-neut ✧ PE16/126
kainer [← kaya-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/65
kalliére “shown” [← kala-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ MC/220
kallíere [← kala-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/57
kallíere [← kala-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/60
kalliére “was shining” [← kala-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/62
kallieere [← kala-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/72
kalliére [← kala-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/74
falastanére [← falasta-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/57
falastanēre [← falasta-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/60
falastanére “was surging” [← falasta-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/62
fälästänēre [← falasta-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/72
falastanére [← falasta-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/74
tūlier [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/124
túliér(e) [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-fem ✧ PE16/126
kírier “clove” [← kiri-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ MC/216
kírier “clove” [← kiri-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/100
kiirier [← kiri-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/104
falastanéro “with loud surf” [← falasta-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ MC/220
falassiéro [← falasta-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/58
falastanéro [← falasta-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/58
linganer “hummed like a harp-string” [← linga-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ MC/216
linganer “hummed like a harp-string” [← linga-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/100
linganer [← linga-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/104
lótanéro [← lóto-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/58
lútier “sailed” [← lutu-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ MC/216
lútier “sailed” [← lutu-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/100
luutier [← lutu-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/104
laustaner “lausted (made a windy noise)” [← lausta-²] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ MC/216
laustanéro “rushed” [← lausta-²] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ MC/220
laustanéro “was roaring” [← lausta-²] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/62
laustaneero [← lausta-²] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/72
laustanéro [← lausta-²] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/74
laustaner [← lausta-²] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/100
laustaner “rushed” [← lausta-²] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/104
tūlient [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/124
túliér(o) [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-masc ✧ PE16/126
tūlie [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-neut ✧ PE16/124
túliet [← tulu-] 3rd-sg-neut ✧ PE16/126
unlunke [← luk-] ? ✧ PE16/146
ien ← e (present) active-participle ✧ PE14/57
yen ← e (present) active-participle ✧ PE14/57
yenda ← e (present) active-participle ✧ PE14/57
ien “it was” [← e-²] active-participle ✧ PE16/62
lutilya [← lutu-] active-participle ✧ PE16/56
lutsilya [← lutu-] active-participle ✧ PE16/57
lutsilya [← lutu-] active-participle ✧ PE16/60
lutsilya [← lutu-] active-participle ✧ PE16/60
lutsilya “sailing” [← lutu-] active-participle ✧ PE16/62
lutsilja [← lutu-] active-participle ✧ PE16/72
lutsilya [← lutu-] active-participle ✧ PE16/74
tulienwa [← tulu-] active-participle ✧ PE14/28
túliéla/túlielya [← tulu-] active-participle ✧ PE14/28
tuliemba [← tulu-] active-participle ✧ PE14/28
túlien(d-) ← tul- active-participle ✧ PE14/57
tulien “having come” [← tulu-] active-participle ✧ PE14/57
tulilya [← tulu-] active-participle ✧ PE16/128
tulíla [← tulu-] active-participle ✧ PE16/128
tūliet [← tulu-] dual ✧ PE14/28
tūlie(n)t [← tulu-] dual ✧ PE14/28
tulier [← tulu-] dual ✧ PE16/124
túlier [← tulu-] dual ✧ PE16/126
tūliesset [← tulu-] dual fem ✧ PE14/28
tūliendon [← tulu-] dual masc ✧ PE14/28
tūliesta [← tulu-] dual neut ✧ PE14/28
tūlier [← tulu-] fem ✧ PE14/28
tūliesse [← tulu-] fem ✧ PE14/28
iesta ← e (present) gerund ✧ PE14/57
yesta ← e (present) gerund ✧ PE14/57
túliento [← tulu-] gerund ✧ PE14/28
túliesta ← tul- gerund ✧ PE14/57
killer [← kili-] impersonal ✧ PE16/56
kílier [← kili-] impersonal ✧ PE16/56
ier ← e (present) impersonal ✧ PE14/57
mansier ← mat- impersonal ✧ PE14/57
túlier ← tul- impersonal ✧ PE14/57
túlient [← tulu-] infinitive ✧ PE14/28
túlienqe [← tulu-] infinitive ✧ PE14/28
túliesta [← tulu-] infinitive ✧ PE14/28
túlient [← tulu-] infinitive ✧ PE16/128
tūlien(do) [← tulu-] masc ✧ PE14/28
tūlie [← tulu-] neut ✧ PE14/28
tūliiēta [← tulu-] neut ✧ PE14/28
túlielqe [← tulu-] passive ✧ PE14/30
túlielwe [← tulu-] passive ✧ PE14/30
túlieldo [← tulu-] passive ✧ PE14/30
túlielqet [← tulu-] passive dual ✧ PE14/30
túlielwet [← tulu-] passive dual ✧ PE14/30
túlieldon [← tulu-] passive dual ✧ PE14/30
túliellet [← tulu-] passive dual fem ✧ PE14/30
túlielmut [← tulu-] passive dual masc ✧ PE14/30
túlieltan [← tulu-] passive dual neut ✧ PE14/30
túlieltat [← tulu-] passive dual neut ✧ PE14/30
túlielle [← tulu-] passive fem ✧ PE14/30
túlielse [← tulu-] passive fem ✧ PE14/30
túlieldo [← tulu-] passive gerund ✧ PE14/30
túliel(de) [← tulu-] passive infinitive ✧ PE14/30
túlielmo [← tulu-] passive masc ✧ PE14/30
túlielta [← tulu-] passive neut ✧ PE14/30
túlielqi(r) [← tulu-] passive plural ✧ PE14/30
túlielwi [← tulu-] passive plural ✧ PE14/30
túlieldu [← tulu-] passive plural ✧ PE14/30
túliellir [← tulu-] passive plural fem ✧ PE14/30
túlielmur [← tulu-] passive plural masc ✧ PE14/30
túlieltai [← tulu-] passive plural neut ✧ PE14/30
túlieltar [← tulu-] passive plural neut ✧ PE14/30
qetsime “were told” [← qet-] passive-participle ✧ PE14/54
qensiēma [← qet-] passive-participle ✧ PE14/54
rautanēma “stolen” [← rauta-] passive-participle ✧ PE14/54
tuliēla [← tulu-] passive-participle ✧ PE14/30
tulielya(nt) [← tulu-] passive-participle ✧ PE14/30
tulinwa [← tulu-] passive-participle ✧ PE16/128
tulīna [← tulu-] passive-participle ✧ PE16/128
iel ← e (present) plural ✧ PE14/57
eller “came” [← #ele-] plural ✧ MC/215
īsier “*was known” [← ista-] plural ✧ PE15/32
mansiel ← mat- plural ✧ PE14/57
méliel “loved” [← mel-] plural ✧ PE14/57
qentier “*was said” [← qet-] plural ✧ PE15/32
tūlier [← tulu-] plural ✧ PE14/28
tūlieu [← tulu-] plural ✧ PE14/28
túliel ← tul- plural ✧ PE14/57
túliel [← tulu-] plural ✧ PE14/59
[tuli]el [← tulu-] plural ✧ PE16/124
túlient [← tulu-] plural ✧ PE16/126
túliessir [← tulu-] plural fem ✧ PE14/28
túliendio [← tulu-] plural masc ✧ PE14/28
túlienta [← tulu-] plural neut ✧ PE14/28
túlier [← tulu-] plural neut ✧ PE14/28
iekto ← e (present) reflexive ✧ PE14/57
túliesta [← tulu-] reflexive ✧ PE14/29
[tul]ies [← tulu-] reflexive ✧ PE14/29
túliekto [← tulu-] reflexive ✧ PE14/29
túliesto [← tulu-] reflexive ✧ PE14/29
túliekto ← tul- reflexive ✧ PE14/57
túliestan [← tulu-] reflexive dual ✧ PE14/29
tuliston [← tulu-] reflexive dual ✧ PE14/29
túlieksin [← tulu-] reflexive dual fem ✧ PE14/29
túliekson [← tulu-] reflexive dual masc ✧ PE14/29
túliektan [← tulu-] reflexive dual neut ✧ PE14/29
túliekse [← tulu-] reflexive fem ✧ PE14/29
túlietsa [← tulu-] reflexive gerund ✧ PE14/29
(túlieksa(nt)) [← tulu-] reflexive gerund ✧ PE14/29
túlies(te) [← tulu-] reflexive infinitive ✧ PE14/29
tulies “arrived” [← tulu-] reflexive infinitive ✧ PE14/32
túliekso [← tulu-] reflexive masc ✧ PE14/29
túliekta [← tulu-] reflexive neut ✧ PE14/29
ielko ← e (present) reflexive plural ✧ PE14/57
mélielko “loved themselves” [← mel-] reflexive plural ✧ PE14/57
túliestu [← tulu-] reflexive plural ✧ PE14/29
túliestoi [← tulu-] reflexive plural ✧ PE14/29
túlieksi [← tulu-] reflexive plural fem ✧ PE14/29
túlieksoi [← tulu-] reflexive plural masc ✧ PE14/29
túliektai [← tulu-] reflexive plural neut ✧ PE14/29
túlieska [← tulu-] reflexive-participle ✧ PE14/29

Reference ✧ PE14/56

Element In